Working with Interstitial Content in tvOS

Present additional content such as legal text, content warnings, or advertisements alongside your main media presentation.


Media playback apps often present additional content such as legal text, content warnings, or advertisements alongside their main media content. The best solution to present this kind of content is to use HTTP Live Streaming’s support for serving stitched playlists as discussed in Incorporating Ads into a Playlist. Stitched playlists let you combine multiple media playlists into a single, unified playlist that’s delivered to the client as a single stream. This stream provides a smooth playback experience to users, with no breaks or stutters in the action when the player presents the interstitial content.

Define Interstitial Time Ranges

AVKit in tvOS simplifies working with interstitial content delivered as part of a stitched playlist. You define the time ranges in your presentation that contain interstitial content. As the player encounters the time ranges during playback, you receive callbacks when they begin and end, giving you the opportunity to enforce business rules or capture analytics.

AVPlayerItem in tvOS adds an interstitialTimeRanges property that you set to an array of AVInterstitialTimeRange objects. Each object defines a CMTimeRange marking the interstitial time range in your media’s timeline. The following code example shows how to create interstitial time ranges:

func setupPlayback() {
    playerItem.interstitialTimeRanges = makeInterstitialTimeRanges()

private func makeInterstitialTimeRanges() -> [AVInterstitialTimeRange] {
    // Present a 10-second content warning at the beginning of the video.
    let timeRange1 = CMTimeRange(start: .zero,
                                 duration: CMTime(value: 10, timescale: 1))
    // Present 1 minute of advertisements 10 minutes into the video.
    let timeRange2 = CMTimeRange(start: CMTime(value: 600, timescale: 1),
                                 duration: CMTime(value: 60, timescale: 1))
    // Return an array of AVInterstitialTimeRange objects.
    return [
        AVInterstitialTimeRange(timeRange: timeRange1),
        AVInterstitialTimeRange(timeRange: timeRange2)

When you define interstitial time ranges, AVPlayerViewController updates its user interface in two important ways (see Figure 1). First, the player represents any interstitial times ranges as small dots on the player’s timeline. This helps users understand where they are between interstitial breaks and helps orient them to where they are in the overall media timeline. Second, the player collapses interstitial time ranges from its time display. The current time and duration presented represent only your main content, providing a better sense of the primary media’s timeline.

An abstract representation of a video player with a timeline along the bottom and two interstitial time ranges highlighted.

Enforce Linear Playback

When you adopt the AVPlayerViewControllerDelegate protocol, the player can notify your app as it traverses interstitial time ranges, which is useful to help you enforce business rules. For instance, a common requirement when presenting advertisements is to prevent users from skipping past them. You can use the requiresLinearPlayback property of AVPlayerViewController to control whether users can navigate through the content using the Siri Remote. During playback, this property is normally set to NO, but when presenting an advertisement, you can set it to YES to prevent user navigation, as shown in the following example:

public func playerViewController(_ playerViewController: AVPlayerViewController,
                                 willPresent interstitial: AVInterstitialTimeRange) {
    playerViewController.requiresLinearPlayback = true

public func playerViewController(_ playerViewController: AVPlayerViewController,
                                 didPresent interstitial: AVInterstitialTimeRange) {
    playerViewController.requiresLinearPlayback = false

Prevent Skipping of Interstitial Content

If your app presents interstitial content, such as ads or legal text, you may want to prevent users from skipping past it. Implement this functionality by using the playerViewController:timeToSeekAfterUserNavigatedFromTime:toTime: delegate method. The system calls this method whenever a user performs a seek operation using the Siri Remote, which happens either by swiping left or right on the remote touch pad or by navigating chapter markers in the Info panel. The following code shows a simple example of how you might implement this method to prevent users from skipping past advertisements:

public func playerViewController(_ playerViewController: AVPlayerViewController, timeToSeekAfterUserNavigatedFrom oldTime: CMTime, to targetTime: CMTime) -> CMTime {

    // Only evaluate if the user performed a forward seek.
    guard !canSkipInterstitials && oldTime < targetTime else {
        return targetTime

    // Define the time range of the user's seek operation.
    let seekRange = CMTimeRange(start: oldTime, end: targetTime)

    // Iterate over the defined interstitial time ranges.
    for interstitialRange in playerItem.interstitialTimeRanges {
        // If the current interstitial content is contained within the
        // user's seek range, return the interstitial content's start time.
        if seekRange.containsTimeRange(interstitialRange.timeRange) {
            return interstitialRange.timeRange.start

    // No match. Return the target time.
    return targetTime

For any forward seeks, the example code ensures that the user can’t skip past an ad break. It attempts to find an interstitial time range within the time range of the user’s seek request. If it finds an interstitial time range, the code returns its start time, forcing playback to begin at the start of the advertisement.

See Also

Media Playback

Adopting Picture in Picture in a Standard Player

Add Picture in Picture (PiP) playback to your app using a player view controller.

Adopting Picture in Picture in a Custom Player

Add controls to your custom player user interface to invoke Picture in Picture (PiP) playback.

Adopting Custom Interactive Overlays, Channel Flipping, and Parental Controls in tvOS Video Playback

This sample demonstrates support for custom interactive overlays, and parental controls, using AVPlayerViewController.

Adding Information to the Info Panel (tvOS)

Add metadata information and navigation markers to the Info panel in Apple TV.


A view controller that displays the video content from a player object along with system-supplied playback controls.


A macOS-only object that displays the video content from a player object along with system-supplied playback controls.


A controller that responds to user-initiated Picture in Picture playback of video in a floating, resizable window.


A time range in an audiovisual presentation designated as interstitial content, such as advertisements or legal notices.


A set of markers for navigating playback of an audiovisual presentation.