Sample Code

Device Selection and Fallback for Graphics Rendering

Demonstrates how to work with multiple GPUs and efficiently render to a display.



macOS supports systems that have multiple GPUs and displays. An example is a MacBook Pro with a low-power integrated GPU, a high-performance discrete GPU, a powerful external GPU, and additional displays. Metal apps must carefully select a GPU that maximizes efficiency and performance for a given display. They should also gracefully respond to any GPU or display changes, such as when the user disconnects an external GPU or moves a window between displays.

Drawables, Displays, and GPUs

Each view in your app is shown on a single display, and each display is driven by a single GPU. To show graphics content in your view, the view’s display presents a rendered drawable from the display’s driving GPU.

If your app renders with a GPU that isn’t driving your view’s display, the system must copy the drawable from the rendering GPU to the displaying GPU before presenting it. This transfer can be expensive because the bandwidth between GPUs is limited by the bus that connects them. This expense is more severe with external GPUs because their Thunderbolt 3 bus has much less bandwidth than an internal PCI Express bus.

The fastest path to present a drawable is to render that drawable with the GPU that drives your view’s display. An example is a MacBook Pro with a discrete GPU and an integrated GPU, where the integrated GPU can drive the MacBook Pro’s display under certain conditions (caused by thermal state, battery life, or app needs).

A system diagram that shows two possible pathways for a drawable. The recommended pathway renders a drawable with an integrated GPU and presents it on a built-in display. The not recommended pathway renders a drawable with a discrete GPU and transfers it to an integrated GPU before presenting it on a built-in display.

Another example is a Mac connected to an external GPU, where the external GPU drives an external display.

A system diagram that shows two possible pathways for a drawable. The recommended pathway renders a drawable with an external GPU and presents it on an external display. The not recommended pathway renders a drawable with a discrete or integrated GPU and transfers it to an external GPU before presenting it on an external display.

Transition Smoothly Between Devices

The sample’s view controller manages all Metal devices, with each device representing a different GPU. When the sample runs the viewDidLoad method, the view controller initializes a new AAPLRenderer for each device available to the system. The sample uses only one device at a time, but it initializes a renderer for each device in order to preload and mirror the app’s Metal resources across all devices. Therefore, when the app switches between GPUs at runtime, the sample transitions smoothly between devices because equivalent resources are already available and loaded on each device. This preloading and mirroring strategy avoids significant delays that would otherwise exist if the sample needed to load resources at the time of the switch.

Set the Optimal Device for the View’s Display

After the view appears, the sample gets the CGDirectDisplayID value of the display in which the view appears. The sample uses this identifier to get the Metal device that drives the display.

// Get the display ID of the display in which the view appears
CGDirectDisplayID viewDisplayID = (CGDirectDisplayID) [_view.window.screen.deviceDescription[@"NSScreenNumber"] unsignedIntegerValue];

// Get the Metal device that drives the display
id<MTLDevice> newPreferredDevice = CGDirectDisplayCopyCurrentMetalDevice(viewDisplayID);

The sample sets this device for the view controller’s MTKView, and chooses the AAPLRenderer associated with that same device to perform the app’s rendering. This setup ensures that the system renders with the device that drives the display, and it avoids copying any drawables from one GPU to another.

Handle Display Change Notifications

To keep up to date with the optimal device for the view’s display, the sample registers for two system notifications:

  • NSApplicationDidChangeScreenParametersNotification. The system posts this notification when the Mac’s display configuration changes. An example is when the user connects or disconnects an external display from the system. Another example is when the GPU driving the display changes, such as when Automatic Graphics Switching is enabled and the system switches between discrete and integrated GPUs to drive the display.

  • NSWindowDidChangeScreenNotification. The system posts this notification when any window, including the window containing the app’s view, moves to a different display.

// Register for the NSApplicationDidChangeScreenParametersNotification, which triggers
// when the system's display configuration changes
[[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] addObserver:self

// Register for the NSWindowDidChangeScreenNotification, which triggers when the window
// changes screens
[[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] addObserver:self

In both cases, the system calls the sample’s handleScreenChanges: method to handle the notification. The sample then chooses the optimal device for the view’s display by selecting the AAPLRenderer object that corresponds to the device driving the display.

Set a GPU Eject Policy

By default, macOS fully relaunches an app when an external GPU being used by the app is removed from the system. An app typically handles a relaunch by:

  1. Saving as much state as possible when the system calls the app’s application:willEncodeRestorableState: method, before macOS quits the app.

  2. Restoring any saved state when the system calls the app’s application:didDecodeRestorableState: method, after macOS relaunches the app.

The sample avoids this app relaunch routine by instead opting in to handling the external GPU removal itself, without macOS needing to quit and relaunch the app. The sample’s Info.plist file has a GPUEjectPolicy key with a wait value, which indicates that the app will explicitly handle the removal of an external GPU by responding to the corresponding notification posted by Metal.

