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INTRO(2)                    BSD System Calls Manual                   INTRO(2)

NAME
     intro -- introduction to system calls and error numbers

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/errno.h>

DESCRIPTION
     This section provides an overview of the system calls, their error
     returns, and other common definitions and concepts.

DIAGNOSTICS
     Nearly all of the system calls provide an error number in the external
     variable errno, which is defined as:

           extern int errno

     When a system call detects an error, it returns an integer value indicat-ing indicating
     ing failure (usually -1) and sets the variable errno accordingly.  <This
     allows interpretation of the failure on receiving a -1 and to take action
     accordingly.> Successful calls never set errno; once set, it remains
     until another error occurs.  It should only be examined after an error.
     Note that a number of system calls overload the meanings of these error
     numbers, and that the meanings must be interpreted according to the type
     and circumstances of the call.

     The following is a complete list of the errors and their names as given
     in <sys/errno.h>.

     0 Error 0.  Not used.

     1 EPERM Operation not permitted.  An attempt was made to perform an oper-ation operation
             ation limited to processes with appropriate privileges or to the
             owner of a file or other resources.

     2 ENOENT No such file or directory.  A component of a specified pathname
             did not exist, or the pathname was an empty string.

     3 ESRCH No such process.  No process could be found corresponding to that
             specified by the given process ID.

     4 EINTR Interrupted function call.  An asynchronous signal (such as
             SIGINT or SIGQUIT) was caught by the process during the execution
             of an interruptible function. If the signal handler performs a
             normal return, the interrupted function call will seem to have
             returned the error condition.

     5 EIO Input/output error.  Some physical input or output error occurred.
             This error will not be reported until a subsequent operation on
             the same file descriptor and may be lost (over written) by any
             subsequent errors.

     6 ENXIO No such device or address.  Input or output on a special file
             referred to a device that did not exist, or made a request beyond
             the limits of the device.  This error may also occur when, for
             example, a tape drive is not online or no disk pack is loaded on
             a drive.

     7 E2BIG Arg list too long.  The number of bytes used for the argument and
             environment list of the new process exceeded the limit NCARGS
             (specified in <sys/param.h>).

     8 ENOEXEC Exec format error.  A request was made to execute a file that,
             although it has the appropriate permissions, was not in the for-mat format
             mat required for an executable file.

     9 EBADF Bad file descriptor.  A file descriptor argument was out of
             range, referred to no open file, or a read (write) request was
             made to a file that was only open for writing (reading).

     10 ECHILD No child processes.  A wait or waitpid function was executed by
             a process that had no existing or unwaited-for child processes.

     11 EDEADLK Resource deadlock avoided.  An attempt was made to lock a sys-tem system
             tem resource that would have resulted in a deadlock situation.

     12 ENOMEM Cannot allocate memory.  The new process image required more
             memory than was allowed by the hardware or by system-imposed mem-ory memory
             ory management constraints.  A lack of swap space is normally
             temporary; however, a lack of core is not.  Soft limits may be
             increased to their corresponding hard limits.

     13 EACCES Permission denied.  An attempt was made to access a file in a
             way forbidden by its file access permissions.

     14 EFAULT Bad address.  The system detected an invalid address in
             attempting to use an argument of a call.

     15 ENOTBLK Not a block device.  A block device operation was attempted on
             a non-block device or file.

     16 EBUSY Resource busy.  An attempt to use a system resource which was in
             use at the time in a manner which would have conflicted with the
             request.

     17 EEXIST File exists.  An existing file was mentioned in an inappropri-ate inappropriate
             ate context, for instance, as the new link name in a link func-tion. function.
             tion.

     18 EXDEV Improper link.  A hard link to a file on another file system was
             attempted.

     19 ENODEV Operation not supported by device.  An attempt was made to
             apply an inappropriate function to a device, for example, trying
             to read a write-only device such as a printer.

     20 ENOTDIR Not a directory.  A component of the specified pathname
             existed, but it was not a directory, when a directory was
             expected.

     21 EISDIR Is a directory.  An attempt was made to open a directory with
             write mode specified.

     22 EINVAL Invalid argument.  Some invalid argument was supplied. (For
             example, specifying an undefined signal to a signal or kill func-tion). function).
             tion).

     23 ENFILE Too many open files in system.  Maximum number of file descrip-tors descriptors
             tors allowable on the system has been reached and a requests for
             an open cannot be satisfied until at least one has been closed.

     24 EMFILE Too many open files.  <As released, the limit on the number of
             open files per process is 64.> Getdtablesize(2) will obtain the
             current limit.

