Protocol

Hashable

A type that provides an integer hash value.

Overview

You can use any type that conforms to the Hashable protocol in a set or as a dictionary key. Many types in the standard library conform to Hashable: Strings, integers, floating-point and Boolean values, and even sets provide a hash value by default. Your own custom types can be hashable as well. When you define an enumeration without associated values, it gains Hashable conformance automatically, and you can add Hashable conformance to your other custom types by adding a single hashValue property.

A hash value, provided by a type’s hashValue property, is an integer that is the same for any two instances that compare equally. That is, for two instances a and b of the same type, if a == b, then a.hashValue == b.hashValue. The reverse is not true: Two instances with equal hash values are not necessarily equal to each other.

Conforming to the Hashable Protocol

To use your own custom type in a set or as the key type of a dictionary, add Hashable conformance to your type by providing a hashValue property. The Hashable protocol inherits from the Equatable protocol, so you must also add an equal-to operator (==) function for your custom type.

As an example, consider a GridPoint type that describes a location in a grid of buttons. Here’s the initial declaration of the GridPoint type:

/// A point in an x-y coordinate system.
struct GridPoint {
    var x: Int
    var y: Int
}

You’d like to create a set of the grid points where a user has already tapped. Because the GridPoint type is not hashable yet, it can’t be used as the Element type for a set. To add Hashable conformance, provide an == operator function and a hashValue property.

extension GridPoint: Hashable {
    var hashValue: Int {
        return x.hashValue ^ y.hashValue &* 16777619
    }

    static func == (lhs: GridPoint, rhs: GridPoint) -> Bool {
        return lhs.x == rhs.x && lhs.y == rhs.y
    }
}

The hashValue property in this example combines the hash value of a grid point’s x property with the hash value of its y property multiplied by a prime constant.

Now that GridPoint conforms to the Hashable protocol, you can create a set of previously tapped grid points.

var tappedPoints: Set = [GridPoint(x: 2, y: 3), GridPoint(x: 4, y: 1)]
let nextTap = GridPoint(x: 0, y: 1)
if tappedPoints.contains(nextTap) {
    print("Already tapped at (\(nextTap.x), \(nextTap.y)).")
} else {
    tappedPoints.insert(nextTap)
    print("New tap detected at (\(nextTap.x), \(nextTap.y)).")
}
// Prints "New tap detected at (0, 1).")

Topics

Providing a Hash Value

var hashValue: Int

The hash value.

Required. Default implementation provided.

Relationships

Inherits From

Adopted By