Technical Note TN2151

Understanding and Analyzing Application Crash Reports

When an application crashes, a crash report is created which is very useful for understanding what caused the crash. This document contains essential information about how to symbolicate, understand, and interpret crash reports.

Acquiring Crash and Low Memory Reports
Symbolicating Crash Reports
Analyzing Crash Reports
Understanding Low Memory Reports
Related Documents
Document Revision History


When an application crashes, a crash report is created and stored on the device. Crash reports describe the conditions under which the application terminated, in most cases including a complete backtrace for each executing thread, and are typically very useful for debugging issues in the application. You should look at these crash reports to understand what crashes your application is having, and then try to fix them.

Crash reports with backtraces need to be symbolicated before they can be analyzed. Symbolication replaces memory addresses with human-readable function names and line numbers. If you get crash logs off a device through Xcode's Devices window, then they will be symbolicated for you automatically after a few seconds. Otherwise you will need to symbolicate the .crash file yourself by importing it to the Xcode Devices window. See Symbolicating Crash Reports for details.

A Low Memory report differs from other crash reports in that there are no backtraces in this type of report. When a low memory crash happens, you must investigate your memory usage patterns and your responses to low memory warnings. This document points to you several memory management references that you might find useful.

Acquiring Crash and Low Memory Reports

Debugging Deployed iOS Apps discusses how to retrieve crash and low memory reports directly from an iOS device.

Analyzing Crash Reports in the App Distribution Guide discusses how to view aggregate crash reports collected from TestFlight beta testers and users who have downloaded your app from the App Store.

Symbolicating Crash Reports

Symbolication is the process of resolving backtrace addresses to source code method or function names, known as symbols. Without first symbolicating a crash report it is difficult to determine where the crash occurred.

Figure 1  Overview of the crash reporting and symbolication process.
  1. As the compiler translates your source code into machine code, it also generates debug symbols which map each machine instruction in the compiled binary back to the line of source code from which it originated. Depending on the Debug Information Format (DEBUG_INFORMATION_FORMAT) build setting, these debug symbols are stored inside the binary or in a companion Debug Symbol (dSYM) file. By default, debug builds of an application store the debug symbols inside the compiled binary while release builds of an application store the debug symbols in a companion dSYM file to reduce the binary size.

    The Debug Symbol file and application binary are tied together on a per-build-basis by the build UUID. A new UUID is generated for each build of your application and uniquely identifies that build. Even if a functionally-identical executable is rebuilt from the same source code, with the same compiler settings, it will have a different build UUID. Debug Symbol files from subsequent builds, even from the same source files, will not interoperate with binaries from other builds.

  2. When you archive the application for distribution, Xcode will gather the application binary along with the .dSYM file and store them at a location inside your home folder. You can find all of your archived applications in the Xcode Organizer under the "Archived" section. For more information about creating an archive, refer to the App Distribution Guide.

  3. If you are distributing your app via the App Store, or conducting a beta test using Test Flight, you will be given the option of including the dSYM file when uploading your archive to iTunes Connect. In the submission dialog, check “Include app symbols for your application…”. Uploading your dSYM file is necessary to receive crash reports collected from TestFlight users and customers who have opted to share diagnostic data. For more information about the crash reporting service, refer to the App Distribution Guide.

  4. When your application crashes, an unsymbolicated crash report is created and stored on the device.

  5. Users can retrieve crash reports directly from their device by following the steps in Debugging Deployed iOS Apps. If you have distributed your application via AdHoc or Enterprise distribution, this is the only way to acquire crash reports from your users.

  6. Crash reports retrieved from a device are unsymbolicated and will need to be symbolicated using Xcode. Xcode uses the dSYM file associated with your application binary to replace each address in the backtrace with its originating location in your source code. The result is a symbolicated crash report.

  7. If the user has opted to share diagnostic data with Apple, or if the user has installed a beta version of your application through TestFlight, the crash report is uploaded to the App Store.

  8. The App Store symbolicates the crash report and groups it with similar crash reports. This aggregate of similar crash reports is called a Crash Point.

  9. The symbolicated crash reports are made available to you in Xcode's Crashes organizer.


Bitcode is an intermediate representation of a compiled program. When you archive an application with bitcode enabled, the compiler produces binaries containing bitcode rather than machine code. Once the binary has been uploaded to the App Store, the bitcode is compiled down to machine code. The App Store may compile the bitcode again in the future, to take advantage of future compiler improvements without any action on your part.

Figure 2  Overview of the Bitcode compilation process.

