Discovering and Advertising Network Services
OS X and iOS provide four APIs for discovering and advertising network services:
NSNetService—A high-level Objective-C API suitable for most app developers.
CFNetService—A high-level C API suitable for use in Core Foundation code.
DNS Service Discovery—A low-level C API suitable for cross-platform code. This API also offers more flexibility than the higher-level APIs.
Game Kit framework—A high-level Objective-C API that provides peer-to-peer communication support for games, both locally (using infrastructure Wi-Fi and Bluetooth) and globally over the Internet.
In addition to these APIs, iOS offers the Multipeer Connectivity Framework, which provides support for discovering and communicating with instances of your app and related apps on nearby devices using infrastructure Wi-Fi, peer-to-peer Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth.
As a rule, you should use Game Kit only for game-related peer-to-peer networking. For other peer-to-peer networking between iOS devices running iOS 7 and later, you should consider using the Multipeer Connectivity framework.
For compatibility with older versions of iOS, you can also write your own networking code and use
NSNetService to advertise its availability.
Bonjour Service Overview
A Bonjour service advertisement consists of three parts:
Service name—This name must be unique to a particular instance of your program running on a particular computer.
Service type—This must be the same for all instances of your program, and should be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
Domain—If the domain value is empty, the host chooses the appropriate domains in which to publish or browse.
When an app browses for Bonjour services, it asks for services matching a particular type in a particular domain, and it gets back a list of matching service names. It should then present an appropriate UI to the user. When the user tells the app to connect to a particular service, the app should then connect to the service using a connect-to-service API. (If this is not possible for some reason, the app can pass the service’s hostname and port to a connect-by-name API or, if a connect-by-name API is not available, the app can ask Bonjour to resolve the hostname, and the app can then connect by IP address and port number.)
Publishing a Network Service
Bonjour zero-configuration networking lets you advertise network services, such as a printer or a document syncing service, on a network. There are three ways to publish a network service:
For Objective-C and Core Foundation code, the recommended way is with the
For portable C code that must run on operating systems other than iOS and OS X, the DNS Service Discovery C API is recommended.
You can publish a network service with the following steps:
Create a socket to listen for connections to the service. See Writing a TCP-Based Server in Networking Programming Topics for the recommended way to listen for connections on a network socket.
Create a service object, providing the port of your socket, the domain (usually an empty string), and the service type string of your choosing:
Assign a delegate or callback:
With Foundation, assign a delegate to the
NSNetServiceobject with the
With Core Foundation, assign a client callback to the
CFNetServiceRefobject with the
With the DNS Service Discovery API, you should pass a client callback (and, optionally, a pointer to a context object of your choosing) in your call to
DNSServiceRegister. At this point, you are done except for handling callbacks when they occur.
Schedule or reschedule the service, if necessary:
With Foundation, the service is automatically scheduled on the current run loop in the default mode. If you need to schedule the object on another run loop or in a different mode, you should unschedule it and reschedule it at this point.
With Core Foundation, you must schedule the
CFNetServicesRefobject on a run loop by calling
With the DNS Service Discovery API, call
DNSServiceSetDispatchQueueto schedule the service on a dispatch queue. (If you must support an OS prior to OS X v10.7, see the SRVResolver sample code project for an example of how to use DNS Service Discovery without Grand Central Dispatch.)
Publish the service, if necessary:
After your service is published, you can listen for connections on your socket and set up input and output streams when a connection is made.
Browsing for and Connecting to a Network Service
The process for finding and resolving a network service is as simple as the process for publishing one. To browse for network services in Objective-C, create an instance of the
NSNetServiceBrowser class and assign it a delegate. Then, call the
searchForServicesOfType:inDomain: method on the service browser. The
netServiceBrowser:didFindService:moreComing: delegate method is called once for every service found.
To connect to a service, first stop the browsing by calling
stop (unless you have a specific reason to keep browsing), then call the
getInputStream:outputStream: method on the
NSNetService object that represents the service. The address of the service is resolved automatically.
You can also use the
CFStreamCreatePairWithSocketToNetService function with a
CFNetServiceRef object to connect to a Bonjour service.
Resolving a Network Service
You may need to resolve a network service manually to provide the service’s address to an API that does not accept network service names. To resolve a network service in Objective-C, first stop the browsing by calling
stop (unless you have a specific reason to keep browsing), then call the
resolveWithTimeout: method on the
NSNetService object that represents the service.
netServiceDidResolveAddress: method is called on the service’s delegate when the service’s address has been resolved. You can then access the service’s hostname with the
hostName method or its address information with the
addresses method. To avoid unnecessary network traffic, you should also call
stop on the
NSNetService object as soon as it returns a set of addresses.
Multipeer Connectivity Overview
The Multipeer Connectivity Framework provides a layer on top of Bonjour that lets you communicate with apps running on nearby devices (over infrastructure Wi-Fi, peer-to-peer Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth) without having to write lots of networking code specific to your app.
With Multipeer Connectivity, your app advertises its availability. It can then discover other instances of your app (or other apps that share the same service type) running on nearby devices, and can invite those nearby peers to join a session. If they accept the invitation, your app can send messages and files to one or more of the connected peers with just a single method call.
If you need stream-based communication, your app can open a unidirectional stream to any connected peer (which can also open a unidirectional stream back to your app in response).
Finally, Multipeer Connectivity provides the ability to share small amounts of data (such as the user’s screen name) outside the context of a session, if desired, allowing you to provide the user with information that he or she can use when choosing peers to invite into a session.
To Learn More
Multipeer Connectivity—Read Multipeer Connectivity Framework Reference and the MultipeerGroupChat sample code project.
Game Kit—Read Game Center Programming Guide, GameKit Framework Reference, and the GKRocket and GKTank sample code projects.
NSNetService—Read NSNetServices and CFNetServices Programming Guide, NSNetServiceBrowser Class Reference, NSNetServiceBrowserDelegate Protocol Reference, and NSNetServiceDelegate Protocol Reference. For sample code, see the RemoteCurrency sample code project.
CFNetService—Read NSNetServices and CFNetServices Programming Guide and CFNetServices Reference.
DNS Service Discovery—Read DNS Service Discovery Programming Guide and DNS Service Discovery C Reference.