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SETBUF(3)                BSD Library Functions Manual                SETBUF(3)

     setbuf, setbuffer, setlinebuf, setvbuf -- stream buffering operations

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <stdio.h>

     setbuf(FILE *restrict stream, char *restrict buf);

     setbuffer(FILE *stream, char *buf, int size);

     setlinebuf(FILE *stream);

     setvbuf(FILE *restrict stream, char *restrict buf, int type,
         size_t size);

     Three types of buffering are available: unbuffered, block buffered, and
     line buffered.  When an output stream is unbuffered, information appears
     on the destination file or terminal as soon as written; when it is block
     buffered, many characters are saved up and written as a block; when it is
     line buffered, characters are saved up until a newline is output or input
     is read from any stream attached to a terminal device (typically stdin).
     The function fflush(3) may be used to force the block out early.  (See

     Normally, all files are block buffered.  When the first I/O operation
     occurs on a file, malloc(3) is called and an optimally-sized buffer is
     obtained.  If a stream refers to a terminal (as stdout normally does), it
     is line buffered.  The standard error stream stderr is always unbuffered.

     The setvbuf() function may be used to alter the buffering behavior of a
     stream.  The type argument must be one of the following three macros:

           _IONBF  unbuffered

           _IOLBF  line buffered

           _IOFBF  fully buffered

     The size argument may be given as zero to obtain deferred optimal-size
     buffer allocation as usual.  If it is not zero, then except for
     unbuffered files, the buf argument should point to a buffer at least size
     bytes long; this buffer will be used instead of the current buffer.  If
     buf is not NULL, it is the caller's responsibility to free(3) this buffer
     after closing the stream.  (If the size argument is not zero but buf is
     NULL, a buffer of the given size will be allocated immediately, and
     released on close.  This is an extension to ANSI C; portable code should
     use a size of 0 with any NULL buffer.)

     The setvbuf() function may be used at any time, but may have peculiar
     side effects (such as discarding input or flushing output) if the stream
     is ``active''.  Portable applications should call it only once on any
     given stream, and before any I/O is performed.

     The other three calls are, in effect, simply aliases for calls to
     setvbuf().  Except for the lack of a return value, the setbuf() function
     is exactly equivalent to the call

           setvbuf(stream, buf, buf ? _IOFBF : _IONBF, BUFSIZ);

     The setbuffer() function is the same, except that the size of the buffer
     is up to the caller, rather than being determined by the default BUFSIZ.
     The setlinebuf() function is exactly equivalent to the call:

           setvbuf(stream, (char *)NULL, _IOLBF, 0);

     The setvbuf() function returns 0 on success, or EOF if the request cannot
     be honored (note that the stream is still functional in this case).

     The setlinebuf() function returns what the equivalent setvbuf() would
     have returned.

     fclose(3), fopen(3), fread(3), malloc(3), printf(3), puts(3)

     The setbuf() and setvbuf() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1990
     (``ISO C90'').

     The setbuffer() and setlinebuf() functions are not portable to versions
     of BSD before 4.2BSD.  On 4.2BSD and 4.3BSD systems, setbuf() always uses
     a suboptimal buffer size and should be avoided.

BSD                              June 4, 1993                              BSD