Because the final compilation of your binary occurs on the App Store, your Mac will not contain the debug symbol (dSYM) files needed to symbolicate crash reports received from App Review or from users who have sent you crash reports from their devices. Although a dSYM file is produced when you archive your application, it is for the bitcode binary and can not be used to symbolicate crash reports. The App Store makes the dSYM files generated during bitcode compilation available for you to download, from Xcode or from the iTunes Connect website. You must download these dSYM files in order to symbolicate crash reports received from App Review or from users who have sent you crash reports from their devices. Crash reports received through the crash reporting service will be symbolicated automatically.

To download the dSYMs files from Xcode

  1. In the Archives organizer, select the archive that you originally submitted to the App Store.

  2. Click the Download dSYMs button.

Xcode downloads the dSYM files and inserts them into the selected archive.

To download the dSYMs files from the iTunes Connect website

  1. Open the App Details page.

  2. Click Activity.

  3. From the list of All Builds, select a version.

  4. Click the Download dSYM link.

Determining Whether a Crash Report is Symbolicated

A crash report may be unsymbolicated, fully symbolicated, or partially symbolicated. Unsymbolicated crash reports will not contain the method or function names in the backtrace. Instead, you have hexadecimal addresses of executable code within the loaded binary images. In a fully symbolicated crash report, the hexadecimal addresses in every line of the backtrace are replaced with the corresponding symbol. In a partially symbolicated crash report, only some of the addresses in the backtrace have been replaced with their corresponding symbols.

Obviously, you should try to fully symbolicate any crash report you receive as it will provide the most insight about the crash. A partially symbolicated crash report may contain enough information to understand the crash, depending upon the type of crash and which parts of the backtraces were successfully symbolicated. An unsymbolicated crash report is rarely useful.

Figure 3  The same backtrace at various levels of symbolication.

Symbolicating iOS Crash Reports With Xcode

Xcode will automatically attempt to symbolicate all crash reports that it encounters. All you need to do for symbolication is to add the crash report to the Xcode Organizer.

  1. Connect an iOS device to your Mac

  2. Choose "Devices" from the "Window" menu

  3. Under the "DEVICES" section in the left column, choose a device

  4. Click the "View Device Logs" button under the "Device Information" section on the right hand panel

  5. Drag your crash report onto the left column of the presented panel

  6. Xcode will automatically symbolicate the crash report and display the results

To symbolicate a crash report, Xcode needs to be able to locate the following:

  • The crashing application's binary and dSYM file.

  • The binaries and dSYM files for all custom frameworks that the application links against. For frameworks that were built from source with the application, their dSYM files are copied into the archive alongside the application's dSYM file. For frameworks that were built by a third-party, you will need to ask the author for the dSYM file.

  • Symbols for the OS that the that application was running on when it crashed. These symbols contain debug information for the frameworks included in a specific OS release (e.g, iOS 9.3.3). OS symbols are architecture specific - a release of iOS for 64-bit devices won't include armv7 symbols. Xcode will automatically copy OS symbols from each device that you connect to your Mac.

If any of these are missing Xcode may not be able to symbolicate the crash report, or may only partially symbolicate the crash report.

Symbolicating Crash Reports With atos

The atos command converts numeric addresses to their symbolic equivalents. If full debug symbol information is available then the output of atos will include file name and source line number information. The atos command can be used to symbolicate individual addresses in the backtrace of an unsymbolicated, or partially symbolicated, crash report. To symbolicate a part of a crash report using atos:

  1. Find a line in the backtrace which you want to symbolicate. Note the name of the binary image in the second column, and the address in the third column.

  2. Look for a binary image with that name in the list of binary images at the bottom of the crash report. Note the architecture and load address of the binary image.

Figure 4  Information from the crash report that is needed to use atos.
  1. Locate the dSYM file for the binary. You can use Spotlight to find the matching dSYM file for the UUID of the binary image. See the Symbolication Troubleshooting section. dSYM files are bundles in which reside a file containing the DWARF debugging information generated by the compiler at build time. You must provide the path to this file, not to the dSYM bundle, when invoking atos.

  2. With the above information you can symbolicate addresses in the backtrace using the atos command. You can specify multiple addresses to symbolicate, separated by a space.

    atos -arch <Binary Architecture> -o <Path to dSYM file>/Contents/Resources/DWARF/<binary image name> -l <load address> <address to symbolicate>

Listing 1  Example usage of the atos command following the steps above, and the resulting output.

$ atos -arch arm64 -o -l 0x1000e4000 0x00000001000effdc
-[AtomicElementViewController myTransitionDidStop:finished:context:]

Symbolication Troubleshooting

If Xcode is failing to fully symbolicate a crash report, it's likely because your Mac is missing the dSYM file for the application binary, the dSYM files for one or more frameworks the application links against, or the device symbols for the OS the application was running on when it crashed. The steps below show how to use Spotlight to determine whether the dSYM file needed to symbolicate a backtrace addresse within a binary image is present on your Mac.

