Execute code concurrently on multicore hardware by submitting work to dispatch queues managed by the system.
- iOS 8.0+
- macOS 10.10+
- tvOS 9.0+
- watchOS 2.0+
Grand Central Dispatch (GCD) comprises language features, runtime libraries, and system enhancements that provide systemic, comprehensive improvements to the support for concurrent code execution on multicore hardware in macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.
The BSD subsystem, Core Foundation, and Cocoa APIs have all been extended to use these enhancements to help both the system and your application to run faster, more efficiently, and with improved responsiveness. Consider how difficult it is for a single application to use multiple cores effectively, let alone doing it on different computers with different numbers of computing cores or in an environment with multiple applications competing for those cores. GCD, operating at the system level, can better accommodate the needs of all running applications, matching them to the available system resources in a balanced fashion.
Dispatch Objects and ARC
When you build your app using the Objective-C compiler, all dispatch objects are Objective-C objects. As such, when automatic reference counting (ARC) is enabled, dispatch objects are retained and released automatically just like any other Objective-C object. When ARC is not enabled, use the
dispatch functions (or Objective-C semantics) to retain and release your dispatch objects. You cannot use the Core Foundation retain/release functions.
If you need to use retain/release semantics in an ARC-enabled app with a later deployment target (for maintaining compatibility with existing code), you can disable Objective-C-based dispatch objects by adding
-DOS to your compiler flags.