     25 ENOTTY Inappropriate ioctl for device.  A control function (see
             ioctl(2)) was attempted for a file or special device for which
             the operation was inappropriate.

     26 ETXTBSY Text file busy.  The new process was a pure procedure (shared
             text) file which was open for writing by another process, or
             while the pure procedure file was being executed an open call
             requested write access.

     27 EFBIG File too large.  The size of a file exceeded the maximum (about
             2.1E9 bytes on some filesystems including UFS, 1.8E19 bytes on
             HFS+ and others).

     28 ENOSPC Device out of space.  A write to an ordinary file, the creation
             of a directory or symbolic link, or the creation of a directory
             entry failed because no more disk blocks were available on the
             file system, or the allocation of an inode for a newly created
             file failed because no more inodes were available on the file
             system.

     29 ESPIPE Illegal seek.  An lseek function was issued on a socket, pipe
             or FIFO.

     30 EROFS Read-only file system.  An attempt was made to modify a file or
             directory was made on a file system that was read-only at the
             time.

     31 EMLINK Too many links.  Maximum allowable hard links to a single file
             has been exceeded (limit of 32767 hard links per file).

     32 EPIPE Broken pipe.  A write on a pipe, socket or FIFO for which there
             is no process to read the data.

     33 EDOM Numerical argument out of domain.  A numerical input argument was
             outside the defined domain of the mathematical function.

     34 ERANGE Numerical result out of range.  A numerical result of the func-tion function
             tion was too large to fit in the available space (perhaps
             exceeded precision).

     35 EAGAIN Resource temporarily unavailable.  This is a temporary condi-tion condition
             tion and later calls to the same routine may complete normally.

     36 EINPROGRESS Operation now in progress.  An operation that takes a long
             time to complete (such as a connect(2)) was attempted on a non-blocking nonblocking
             blocking object (see fcntl(2)).

     37 EALREADY Operation already in progress.  An operation was attempted on
             a non-blocking object that already had an operation in progress.

     38 ENOTSOCK Socket operation on non-socket.  Self-explanatory.

     39 EDESTADDRREQ Destination address required.  A required address was
             omitted from an operation on a socket.

     40 EMSGSIZE Message too long.  A message sent on a socket was larger than
             the internal message buffer or some other network limit.

     41 EPROTOTYPE Protocol wrong type for socket.  A protocol was specified
             that does not support the semantics of the socket type requested.
             For example, you cannot use the ARPA Internet UDP protocol with
             type SOCK_STREAM.

     42 ENOPROTOOPT Protocol not available.  A bad option or level was speci-fied specified
             fied in a getsockopt(2) or setsockopt(2) call.

     43 EPROTONOSUPPORT Protocol not supported.  The protocol has not been
             configured into the system or no implementation for it exists.

     44 ESOCKTNOSUPPORT Socket type not supported.  The support for the socket
             type has not been configured into the system or no implementation
             for it exists.

     45 ENOTSUP Not supported.  The attempted operation is not supported for
             the type of object referenced.

     46 EPFNOSUPPORT Protocol family not supported.  The protocol family has
             not been configured into the system or no implementation for it
             exists.

     47 EAFNOSUPPORT Address family not supported by protocol family.  An
             address incompatible with the requested protocol was used.  For
             example, you shouldn't necessarily expect to be able to use NS
             addresses with ARPA Internet protocols.

     48 EADDRINUSE Address already in use.  Only one usage of each address is
             normally permitted.

     49 EADDRNOTAVAIL Cannot assign requested address.  Normally results from
             an attempt to create a socket with an address not on this
             machine.

     50 ENETDOWN Network is down.  A socket operation encountered a dead net-work. network.
             work.

     51 ENETUNREACH Network is unreachable.  A socket operation was attempted
             to an unreachable network.

     52 ENETRESET Network dropped connection on reset.  The host you were con-nected connected
             nected to crashed and rebooted.

     53 ECONNABORTED Software caused connection abort.  A connection abort was
             caused internal to your host machine.

     54 ECONNRESET Connection reset by peer.  A connection was forcibly closed
             by a peer.  This normally results from a loss of the connection
             on the remote socket due to a timeout or a reboot.

     55 ENOBUFS No buffer space available.  An operation on a socket or pipe
             was not performed because the system lacked sufficient buffer
             space or because a queue was full.

     56 EISCONN Socket is already connected.  A connect request was made on an
             already connected socket; or, a sendto or sendmsg request on a
             connected socket specified a destination when already connected.