Figure 5  Locating the UUID for a binary image.
  1. Find a line in the backtrace which Xcode failed to symbolicate. Note the name of the binary image in the second column.

  2. Look for a binary image with that name in the list of binary images at the bottom of the crash report. This list contains the UUIDs for each of the binary images that were loaded into the process at the time of the crash.

    Listing 2  You can use the grep command line tool to quickly find the entry in the list of binary images.

    $ grep --after-context=1000 "Binary Images:" <Path to Crash Report> | grep <Binary Name>
  3. Convert the UUID of the binary image to a 32 character string seperated in groups of 8-4-4-4-12 (XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX). Note that all letters must be uppercased.

  4. Search for the UUID using the mdfind command line tool using the query "com_apple_xcode_dsym_uuids == <UUID>" (include the quotation marks).

    Listing 3  Using the mdfind command line tool to search for dSYM files with a given UUID.

    $ mdfind "com_apple_xcode_dsym_uuids == <UUID>"
  5. If Spotlight finds a dSYM file for the UUID, mdfind will print the path to the dSYM file and possibly its containing archive. If a dSYM file for the UUID was not found, mdfind will exit without printing anything.

If Spotlight found a dSYM file for the binary but Xcode was not able to symbolicate addresses within that binary image, then you should file a bug. Attach the crash report and the relevant dSYM file(s) to the bug report. As a workaround, you can manually symbolicate the address using atos. See Symbolicating Crash Reports With atos.

If Spotlight did not find a dSYM for the binary image, verify that you still have the Xcode archive for the version of your application that crashed and that this archive is located somewhere that Spotlight can find it (any location in your home directory should do). If your application was built with bitcode enabled, make sure you have downloaded the dSYM files for the final compilation from the App Store. See Downloading dSYM files.

If you think that you have the correct dSYM for the binary image, you can use the dwarfdump command to print the matching UUIDs. You can also use the dwarfdump command to print the UUIDs of a binary.

xcrun dwarfdump --uuid <Path to dSYM file>

If you no longer have this archive, you should submit a new version of your application for which you retain the archive. You will then be able to symbolicate crash reports for this new version.

Analyzing Crash Reports

This section discusses each of the sections found within a standard crash report.


Every crash report begins with a header.

Listing 4  Excerpt of the header from a crash report.

Incident Identifier: B6FD1E8E-B39F-430B-ADDE-FC3A45ED368C
CrashReporter Key: f04e68ec62d3c66057628c9ba9839e30d55937dc
Hardware Model: iPad6,8
Process: TheElements [303]
Path: /private/var/containers/Bundle/Application/888C1FA2-3666-4AE2-9E8E-62E2F787DEC1/
Version: 1.12
Code Type: ARM-64 (Native)
Role: Foreground
Parent Process: launchd [1]
Coalition: [402]
Date/Time: 2016-08-22 10:43:07.5806 -0700
Launch Time: 2016-08-22 10:43:01.0293 -0700
OS Version: iPhone OS 10.0 (14A5345a)
Report Version: 104

Most of the fields are self-explanatory but a few deserve special note:

  • Incident Identifier: A unique identifier for the report. Two reports will never share the same Incident Identifier.

  • CrashReporter Key: An anonymized per-device identifier. Two reports from the same device will contain identical values.

  • Beta Identifier: A unique identifier for the combination of the device and vendor of the crashed application. Two reports for applications from the same vendor and from the same device will contain identical values. This field is only present in crash reports generated for applications distributed through TestFlight, and replaces the CrashReporter Key field.

  • Process: The executable name for the process that crashed. This matches the value for the CFBundleExecutable key in the application's information property list.

  • Version: The version of the process that crashed. The value for this field is a concatenation of the crashed application's CFBundleVersion and CFBundleVersionString.

  • Code Type: The target architecture of the process that crashed. This will be one of ARM-64, ARM, x86-64, or x86.

  • Role: The task_role assigned to the process at the time of termination.

  • OS Version: The OS version, including the build number, on which the crash occurred.

Exception Information

Not to be confused with Objective-C/C++ exceptions (though one of those may be the cause of the crash), this section lists the Mach Exception Type and related fields which provide information about the nature of the crash. Not all fields will be present in every crash report.

Listing 5  Excerpt of the Exception Codes section from a crash report generated when a process was terminated due to an uncaught Objective-C exception.

Exception Type: EXC_CRASH (SIGABRT)
Exception Codes: 0x0000000000000000, 0x0000000000000000
Triggered by Thread: 0

Listing 6  Excerpt of the Exception Codes section from a crash report generated when a process was terminated because it dereferenced a NULL pointer.

Exception Subtype: KERN_INVALID_ADDRESS at 0x0000000000000000
Termination Signal: Segmentation fault: 11
Termination Reason: Namespace SIGNAL, Code 0xb
Terminating Process: exc handler [0]
Triggered by Thread: 0

An explanation of the fields that may appear in this section are presented below.