Register for External GPU Notifications

The sample calls the MTLCopyAllDevicesWithObserver() function to obtain all Metal devices available to the system. This method allows the sample to supply a MTLDeviceNotificationHandler block that’s executed when an external GPU is added or removed from the system. This handler provides two arguments:

  • device. The device that was added or removed.

  • notifyName. A value that describes the event that triggered the notification.

MTLDeviceNotificationHandler notificationHandler;

AAPLViewController * __weak controller = self;
notificationHandler = ^(id<MTLDevice> device, MTLDeviceNotificationName name)
    [controller markHotPlugNotificationForDevice:device name:name];

// Query all supported metal devices with an observer, so the app can receive notifications
// when external GPUs are added to or removed from the system
id<NSObject> metalDeviceObserver = nil;
NSArray<id<MTLDevice>> * availableDevices =

Respond to External GPU Notifications

The notification handler can execute on any thread. However, all UI updates must occur on the main thread and the app’s state changes must be explicitly made thread-safe. To comply with these thread requirements, the view controller protects access to the _hotPlugEvent and _hotPlugDevice instance variables with a @synchronized directive. (The @synchronized directive is a convenient way to create mutex locks in Objective-C code.)

The sample sets these instance variables in the markHotPlugNotificationForDevice:name: method when a notification occurs.

- (void)markHotPlugNotificationForDevice:(nonnull id<MTLDevice>)device
                                    name:(nonnull MTLDeviceNotificationName)name
        if ([name isEqualToString:MTLDeviceWasAddedNotification])
            _hotPlugEvent = AAPLHotPlugEventDeviceAdded;
        else if ([name isEqualToString:MTLDeviceRemovalRequestedNotification])
            _hotPlugEvent = AAPLHotPlugEventDeviceEjected;
        else if ([name isEqualToString:MTLDeviceWasRemovedNotification])
            _hotPlugEvent = AAPLHotPlugEventDevicePulled;

        _hotPlugDevice = device;

The sample reads these instance variables on the main thread and handles the notification in the handlePossibleHotPlugEvent method.

- (void)handlePossibleHotPlugEvent
    AAPLHotPlugEvent hotPlugEvent;
    id<MTLDevice> hotPlugDevice;

        hotPlugEvent = _hotPlugEvent;
        hotPlugDevice = _hotPlugDevice;
        _hotPlugDevice = nil;

        switch (hotPlugEvent)
            case AAPLHotPlugEventDeviceAdded:
                [self handleMTLDeviceAddedNotification:hotPlugDevice];
            case AAPLHotPlugEventDeviceEjected:
            case AAPLHotPlugEventDevicePulled:
                [self handleMTLDeviceRemovalNotification:hotPlugDevice];

When a device that represents an external GPU is added to the system, the handlePossibleHotPlugEvent method adds the device to the _supportedDevices array and initializes a new AAPLRenderer for the device. When such a device is removed from the system, the same method removes the device from the _supportedDevices array and destroys its associated AAPLRenderer. If the removed device was being used for rendering, the sample switches to another device and renderer.

Update Per-Frame State and Data

MetalKit calls the drawInMTKView: method for the sample to render each frame. Within this method, the sample calls the handlePossibleHotPlugEvent method to handle device additions or removals on the main thread. Such actions include updating UI related to these device events and completing any additional state changes that must be executed atomically on a single thread.

The sample then calls the drawFrameNumber:toView: to begin rendering a new frame for the current renderer. To ensure continuous rendering that enables seamless switching between different renderers, the sample stores any nonrendering state separate from the renderers themselves. Then, for each frame, the sample passes any necessary nonrendering state to a specific AAPLRenderer instance. In this case, the sample passes the current frame number, _frameNumber, to the renderer so it can calculate the position and rotation of the sample’s 3D model.

Deregister from Notifications

After the view disappears, the sample explicitly deregisters itself from any previous display or device notifications. Otherwise, the system’s notification center and Metal can’t release the sample’s view controller.

- (void)viewDidDisappear
    [[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] removeObserver:self

    [[NSNotificationCenter defaultCenter] removeObserver:self


See Also

Selecting GPUs on Mac

Device Selection and Fallback for Compute Processing

Demonstrates how to work with multiple GPUs and efficiently execute a compute-intensive simulation.

About External GPUs

Learn how to support external GPUs in your macOS apps and games.

About Multi-GPU and Multi-Display Setups

Learn about the different ways that a user can connect external GPUs and external displays to a Mac computer.

About GPU Bandwidth

Learn about some of the main factors that affect bandwidth between a GPU and a system on a Mac.

Handling External GPU Additions and Removals

Register and respond to external GPU notifications initiated by a user.

Getting Different Types of GPUs

Obtain, identify, and choose suitable GPUs for your app.

Getting the GPU that Drives a View's Display

Keep up to date with the optimal device for your display.