- iOS 11.0+
- tvOS 10.2+
- macOS 10.12+
- Xcode 11.0+Beta
You use textures to draw and process images in Metal. A texture is a structured collection of texture elements, often called texels or pixels. The exact configuration of these texture elements depends on the type of texture. This sample uses a texture structured as a 2D array of elements, each of which contains color data, to hold an image. The texture is drawn onto geometric primitives through a process called texture mapping. The fragment function generates colors for each fragment by sampling the texture.
Textures are managed by
MTLTexture objects. A
MTLTexture object defines the texture’s format, including the size and layout of elements, the number of elements in the texture, and how those elements are organized. Once created, a texture’s format and organization never change. However, you can change the contents of the texture, either by rendering to it or copying data into it.
The Metal framework doesn’t provide an API to directly load image data from a file to a texture. Metal itself only allocates texture resources and provides methods that copy data to and from the texture. Metal apps rely on custom code or other frameworks, like MetalKit, Image I/O, UIKit, or AppKit, to handle image files. For example, you can use
MTKTexture to perform simple texture loading. This sample shows how to write a custom texture loader.
Load and Format Image Data
You can create a texture or update its contents manually, a process that’s covered in the next few sections. You might do this for multiple reasons:
You have image data stored in a custom format.
You have textures whose contents need to be generated at runtime.
You are streaming texture data from a server or otherwise need to dynamically update a texture’s contents.
In the sample, the
AAPLImage class loads and parses image data from TGA files. The class converts pixel data from the TGA file into a pixel format that Metal understands. The sample uses the image’s metadata to create a new Metal texture and copies the pixel data into the texture.
Metal requires all textures to be formatted with a specific
MTLPixel value. The pixel format describes the layout of pixel data in the texture. This sample uses the
MTLPixel pixel format, which uses 32 bits per pixel, arranged into 8 bits per component, in blue, green, red, and alpha order:
Before you can populate a Metal texture, you must format the image data into the texture’s pixel format. TGA files can provide pixel data either in a 32-bit-per-pixel format or a 24-bit-per-pixel format. TGA files that use 32 bits per pixel are already arranged in this format, so you just copy the pixel data. To convert a 24-bit-per-pixel BGR image, copy the red, green, and blue channels and set the alpha channel to 255, indicating a fully opaque pixel.
Create a Texture from a Texture Descriptor
MTLTexture object to configure properties like texture dimensions and pixel format for a
MTLTexture object. Then call the
new method to create a texture.
Metal creates a
MTLTexture object and allocates memory for the texture data. This memory is uninitialized when the texture is created, so the next step is to copy your data into the texture.
Copy the Image Data into the Texture
Metal manages memory for textures and doesn’t provide you direct access to it. So you can’t get a pointer to the texture data in memory and copy the pixels yourself. Instead, you call methods on a
MTLTexture object to copy data from memory you can access into the texture and vice versa.
In this sample, the
AAPLImage object allocated memory for the image data, so you’ll tell the texture object to copy this data.
MTLRegion structure to identify which part of the texture you want to update. This sample populates the entire texture with image data; so create a region that covers the entire texture.
Image data is typically organized in rows, and you need to tell Metal the offset between rows in the source image. The image loading code creates image data in a tightly packed format, so the data of subsequent pixel rows immediately follows the previous row. Calculate the offset between rows to be the exact length (in bytes) of a row — the number of bytes per pixel multiplied by the image width.
replace method on the texture to copy pixel data from the
AAPLImage object into the texture.
Map the Texture Onto a Geometric Primitive
You can’t render a texture on its own; you must map it onto geometric primitives (in this example, a pair of triangles) that are output by the vertex stage and turned into fragments by the rasterizer. Each fragment needs to know which part of the texture should be applied to it. You define this mapping with texture coordinates: floating-point positions that map locations on a texture image to locations on the geometric surface.
For 2D textures, normalized texture coordinates are values from 0.0 to 1.0 in both x and y directions. A value of (0.0, 0.0) specifies the texel at the first byte of the texture data (the top-left corner of the image). A value of (1.0, 1.0) specifies the texel at the last byte of the texture data (the bottom-right corner of the image).
Add a field to the vertex format to hold texture coordinates:
In the vertex data, map the quad’s corners to the texture’s corners:
To send the texture coordinates to the fragment shader, add a
texture value to the
Rasterizer data structure:
In the vertex shader, pass the texture coordinates to the rasterizer stage by writing them into the
texture field. The rasterizer stage interpolates these coordinates across the quad’s triangle fragments.
Calculate a Color from a Location in the Texture
You sample a texture to calculate a color from a location in the texture. To sample the texture data, the fragment function needs the texture coordinates and a reference to the texture to sample. In addition to the arguments passed in from the rasterizer stage, pass in a
color argument with a
texture2d type and the
[[texture(index)]] attribute qualifier. This argument is a reference to a
MTLTexture object to be sampled.
Use the built-in texture
sample() function to sample texel data. The
sample() function takes two arguments: a sampler (
texture) that describes how you want to sample the texture, and texture coordinates (
in) that describe the position in the texture to sample. The
sample() function fetches one or more pixels from the texture and returns a color calculated from those pixels.
When the area being rendered to isn’t the same size as the texture, the sampler can use different algorithms to calculate exactly what texel color the
sample() function should return. Set the
mag mode to specify how the sampler should calculate the returned color when the area is larger than the size of the texture, and the
min mode to specify how the sampler should calculate the returned color when the area is smaller than the size of the texture. Setting a
linear mode for both filters makes the sampler average the color of pixels surrounding the given texture coordinate, resulting in a smoother output image.
Encode the Draw Parameters
The process for encoding and submitting drawing commands is the same as that shown in Using a Render Pipeline to Render Primitives, so the complete code is not shown below. The difference in this sample is that the fragment shader has an additional parameter. When you encode the command’s arguments, set the fragment function’s texture argument. This sample uses the
AAPLTexture index to identify the texture in both Objective-C and Metal Shading Language code.