  • Exception Codes: Processor specific information about the exception encoded into one or more 64-bit hexadecimal numbers. Typically, this field will not be present because the Crash Reporter parses the exception codes to present them as a human-readable description in the other fields.

  • Exception Subtype: The human-readable name of the exception codes.

  • Exception Message: Additional human-readable information extracted from the exception codes.

  • Exception Note: Additional information that is not specific to one exception type. If this field contains SIMULATED (this is NOT a crash) then the process did not crash, but was killed at the request of the system, typically the watchdog.

  • Termination Reason: Exit reason information specified when a process is terminated. Key system components, both inside and outside of a process, will terminate the process upon encountering a fatal error (e.g, a bad code signature, a missing dependent library, or accessing privacy sensitive information without the proper entitlement). macOS Sierra, iOS 10, watchOS 3, and tvOS 10 have adopted new infrastructure to record these errors, and crash reports generated by these operating systems list the error messages in the Termination Reason field.

  • Triggered by Thread: The thread on which the exception originated.

The following sections explain some of the most common exception types.


The process attempted to access invalid memory, or it attempted to access memory in a manner not allowed by the memory's protection level (e.g, writing to read-only memory). The Exception Subtype field contains a kern_return_t describing error and the address of the memory that was incorrectly accessed.

Here are some tips for debugging a bad memory access crash:

  • If objc_msgSend or objc_release are near the top of the Backtraces for the crashed thread, the process may have attempted to message a deallocated object. You should profile the application with the Zombies instrument to better understand the conditions of this crash.

  • If gpus_ReturnNotPermittedKillClient is near the top of the Backtraces for the crashed thread, the process was killed because it attempted to do rendering with OpenGL ES or Metal while in the background. See QA1766: How to fix OpenGL ES application crashes when moving to the background.

  • Run your application with the Address Sanitizer enabled. The address sanitizer adds additional instrumentation around memory access in your compiled code. As your application runs, Xcode will alert you if memory is accessed in a way that could lead to a crash.

Abnormal Exit [EXC_CRASH // SIGABRT]

The process exited abnormally. The most common causes of crashes with this exception type are uncaught Objective-C/C++ exceptions and calls to abort().

App Extensions will be terminated with this exception type if they take too much time to initialize (a watchdog termination). If an extension is killed due to a hang at launch, the Exception Subtype of the generated crash report will be LAUNCH_HANG. Because extensions do not have a main function, any time spent initializing occurs within static constructors and +load methods present in your extension and dependent libraries. You should defer as much of this work as possible.


Similar to an Abnormal Exit, this exception is intended to give an attached debugger the chance to interrupt the process at a specific point in its execution. You can trigger this exception from your own code using the __builtin_trap() function. If no debugger is attached, the process is terminated and a crash report is generated.

Lower-level libraries (e.g, libdispatch) will trap the process upon encountering a fatal error. Additional information about the error can be found in the Additional Diagnostic Information section of the crash report, or in the device's console.

Swift code will terminate with this exception type if an unexpected condition is encountered at runtime such as:

  • a non-optional type with a nil value

  • a failed forced type conversion

Look at the Backtraces to determine where the unexpected condition was encountered. Additional information may have also been logged to the device's console. You should modify the code at the crashing location to gracefully handle the runtime failure. For example, use Optional Binding instead of force unwrapping an optional.

Illegal Instruction [EXC_BAD_INSTRUCTION // SIGILL]

The process attempted to execute an illegal or undefined instruction. The process may have attempted to jump to an invalid address via a misconfigured function pointer.

On Intel processors, the ud2 opcode causes an EXC_BAD_INSTRUCTION exception but is commonly used to trap the process for debugging purposes. Swift code on Intel processors will terminate with this exception type if an unexpected condition is encountered at runtime. See Trace Trap for details.


The process was terminated at the request of another process with privileges to manage its lifetime. SIGQUIT does not mean that the process crashed, but it did likely misbehave in a detectable manner.

On iOS, keyboard extensions will be quit by the host app if they take too long to load. It's unlikely that the Backtraces shown in the crash report will point to the responsible code. Most likely, some other code along the startup path for the extension is taking a long time to complete but finishes before the time limit, so execution has moved onto the code shown in the Backtraces when the extension is quit. You should profile the extension to better understand where most of the work during startup is occurring, and move that work to a background thread or defer it until later (after the extension has loaded).

Killed [SIGKILL]

The process was terminated at the request of the system. Look at the Termination Reason field to better understand the cause of the termination.

The Termination Reason field will contain a namespace followed by a code. The following codes are specific to watchOS.