     57 ENOTCONN Socket is not connected.  An request to send or receive data
             was disallowed because the socket was not connected and (when
             sending on a datagram socket) no address was supplied.

     58 ESHUTDOWN Cannot send after socket shutdown.  A request to send data
             was disallowed because the socket had already been shut down with
             a previous shutdown(2) call.

     60 ETIMEDOUT Operation timed out.  A connect or send request failed
             because the connected party did not properly respond after a
             period of time.  (The timeout period is dependent on the communi-cation communication
             cation protocol.)

     61 ECONNREFUSED Connection refused.  No connection could be made because
             the target machine actively refused it.  This usually results
             from trying to connect to a service that is inactive on the for-eign foreign
             eign host.

     62 ELOOP Too many levels of symbolic links.  A path name lookup involved
             more than 8 symbolic links.

     63 ENAMETOOLONG File name too long.  A component of a path name exceeded
             255 (MAXNAMELEN) characters, or an entire path name exceeded 1023
             (MAXPATHLEN-1) characters.

     64 EHOSTDOWN Host is down.  A socket operation failed because the desti-nation destination
             nation host was down.

     65 EHOSTUNREACH No route to host.  A socket operation was attempted to an
             unreachable host.

     66 ENOTEMPTY Directory not empty.  A directory with entries other than
             `.' and `..' was supplied to a remove directory or rename call.

     67 EPROCLIM Too many processes.

     68 EUSERS Too many users.  The quota system ran out of table entries.

     69 EDQUOT Disc quota exceeded.  A write to an ordinary file, the creation
             of a directory or symbolic link, or the creation of a directory
             entry failed because the user's quota of disk blocks was
             exhausted, or the allocation of an inode for a newly created file
             failed because the user's quota of inodes was exhausted.

     70 ESTALE Stale NFS file handle.  An attempt was made to access an open
             file (on an NFS filesystem) which is now unavailable as refer-enced referenced
             enced by the file descriptor.  This may indicate the file was
             deleted on the NFS server or some other catastrophic event
             occurred.

     72 EBADRPC RPC struct is bad.  Exchange of RPC information was unsuccess-ful. unsuccessful.
             ful.

     73 ERPCMISMATCH RPC version wrong.  The version of RPC on the remote peer
             is not compatible with the local version.

     74 EPROGUNAVAIL RPC prog. not avail.  The requested program is not regis-tered registered
             tered on the remote host.

     75 EPROGMISMATCH Program version wrong.  The requested version of the
             program is not available on the remote host (RPC).

     76 EPROCUNAVAIL Bad procedure for program.  An RPC call was attempted for
             a procedure which doesn't exist in the remote program.

     77 ENOLCK No locks available.  A system-imposed limit on the number of
             simultaneous file locks was reached.

     78 ENOSYS Function not implemented.  Attempted a system call that is not
             available on this system.

     79 EFTYPE Inappropriate file type or format.  The file was the wrong type
             for the operation, or a data file had the wrong format.

     80 EAUTH Authentication error.  Attempted to use an invalid authentica-tion authentication
             tion ticket to mount an NFS file system.

     81 ENEEDAUTH Need authenticator.  An authentication ticket must be
             obtained before the given NFS file system may be mounted.

     82 EPWROFF Device power is off.  The device power is off.

     83 EDEVERR Device error.  A device error has occurred, e.g. a printer
             running out of paper.

     84 EOVERFLOW Value too large to be stored in data type.  A numerical
             result of the function was too large to be stored in the caller
             provided space.

     85 EBADEXEC Bad executable (or shared library).  The executable or shared
             library being referenced was malformed.

     86 EBADARCH Bad CPU type in executable.  The executable in question does
             not support the current CPU.

     87 ESHLIBVERS Shared library version mismatch.  The version of the shared
             library on the system does not match the version which was
             expected.

     88 EBADMACHO Malformed Mach-o file.  The Mach object file is malformed.

     89 ECANCELED Operation canceled.  The scheduled operation was canceled.

     90 EIDRM Identifier removed.  An IPC identifier was removed while the
             current process was waiting on it.

     91 ENOMSG No message of desired type.  An IPC message queue does not con-tain contain
             tain a message of the desired type, or a message catalog does not
             contain the requested message.

     92 EILSEQ Illegal byte sequence.  While decoding a multibyte character
             the function came along an invalid or an incomplete sequence of
             bytes or the given wide character is invalid.

