Cookies and Custom Protocols

If your app needs to manage cookies programmatically, such as adding and deleting cookies or determining which cookies should be accepted, read Cookie Storage.

If your app needs to support a URL-based protocol that NSURL does not support natively, you can register your own custom protocol class that provides the needed support. To learn more, read Protocol Support.

Cookie Storage

Due to the stateless nature of the HTTP protocol, clients often use cookies to provide persistent storage of data across URL requests. The URL loading system provides interfaces to create and manage cookies, to send cookies as part of an HTTP request, and to receive cookies when interpreting a web server’s response.

The NSHTTPCookie class encapsulates a cookie, providing accessors for many of the common cookie attributes. This class also provides methods to convert HTTP cookie headers to NSHTTPCookie instances and convert an NSHTTPCookie instance to headers suitable for use with an NSURLRequest object. The URL loading system automatically sends any stored cookies appropriate for an NSURLRequest object unless the request specifies not to send cookies. Likewise, cookies returned in an NSURLResponse object are accepted in accordance with the current cookie acceptance policy.

The NSHTTPCookieStorage class provides the interface for managing the collection of NSHTTPCookie objects shared by all apps.

NSHTTPCookieStorage allows an app to specify a cookie acceptance policy. The cookie acceptance policy controls whether cookies should always be accepted, never be accepted, or be accepted only from the same domain as the main document URL.

When another app changes the cookie storage or the cookie acceptance policy, NSHTTPCookieStorage notifies an app by posting the NSHTTPCookieManagerCookiesChangedNotification and NSHTTPCookieStorageAcceptPolicyChangedNotification notifications.

For more information, see NSHTTPCookieStorage Class Reference and NSHTTPCookie Class Reference.

Protocol Support

The URL loading system design allows a client app to extend the protocols that are supported for transferring data. The URL loading system natively supports the http, https, file, ftp, and data protocols.

You can implement a custom protocol by subclassing NSURLProtocol and then registering the new class with the URL loading system using the NSURLProtocol class method registerClass:. When an NSURLSession object initiates a connection for an NSURLRequest object, the URL loading system consults each of the registered classes in the reverse order of their registration. The first class that returns YES for a canInitWithRequest: message is used to handle the request.

If your custom protocol requires additional properties for its requests or responses, you support them by creating categories on the NSURLRequest, NSMutableURLRequest, and NSURLResponse classes that provide accessors for those properties. The NSURLProtocol class provides methods for setting and getting property values in those accessors.

The URL loading system is responsible for creating and releasing NSURLProtocol instances when connections start and complete. Your app should never create an instance of NSURLProtocol directly.

When an NSURLProtocol subclass is initialized by the URL loading system, it is provided a client object that conforms to the NSURLProtocolClient protocol. The NSURLProtocol subclass sends messages from the NSURLProtocolClient protocol to the client object to inform the URL loading system of its actions as it creates a response, receives data, redirects to a new URL, requires authentication, and completes the load. If the custom protocol supports authentication, then it must conform to the NSURLAuthenticationChallengeSender protocol.

For more information, see NSURLProtocol Class Reference.