  • The termination code 0xc51bad01 indicates that a watch app was terminated because it used too much CPU time while performing a background task. To address this issue, optimize the code performing the background task to be more CPU efficient, or decrease the amount of work that the app performs while running in the background.

  • The termination code 0xc51bad02 indicates that a watch app was terminated because it failed to complete a background task within the allocated time. To address this issue, decrease the amount of work that the app performs while running in the background.

  • The termination code 0xc51bad03 indicates that a watch app failed to complete a background task within the allocated time, and the system was sufficiently busy overall that the app may not have received much CPU time with which to perform the background task. Although an app may be able to avoid the issue by reducing the amount of work it performs in the background task, 0xc51bad03 does not indicate that the app did anything wrong. More likely, the app wasn’t able to complete its work because of overall system load.

Guarded Resource Violation [EXC_GUARD]

The process violated a guarded resource protection. System libraries may mark certain file descriptors as guarded, after which normal operations on those descriptors will trigger an EXC_GUARD exception (when it wants to operate on these file descriptors, the system uses special 'guarded' private APIs). This helps you quickly track down issues such as closing a file descriptor that had been opened by a system library. For example, if an app closes the file descriptor used to access the SQLite file backing a Core Data store, Core Data would then crash mysteriously much later on. The guard exception gets these problems noticed sooner, and thus makes them easier to debug.

Crash reports from newer versions of iOS include human-readable details about the operation that caused the EXC_GUARD exception in the Exception Subtype and Exception Message fields. In crash reports from macOS or older versions of iOS, this information is encoded into the first Exception Code as a bitfield which breaks down as follows:

  • [63:61] - Guard Type: The type of the guarded resource. A value of 0x2 indicates the resource is a file descriptor.

  • [60:32] - Flavor: The conditions under which the violation was triggered.

    • If the first (1 << 0) bit is set, the process attempted to invoke close() on a guarded file descriptor.

    • If the second (1 << 1) bit is set, the process attempted to invoke dup(), dup2(), or fcntl() with the F_DUPFD or F_DUPFD_CLOEXEC commands on a guarded file descriptor.

    • If the third (1 << 2) bit is set, the process attempted to send a guarded file descriptor via a socket.

    • If the fifth (1 << 4) bit is set, the process attempted to write to a guarded file descriptor.

  • [31:0] - File Descriptor: The guarded file descriptor that the process attempted to modify.

Resource Limit [EXC_RESOURCE]

The process exceeded a resource consumption limit. This is a notification from the OS that the process is using too many resources. The exact resource is listed in the Exception Subtype field. If the Exception Note field contains NON-FATAL CONDITION, then the process was not killed even though a crash report was generated.

  • The exception subtype MEMORY indicates that the process has crossed a memory limit imposed by the system. This may be a precursor to termination for excess memory usage.

  • The exception subtype WAKEUPS indicates that threads in the process are being woken up too many times per second, which forces the CPU to wake up very often and consumes battery life.

    Typically, this is caused by thread-to-thread communication (generally using peformSelector:onThread: or dispatch_async) that is unwittingly happening far more often than it should be. Because the sort of communication that triggers this exception is happening so frequently, there will usually be multiple background threads with very similar Backtraces - indicating where the communication is originating.

Other Exception Types

Some crash reports may contain an un-named Exception Type, which will be printed as a hexadecimal value (e.g. 00000020). If you receive one of these crash reports, look directly to the Exception Codes field for more information.

  • The exception code 0xbaaaaaad indicates that the log is a stackshot of the entire system, not a crash report. To take a stackshot, push the Home button and any volume button. Often these logs are accidentally created by users, and do not indicate an error.

  • The exception code 0xbad22222 indicates that a VoIP application has been terminated by iOS because it resumed too frequently.

  • The exception code 0x8badf00d indicates that an application has been terminated by iOS because a watchdog timeout occurred. The application took too long to launch, terminate, or respond to system events. One common cause of this is doing synchronous networking on the main thread. Whatever operation is on Thread 0 needs to be moved to a background thread, or processed differently, so that it does not block the main thread.

  • The exception code 0xc00010ff indicates the app was killed by the operating system in response to a thermal event. This may be due to an issue with the particular device that this crash occurred on, or the environment it was operated in. For tips on making your app run more efficiently, see iOS Performance and Power Optimization with Instruments WWDC session.

  • The exception code 0xdead10cc indicates that an application has been terminated by the OS because it held on to a file lock or sqlite database lock during suspension. If your application is performing operations on a locked file or sqlite database at suspension time, it must request additional background execution time to complete those operations and relinquish the lock before suspending.

Additional Diagnostic Information

This section includes additional diagnostic information specific to the type of termination, which may include:

  • Application Specific Information: framework error messages captured just before the process terminated

  • Kernel Messages: details about code-signature problems

  • Dyld Error Messages: error messages emitted by the dynamic linker

Starting in macOS Sierra, iOS 10, watchOS 3, and tvOS 10, most of this information is now reported in the Termination Reason field under the Exception Information.

