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TSEARCH(3)               BSD Library Functions Manual               TSEARCH(3)

     tdelete, tfind, tsearch, twalk -- manipulate binary search trees

     #include <search.h>

     void *
     tdelete(const void *restrict key, void **restrict rootp,
         int (*compar) (const void *key1, const void *key2));

     void *
     tfind(const void *key, void *const *rootp,
         int (*compar) (const void *key1, const void *key2));

     void *
     tsearch(const void *key, void **rootp,
         int (*compar) (const void *key1, const void *key2));

     twalk(const void *root,
         void (*compar) (const void *node, VISIT order, int level));

     The tdelete(), tfind(), tsearch(), and twalk() functions manage binary
     search trees, based on algorithms T and D from Knuth (6.2.2).  The com-parison comparison
     parison function passed in by the user takes two arguments, each of which
     is a key pointer.  This function has the same style of return values as

     The tfind() function searches for a node whose key matches the argument
     key in the binary tree rooted at rootp, returning a pointer to the node
     if it is found and NULL if it is not.

     Note that a node is itself a pointer to the key of the node.  Thus, you
     should generally cast this result to a double pointer to the data type
     stored in the tree, for example (struct myType **), and use double indi-rection indirection
     rection to retrieve the original key value.

     The tsearch() function is identical to tfind() except that, if no match
     is found, it inserts a new node for the key into the tree and returns a
     pointer to the node.  If rootp points to a NULL value, a new binary
     search tree is created.

     The tdelete() function deletes a node from the specified binary search
     tree and returns a pointer to the parent of the node that was deleted.
     It takes the same arguments as tfind() and tsearch().  If the node to be
     deleted is the root of the binary search tree, rootp will be adjusted.

     The twalk() function walks the binary search tree rooted in root and
     calls the function action on each node.  The action function is called
     with three arguments: a pointer to the current node, a value from the
     enum typedef enum { preorder, postorder, endorder, leaf } VISIT; specify-ing specifying
     ing the traversal type, and a node level (where level zero is the root of
     the tree).

     As twalk() traverses the tree, it calls the action function with the tra-versal traversal
     versal type "preorder" before visiting the left subtree of the node, with
     the traversal type "postorder" before visiting the right subtree of the
     node, and with the traversal type "endorder" after visiting the right
     subtree of the node.  The action function is called only once for a leaf-node, leafnode,
     node, with the traversal type "leaf."

     Note: the names for the traversal types differ somewhat from common par-lance. parlance.
     lance.  The traversal type "postorder" corresponds to what would typi-cally typically
     cally be referred to as in-order, and the traversal type "endorder" cor-responds corresponds
     responds to what would typically be referred to as post-order.

     bsearch(3), hsearch(3), lsearch(3)

     The tsearch() function returns NULL if allocation of a new node fails
     (usually due to a lack of free memory).

     The tfind(), tsearch(), and tdelete() functions return NULL if rootp is
     NULL or the node cannot be found.

     The twalk() function returns no value.

BSD                              June 15, 1997                             BSD