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KILL(2)                     BSD System Calls Manual                    KILL(2)

NAME
     kill -- send signal to a process

SYNOPSIS
     #include <signal.h>

     int
     kill(pid_t pid, int sig);

DESCRIPTION
     The kill() function sends the signal specified by sig to pid, a process
     or a group of processes.  Typically, Sig will be one of the signals spec-ified specified
     ified in sigaction(2).  A value of 0, however, will cause error checking
     to be performed (with no signal being sent).  This can be used to check
     the validity of pid.

     For a process to have permission to send a signal to a process designated
     by pid, the real or effective user ID of the receiving process must match
     that of the sending process or the user must have appropriate privileges
     (such as given by a set-user-ID program or the user is the super-user).
     A single exception is the signal SIGCONT, which may always be sent to any
     descendant of the current process.

     If pid is greater than zero:
             Sig is sent to the process whose ID is equal to pid.

     If pid is zero:
             Sig is sent to all processes whose group ID is equal to the
             process group ID of the sender, and for which the process has
             permission; this is a variant of killpg(2).

     If pid is -1:
             If the user has super-user privileges, the signal is sent to all
             processes excluding system processes and the process sending the
             signal.  If the user is not the super user, the signal is sent to
             all processes with the same uid as the user, excluding the
             process sending the signal.  No error is returned if any process
             could be signaled.

     For compatibility with System V, if the process number is negative but
     not -1, the signal is sent to all processes whose process group ID is
     equal to the absolute value of the process number.  This is a variant of
     killpg(2).

RETURN VALUES
     Upon successful completion, a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value
     of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS
     Kill() will fail and no signal will be sent if:

     [EINVAL]           Sig is not a valid, supported signal number.

     [EPERM]            The sending process is not the super-user and its
                        effective user id does not match the effective user-id
                        of the receiving process.  When signaling a process
                        group, this error is returned if any members of the
                        group could not be signaled.

     [ESRCH]            No process or process group can be found corresponding
                        to that specified by pid.

     [ESRCH]            The process id was given as 0, but the sending process
                        does not have a process group.

SEE ALSO
     getpgrp(2), getpid(2), killpg(2), sigaction(2)

STANDARDS
     The kill() function is expected to conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988
     (``POSIX.1'').

4th Berkeley Distribution       April 19, 1994       4th Berkeley Distribution
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