You should read this section to better understand the circumstances under which the process was terminated.

Listing 7  Excerpt of the Application Specific Information section from a crash report generated when a process was terminated because a framework it links against could not be found.

Dyld Error Message:
Dyld Message: Library not loaded: @rpath/MyCustomFramework.framework/MyCustomFramework
  Referenced from: /private/var/containers/Bundle/Application/CD9DB546-A449-41A4-A08B-87E57EE11354/
  Reason: no suitable image found.

Listing 8  Excerpt of the Application Specific Information section from a crash report generated when a process was terminated because it failed to load its initial view controller quickly.

Application Specific Information: failed to scene-create after 19.81s (launch took 0.19s of total time limit 20.00s)
Elapsed total CPU time (seconds): 7.690 (user 7.690, system 0.000), 19% CPU
Elapsed application CPU time (seconds): 0.697, 2% CPU


The most interesting part of a crash report is the backtrace for each of the process's threads at the time it terminated. Each of these traces is similar to what you would see when pausing the process with the debugger.

Listing 9  Excerpt of the Backtrace section from a fully symbolicated crash report.

Thread 0 name: Dispatch queue:
Thread 0 Crashed:
0   TheElements                   	0x000000010006bc20 -[AtomicElementViewController myTransitionDidStop:finished:context:] (AtomicElementViewController.m:203)
1   UIKit                         	0x0000000194cef0f0 -[UIViewAnimationState sendDelegateAnimationDidStop:finished:] + 312
2   UIKit                         	0x0000000194ceef30 -[UIViewAnimationState animationDidStop:finished:] + 160
3   QuartzCore                    	0x0000000192178404 CA::Layer::run_animation_callbacks(void*) + 260
4   libdispatch.dylib             	0x000000018dd6d1c0 _dispatch_client_callout + 16
5   libdispatch.dylib             	0x000000018dd71d6c _dispatch_main_queue_callback_4CF + 1000
6   CoreFoundation                	0x000000018ee91f2c __CFRUNLOOP_IS_SERVICING_THE_MAIN_DISPATCH_QUEUE__ + 12
7   CoreFoundation                	0x000000018ee8fb18 __CFRunLoopRun + 1660
8   CoreFoundation                	0x000000018edbe048 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 444
9   GraphicsServices              	0x000000019083f198 GSEventRunModal + 180
10  UIKit                         	0x0000000194d21bd0 -[UIApplication _run] + 684
11  UIKit                         	0x0000000194d1c908 UIApplicationMain + 208
12  TheElements                   	0x00000001000653c0 main (main.m:55)
13  libdyld.dylib                 	0x000000018dda05b8 start + 4
Thread 1:
0   libsystem_kernel.dylib        	0x000000018deb2a88 __workq_kernreturn + 8
1   libsystem_pthread.dylib       	0x000000018df75188 _pthread_wqthread + 968
2   libsystem_pthread.dylib       	0x000000018df74db4 start_wqthread + 4

The first line lists the thread number and the identifier of the currently executing dispatch queue. The remaining lines list details about the individual stack frames in the backtrace. From left to right:

  • The stack frame number. Stack frames are presented in calling order, where frame zero is the function that was executing at the time execution halted. Frame one is the function that called the function in frame zero, and so on.

  • The name of the binary in which the executing function for the stack frame resides.

  • For frame zero, the address of the machine instruction that was executing when execution halted. For the remaining stack frames, the address of the machine instruction that will next execute when control returns to the stack frame.

  • In a symbolicated crash report, the method name for the function in the stack frame.


Exceptions in Objective-C are used to indicate programming errors detected at runtime such as accusing an array with an index that is out-of-bounds, attempts to mutate immutable objects, not implementing a required method of a protocol, or sending message which the receiver does not recognize.

If an exception is not caught, it is intercepted by a function called the uncaught exception handler. The default uncaught exception handler logs the exception message to the device's console then terminates the process. Only the exception backtrace is written to the generated crash report under the Last Exception Backtrace section, as shown in Listing 10. The exception message is omitted from the crash report. If you receive a crash report with a Last Exception Backtrace you should acquire the console logs from the originating device to better understand the conditions which caused the exception.

Listing 10  Excerpt of the Last Exception Backtrace section from an unsymbolicated crash report.

Last Exception Backtrace:
(0x18eee41c0 0x18d91c55c 0x18eee3e88 0x18f8ea1a0 0x195013fe4 0x1951acf20 0x18ee03dc4 0x1951ab8f4 0x195458128 0x19545fa20 0x19545fc7c 0x19545ff70 0x194de4594 0x194e94e8c 0x194f47d8c 0x194f39b40 0x194ca92ac 0x18ee917dc 0x18ee8f40c 0x18ee8f89c 0x18edbe048 0x19083f198 0x194d21bd0 0x194d1c908 0x1000ad45c 0x18dda05b8)

A crash log with a Last Exception Backtrace containing only hexadecimal addresses must be symbolicated to produce a usable backtrace as shown in Listing 11.

