An object that provides the backdrop for your app’s user interface and provides important event-handling behaviors.
- iOS 2.0+
- tvOS 9.0+
Windows do not have any visual appearance of their own, but they are crucial to the presentation of your app’s views. Every view that appears onscreen is enclosed by a window, and each window is independent of the other windows in your app. Events received by your app are initially routed to the appropriate window object, which in turn forwards those events to the appropriate view. Windows work with your view controllers to implement orientation changes and to perform many other tasks that are fundamental to your app’s operation.
Windows are a fundamental part of your app, but you interact with them only minimally in your code. UIKit handles most window-related interactions, working with other objects as needed to implement many app behaviors. However, you need to do the following in your app:
Provide a main window to display your app’s content.
Create additional windows (as needed) to display additional content.
Providing your app’s main window is easy because Xcode does it for you. New iOS projects use storyboards to define the app’s views. Storyboards require the presence of a
window property on the app delegate object, which the Xcode templates automatically provide. Thus with no effort on your part, new projects have a main window in which to display their view controller content.
Most apps need only one window, which displays the app’s content on the device’s main screen. You can create additional windows and display them on the device’s main screen, but extra windows are more commonly used to display content on an attached external display.
Aside from providing window objects for your app’s content, you also use window objects for a handful of other tasks:
Setting the z-axis level of your window, which affects the visibility of the window relative to other windows.
Showing windows and making them the target of keyboard events.
Converting coordinate values to and from the window’s coordinate system.
Changing the root view controller of a window.
Changing the screen on which the window is displayed.
You should rarely need to subclass
UIWindow. The kinds of behaviors you might implement in a window can usually be implemented in a higher-level view controller more easily. One of the few times you might want to subclass is to override the
resign methods to implement custom behaviors when a window’s key status changes. For information about how to display a window on a specific screen, see
Creating Additional Windows for Your App
Aside from your app’s main window (which Xcode usually provides), you are responsible for creating and configuring any additional windows used by your app. The most common usage for extra windows is to display content on a connected external display, but you can also display multiple windows on the same screen.
When creating windows, always set the window’s initial size and specify the screen on which it is displayed. You should also specify the root view controller that provides the content you want to display. Although you can add subviews directly to a window, providing a root view controller is a better way to manage the window’s content. Using a root view controller maintains a separation between the window object and the content your app displays in that window.
Listing 1 shows a sample method that configures a custom window for a view controller that displays content on a secondary screen. The example assumes that the object that implements this method uses an
external variable to store a reference to the window.
Understanding Keyboard Interactions
Whereas touch events are delivered to the window where they occurred, events that do not have a relevant coordinate value are delivered to the key window. Only one window at a time can be the key window, and you can use a window’s
is property to determine its status. Most of the time, your app’s main window is the key window, but UIKit may designate a different window as needed.
If you need to know which window is key, observe the
UIWindow notifications. The system sends those notifications in response to key window changes in your app. To force a window become key, or to force a window to resign the key status, call the appropriate methods of this class.