     93 ENOATTR Attribute not found.  The specified extended attribute does
             not exist.

     94 EBADMSG Bad message.  The message to be received is inapprorpiate for
             the operation being attempted.

     95 EMULTIHOP Reserved.  This error is reserved for future use.

     96 ENODATA No message available.  No message was available to be received
             by the requested operation.

     97 ENOLINK Reserved.  This error is reserved for future use.

     98 ENOSR No STREAM resources.  This error is reserved for future use.

     99 ENOSTR Not a STREAM.  This error is reserved for future use.

     100 EPROTO Protocol error.  Some protocol error occurred. This error is
             device-specific, but is generally not related to a hardware fail-ure. failure.
             ure.

     101 ETIME STREAM ioctl() timeout.  This error is reserved for future use.

     102 EOPNOTSUPP Operation not supported on socket.  The attempted opera-tion operation
             tion is not supported for the type of socket referenced; for
             example, trying to accept a connection on a datagram socket.

DEFINITIONS
     Process ID.
             Each active process in the system is uniquely identified by a
             non-negative integer called a process ID.  The range of this ID
             is from 0 to 30000.

     Parent process ID
             A new process is created by a currently active process; (see
             fork(2)).  The parent process ID of a process is initially the
             process ID of its creator.  If the creating process exits, the
             parent process ID of each child is set to the ID of a system
             process, init.

     Process Group
             Each active process is a member of a process group that is iden-tified identified
             tified by a non-negative integer called the process group ID.
             This is the process ID of the group leader.  This grouping per-mits permits
             mits the signaling of related processes (see termios(4)) and the
             job control mechanisms of csh(1).

     Session
             A session is a set of one or more process groups.  A session is
             created by a successful call to setsid(2), which causes the
             caller to become the only member of the only process group in the
             new session.

     Session leader
             A process that has created a new session by a successful call to
             setsid(2), is known as a session leader.  Only a session leader
             may acquire a terminal as its controlling terminal (see
             termios(4)).

     Controlling process
             A session leader with a controlling terminal is a controlling
             process.

     Controlling terminal
             A terminal that is associated with a session is known as the con-trolling controlling
             trolling terminal for that session and its members.

     Terminal Process Group ID
             A terminal may be acquired by a session leader as its controlling
             terminal.  Once a terminal is associated with a session, any of
             the process groups within the session may be placed into the
             foreground by setting the terminal process group ID to the ID of
             the process group.  This facility is used to arbitrate between
             multiple jobs contending for the same terminal; (see csh(1) and
             tty(4)).

     Orphaned Process Group
             A process group is considered to be orphaned if it is not under
             the control of a job control shell.  More precisely, a process
             group is orphaned when none of its members has a parent process
             that is in the same session as the group, but is in a different
             process group.  Note that when a process exits, the parent
             process for its children is changed to be init, which is in a
             separate session.  Not all members of an orphaned process group
             are necessarily orphaned processes (those whose creating process
             has exited).  The process group of a session leader is orphaned
             by definition.

     Real User ID and Real Group ID
             Each user on the system is identified by a positive integer
             termed the real user ID.

             Each user is also a member of one or more groups.  One of these
             groups is distinguished from others and used in implementing
             accounting facilities.  The positive integer corresponding to
             this distinguished group is termed the real group ID.

             All processes have a real user ID and real group ID.  These are
             initialized from the equivalent attributes of the process that
             created it.

     Effective User Id, Effective Group Id, and Group Access List
             Access to system resources is governed by two values: the effec-tive effective
             tive user ID, and the group access list.  The first member of the
             group access list is also known as the effective group ID.  (In
             POSIX.1, the group access list is known as the set of supplemen-tary supplementary
             tary group IDs, and it is unspecified whether the effective group
             ID is a member of the list.)

             The effective user ID and effective group ID are initially the
             process's real user ID and real group ID respectively.  Either
             may be modified through execution of a set-user-ID or set-group-ID set-groupID
             ID file (possibly by one its ancestors) (see execve(2)).  By con-vention, convention,
             vention, the effective group ID (the first member of the group
             access list) is duplicated, so that the execution of a set-group-ID set-groupID
             ID program does not result in the loss of the original (real)
             group ID.

             The group access list is a set of group IDs used only in deter-mining determining
             mining resource accessibility.  Access checks are performed as
             described below in ``File Access Permissions''.