Listing 11  Excerpt of the Last Exception Backtrace section from a symbolicated crash report. This exception was raised when loading a scene in the app's storyboard. The corresponding IBOutlet for a connection to an element in the scene was missing.

Last Exception Backtrace:
0   CoreFoundation                	0x18eee41c0 __exceptionPreprocess + 124
1   libobjc.A.dylib               	0x18d91c55c objc_exception_throw + 56
2   CoreFoundation                	0x18eee3e88 -[NSException raise] + 12
3   Foundation                    	0x18f8ea1a0 -[NSObject(NSKeyValueCoding) setValue:forKey:] + 272
4   UIKit                         	0x195013fe4 -[UIViewController setValue:forKey:] + 104
5   UIKit                         	0x1951acf20 -[UIRuntimeOutletConnection connect] + 124
6   CoreFoundation                	0x18ee03dc4 -[NSArray makeObjectsPerformSelector:] + 232
7   UIKit                         	0x1951ab8f4 -[UINib instantiateWithOwner:options:] + 1756
8   UIKit                         	0x195458128 -[UIStoryboard instantiateViewControllerWithIdentifier:] + 196
9   UIKit                         	0x19545fa20 -[UIStoryboardSegueTemplate instantiateOrFindDestinationViewControllerWithSender:] + 92
10  UIKit                         	0x19545fc7c -[UIStoryboardSegueTemplate _perform:] + 56
11  UIKit                         	0x19545ff70 -[UIStoryboardSegueTemplate perform:] + 160
12  UIKit                         	0x194de4594 -[UITableView _selectRowAtIndexPath:animated:scrollPosition:notifyDelegate:] + 1352
13  UIKit                         	0x194e94e8c -[UITableView _userSelectRowAtPendingSelectionIndexPath:] + 268
14  UIKit                         	0x194f47d8c _runAfterCACommitDeferredBlocks + 292
15  UIKit                         	0x194f39b40 _cleanUpAfterCAFlushAndRunDeferredBlocks + 560
16  UIKit                         	0x194ca92ac _afterCACommitHandler + 168
17  CoreFoundation                	0x18ee917dc __CFRUNLOOP_IS_CALLING_OUT_TO_AN_OBSERVER_CALLBACK_FUNCTION__ + 32
18  CoreFoundation                	0x18ee8f40c __CFRunLoopDoObservers + 372
19  CoreFoundation                	0x18ee8f89c __CFRunLoopRun + 1024
20  CoreFoundation                	0x18edbe048 CFRunLoopRunSpecific + 444
21  GraphicsServices              	0x19083f198 GSEventRunModal + 180
22  UIKit                         	0x194d21bd0 -[UIApplication _run] + 684
23  UIKit                         	0x194d1c908 UIApplicationMain + 208
24  TheElements                   	0x1000ad45c main (main.m:55)
25  libdyld.dylib                 	0x18dda05b8 start + 4

64-bit iOS uses a "zero-cost" exception implementation. In a "zero-cost" system, every function has additional data that describes how to unwind the stack if an exception is thrown across the function. If an exception is thrown across a stack frame that has no unwind data then exception handling cannot proceed and the process halts. There might be an exception handler farther up the stack, but if there is no unwind data for a frame then there is no way to get there from the stack frame where the exception was thrown. Specifying the -no_compact_unwind flag means you get no unwind tables for that code, so you can not throw exceptions across those functions.

Additionally, if you are including plain C code in your application or a library, you may need to specify the -funwind-tables flag to include unwind tables for all functions in that code.

Thread State

This section lists the thread state of the crashed thread. This is a list of registers and their values at the time execution halted. Understanding the thread state is not necessary when reading a crash report but you may be able to use this information to better understand the conditions of the crash.

Listing 12  Excerpt of the Thread State section from a crash report from an ARM64 device.

