Customize handling of asynchronous events by combining event-processing operators.


The Combine framework provides a declarative Swift API for processing values over time. These values can represent user interface events, network responses, scheduled events, and many other kinds of asynchronous data. Combine declares publishers to expose values that can change over time, and subscribers to receive those values from the publishers.

  • The Publisher protocol declares a type that can deliver a sequence of values over time. Publishers have operators to act on the values received from upstream publishers and republish them.

  • At the end of a chain of publishers, a Subscriber acts on elements as it receives them. Publishers only emit values when explicitly requested to do so by subscribers. This puts your subscriber code in control of how fast it receives events from the publishers it’s connected to.

Several Foundation types expose their functionality through publishers, including Timer, NotificationCenter, and URLSession. Combine also provides a built-in publisher for any property that’s compliant with Key-Value Observing.

You can combine the output of multiple publishers and coordinate their interaction. For example, you can subscribe to updates from a text field’s publisher, and use the text to perform URL requests. You can then use another publisher to process the responses and use them to update your app.

By adopting Combine, you’ll make your code easier to read and maintain, by centralizing your event-processing code and eliminating troublesome techniques like nested closures and convention-based callbacks.



Receiving and Handling Events with Combine

Customize and receive events from asynchronous sources.


protocol Publisher

Declares that a type can transmit a sequence of values over time.

enum Publishers

A namespace for types related to the Publisher protocol.

struct AnyPublisher

A type-erasing publisher.

protocol ConnectablePublisher

A publisher that provides an explicit means of connecting and canceling publication.

protocol Cancellable

A protocol indicating that an activity or action may be canceled.

class AnyCancellable

A type-erasing cancellable object that executes a provided closure when canceled.


protocol Subscriber

A protocol that declares a type that can receive input from a publisher.

enum Subscribers

A namespace for types related to the Subscriber protocol.

struct AnySubscriber

A type-erasing subscriber.

protocol Subscription

A protocol representing the connection of a subscriber to a publisher.

enum Subscriptions

A namespace for types related to the Subscription protocol.


protocol Subject

A publisher that exposes a method for outside callers to publish elements.

class AnySubject

A type-erasing subject.

class CurrentValueSubject

A subject that wraps a single value and publishes a new element whenever the value changes.

class PassthroughSubject

A subject that passes along values and completion.


protocol Scheduler

A protocol that defines when and how to execute a closure.

struct ImmediateScheduler

A scheduler for performing synchronous actions.

protocol SchedulerTimeIntervalConvertible

A protocol that provides a scheduler with an expression for relative time.

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