     Saved Set User ID and Saved Set Group ID
             When a process executes a new file, the effective user ID is set
             to the owner of the file if the file is set-user-ID, and the
             effective group ID (first element of the group access list) is
             set to the group of the file if the file is set-group-ID.  The
             effective user ID of the process is then recorded as the saved
             set-user-ID, and the effective group ID of the process is
             recorded as the saved set-group-ID.  These values may be used to
             regain those values as the effective user or group ID after
             reverting to the real ID (see setuid(2)).  (In POSIX.1, the saved
             set-user-ID and saved set-group-ID are optional, and are used in
             setuid and setgid, but this does not work as desired for the
             super-user.)

     Super-user
             A process is recognized as a super-user process and is granted
             special privileges if its effective user ID is 0.

     Special Processes
             The processes with process IDs of 0, 1, and 2 are special.
             Process 0 is the scheduler.  Process 1 is the initialization
             process init, and is the ancestor of every other process in the
             system.  It is used to control the process structure.  Process 2
             is the paging daemon.

     Descriptor
             An integer assigned by the system when a file is referenced by
             open(2) or dup(2), or when a socket is created by pipe(2),
             socket(2) or socketpair(2), which uniquely identifies an access
             path to that file or socket from a given process or any of its
             children.

     File Name
             Names consisting of up to 255 (MAXNAMELEN) characters may be used
             to name an ordinary file, special file, or directory.

             These characters may be selected from the set of all ASCII char-acter character
             acter excluding 0 (NUL) and the ASCII code for `/' (slash).

             Note that it is generally unwise to use `*', `?', `[' or `]' as
             part of file names because of the special meaning attached to
             these characters by the shell.

     Path Name
             A path name is a NUL-terminated character string starting with an
             optional slash `/', followed by zero or more directory names sep-arated separated
             arated by slashes, optionally followed by a file name.  The total
             length of a path name must be less than 1024 (MAXPATHLEN) charac-ters. characters.
             ters.

             If a path name begins with a slash, the path search begins at the
             root directory.  Otherwise, the search begins from the current
             working directory.  A slash by itself names the root directory.
             An empty pathname refers to the current directory.

     Directory
             A directory is a special type of file that contains entries that
             are references to other files.  Directory entries are called
             links.  By convention, a directory contains at least two links,
             `.' and `..', referred to as dot and dot-dot respectively.  Dot
             refers to the directory itself and dot-dot refers to its parent
             directory.

     Root Directory and Current Working Directory
             Each process has associated with it a concept of a root directory
             and a current working directory for the purpose of resolving path
             name searches.  A process's root directory need not be the root
             directory of the root file system.

     File Access Permissions
             Every file in the file system has a set of access permissions.
             These permissions are used in determining whether a process may
             perform a requested operation on the file (such as opening a file
             for writing).  Access permissions are established at the time a
             file is created.  They may be changed at some later time through
             the chmod(2) call.

             File access is broken down according to whether a file may be:
             read, written, or executed.  Directory files use the execute per-mission permission
             mission to control if the directory may be searched.

             File access permissions are interpreted by the system as they
             apply to three different classes of users: the owner of the file,
             those users in the file's group, anyone else.  Every file has an
             independent set of access permissions for each of these classes.
             When an access check is made, the system decides if permission
             should be granted by checking the access information applicable
             to the caller.

             Read, write, and execute/search permissions on a file are granted
             to a process if:

             The process's effective user ID is that of the super-user. (Note:
             even the super-user cannot execute a non-executable file.)

             The process's effective user ID matches the user ID of the owner
             of the file and the owner permissions allow the access.

             The process's effective user ID does not match the user ID of the
             owner of the file, and either the process's effective group ID
             matches the group ID of the file, or the group ID of the file is
             in the process's group access list, and the group permissions
             allow the access.

             Neither the effective user ID nor effective group ID and group
             access list of the process match the corresponding user ID and
             group ID of the file, but the permissions for ``other users''
             allow access.

             Otherwise, permission is denied.

     Sockets and Address Families

             A socket is an endpoint for communication between processes.
             Each socket has queues for sending and receiving data.

             Sockets are typed according to their communications properties.
             These properties include whether messages sent and received at a
             socket require the name of the partner, whether communication is
             reliable, the format used in naming message recipients, etc.

             Each instance of the system supports some collection of socket
             types; consult socket(2) for more information about the types
             available and their properties.

             Each instance of the system supports some number of sets of com-munications communications
             munications protocols.  Each protocol set supports addresses of a
             certain format.  An Address Family is the set of addresses for a
             specific group of protocols.  Each socket has an address chosen
             from the address family in which the socket was created.

SEE ALSO
     perror(3)

HISTORY
     An intro manual page appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

4th Berkeley Distribution      December 11, 1993     4th Berkeley Distribution
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