Thread 0 crashed with ARM Thread State (64-bit):
    x0: 0x0000000000000000   x1: 0x000000019ff776c8   x2: 0x0000000000000000   x3: 0x000000019ff776c8
    x4: 0x0000000000000000   x5: 0x0000000000000001   x6: 0x0000000000000000   x7: 0x00000000000000d0
    x8: 0x0000000100023920   x9: 0x0000000000000000  x10: 0x000000019ff7dff0  x11: 0x0000000c0000000f
   x12: 0x000000013e63b4d0  x13: 0x000001a19ff75009  x14: 0x0000000000000000  x15: 0x0000000000000000
   x16: 0x0000000187b3f1b9  x17: 0x0000000181ed488c  x18: 0x0000000000000000  x19: 0x000000013e544780
   x20: 0x000000013fa49560  x21: 0x0000000000000001  x22: 0x000000013fc05f90  x23: 0x000000010001e069
   x24: 0x0000000000000000  x25: 0x000000019ff776c8  x26: 0xee009ec07c8c24c7  x27: 0x0000000000000020
   x28: 0x0000000000000000  fp: 0x000000016fdf29e0   lr: 0x0000000100017cf8
    sp: 0x000000016fdf2980   pc: 0x0000000100017d14 cpsr: 0x60000000

Binary Images

This section lists the binary images that were loaded in the process at the time of termination.

Listing 13  Excerpt of the application's entry in the binary images section of a crash report.

Binary Images:
0x100060000 - 0x100073fff TheElements arm64 <2defdbea0c873a52afa458cf14cd169e> /var/containers/Bundle/Application/888C1FA2-3666-4AE2-9E8E-62E2F787DEC1/

Each line includes the following details for a single binary image:

  • The binary image's address space within the process.

  • The binary name or bundle identifier of the binary (macOS only). In crash reports from macOS, a (+) is prepended if the binary is part of the OS.

  • (macOS only) The binary's short version string and bundle version, separated by a dash.

  • (iOS only) The architecture of the binary image. A binary may contain multiple "slices", one for each architecture it supports. Only one of these slices is loaded into the process.

  • An UUID which uniquely identifies the binary image. This value changes with each build of the binary and is used to locate the corresponding dSYM file when symbolicating the crash report.

  • The path to the binary on disk.

Understanding Low Memory Reports

When a low-memory condition is detected, the virtual memory system in iOS relies on the cooperation of applications to release memory. Low-memory notifications are sent to all running applications and processes as a request to free up memory, hoping to reduce the amount of memory in use. If memory pressure still exists, the system may terminate background processes to ease memory pressure. If enough memory can be freed up, your application will continue to run. If not, your application will be terminated by iOS because there isn't enough memory to satisfy the application's demands, and a low memory report will be generated and stored on the device.

The format of a low memory report differs from other crash reports in that there are no backtraces for the application threads. A low memory report begins with a header similar to the Header of a crash report. Following the header are a collection of fields listing system-wide memory statistics. Take note of the value for the Page Size field. The memory usage of each process in a low memory report is reported in terms of number of memory pages.

The most important part of a low memory report is the table of processes. This table lists all running processes, including system daemons, at the time the low memory report was generated. If a process was "jettisoned", the reason will be listed under the [reason] column. A process may be jettisoned for a number of reasons:

If you do not see a reason listed next to your app/extension process, the cause of the crash was not memory pressure. Look for a .crash file (described in the previous section) for more information.

When you see a low memory crash, rather than be concerned about what part of your code was executing at the time of termination, you should investigate your memory usage patterns and your responses to low memory warnings. Locating Memory Issues in Your App lists detailed steps on how to use the Leaks Instrument to discover memory leaks, and how to use the Allocations Instrument's Mark Heap feature to avoid abandoned memory. Memory Usage Performance Guidelines discusses the proper ways to respond to low-memory notifications as well as many tips for using memory effectively. It is also recommended that you check out the WWDC 2010 session, Advanced Memory Analysis with Instruments.

Related Documents

For information about how to use the Instruments Zombies template to fix memory overrelease crashes, see Eradicating Zombies with the Zombies Trace Template.

For more information about application archiving, refer to the the App Distribution Guide.

For more information about interpreting crash logs, see Understanding Crash Reports on iPhone OS WWDC 2010 Session.

Document Revision History


Clarified that crash reports need to be named with a .crash extension to be symbolicated using Xcode. Removed the discussion of the 0xdeadfa11 exception code (force quitting an app no longer generates a crash report).


Added information about some termination codes specific to watchOS apps. Added information about why keyboard extensions may receive a SIGQUIT signal.


Added additional details and resolution suggestions for the 0xdead10cc exception code.


Updated for iOS 10. Expanded the discussion of crash report symbolication.


Updated for Xcode 6. Expanded the discussion of crash reports.


Added information about more exception codes.


Added information about low memory crash reports and more exception codes. Updated for Xcode 4.


Updated to reflect changes for iOS 4.0 and later.


Fixed bug in the documentation.


Updated to reflect changes for the iPhone OS 3.2 SDK and Xcode 3.2.2.


Added stronger emphasis about the need to save not only .dSYM files, but application binaries as well.


Updated for iTunes Connect crash log service.


Updated to include a workaround for an issue that prevents application code from being symbolicated.


New document that essential information for developers explaining how to symbolicate, understand, and interpret crash reports.