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SEND(2)                     BSD System Calls Manual                    SEND(2)

     send, sendmsg, sendto -- send a message from a socket

     #include <sys/socket.h>

     send(int socket, const void *buffer, size_t length, int flags);

     sendmsg(int socket, const struct msghdr *buffer, int flags);

     sendto(int socket, const void *buffer, size_t length, int flags,
         const struct sockaddr *dest_addr, socklen_t dest_len);

     Send(), sendto(), and sendmsg() are used to transmit a message to another
     socket.  Send() may be used only when the socket is in a connected state,
     while sendto() and sendmsg() may be used at any time.

     The address of the target is given by dest_addr with dest_len specifying
     its size.  The length of the message is given by length.  If the message
     is too long to pass atomically through the underlying protocol, the error
     EMSGSIZE is returned, and the message is not transmitted.

     No indication of failure to deliver is implicit in a send().  Locally
     detected errors are indicated by a return value of -1.

     If no messages space is available at the socket to hold the message to be
     transmitted, then send() normally blocks, unless the socket has been
     placed in non-blocking I/O mode.  The select(2) call may be used to
     determine when it is possible to send more data.

     The flags parameter may include one or more of the following:

     #define MSG_OOB        0x1  /* process out-of-band data */
     #define MSG_DONTROUTE  0x4  /* bypass routing, use direct interface */

     The flag MSG_OOB is used to send ``out-of-band'' data on sockets that
     support this notion (e.g.  SOCK_STREAM); the underlying protocol must
     also support ``out-of-band'' data.  MSG_DONTROUTE is usually used only by
     diagnostic or routing programs.

     See recv(2) for a description of the msghdr structure.

     Upon successful completion, the number of bytes which were sent is
     returned.  Otherwise, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set
     to indicate the error.

     The send(), sendmsg(), and sendto() system calls will fail if:

     [EACCES]           The SO_BROADCAST option is not set on the socket and a
                        broadcast address is given as the destination.

     [EAGAIN]           The socket is marked non-blocking and the requested
                        operation would block.

     [EBADF]            An invalid descriptor is specified.

     [ECONNRESET]       A connection is forcibly closed by a peer.

     [EFAULT]           An invalid user space address is specified for a

     [EHOSTUNREACH]     The destination address specifies an unreachable host.

     [EINTR]            A signal interrupts the system call before any data is

     [EMSGSIZE]         The socket requires that message be sent atomically,
                        and the size of the message to be sent makes this

     [ENETDOWN]         The local network interface used to reach the destina-tion destination
                        tion is down.

     [ENETUNREACH]      No route to the network is present.

     [ENOBUFS]          The system is unable to allocate an internal buffer.
                        The operation may succeed when buffers become avail-able. available.

     [ENOBUFS]          The output queue for a network interface is full.
                        This generally indicates that the interface has
                        stopped sending, but may be caused by transient con-gestion. congestion.

     [ENOTSOCK]         The argument socket is not a socket.

     [EOPNOTSUPP]       socket does not support (some of) the option(s) speci-fied specified
                        fied in flags.

     [EPIPE]            The socket is shut down for writing or the socket is
                        connection-mode and is no longer connected.  In the
                        latter case, and if the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM,
                        the SIGPIPE signal is generated to the calling thread.

     The sendmsg() and sendto() system calls will fail if:

     [EAFNOSUPPORT]     Addresses in the specified address family cannot be
                        used with this socket.

     [EDESTADDRREQ]     The socket is not connection-mode and does not have
                        its peer address set, and no destination address is

     [EISCONN]          A destination address was specified and the socket is
                        already connected.

     [ENOENT]           A component of the pathname does not name an existing
                        file or the path name is an empty string.

     [ENOMEM]           Insufficient memory is available to fulfill the

     [ENOTCONN]         The socket is connection-mode, but is not connected.

     [ENOTDIR]          A component of the path prefix of the pathname in the
                        socket address is not a directory.

     The send() system call will fail if:

     [EDESTADDRREQ]     The socket is not connection-mode and no peer address
                        is set.

     [ENOTCONN]         The socket is not connected or otherwise has not had
                        the peer pre-specified.

     The sendmsg() system call will fail if:

     [EINVAL]           The sum of the iov_len values overflows an ssize_t.

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/socket.h>

     The include file <sys/types.h> is necessary.

     fcntl(2), getsockopt(2), recv(2), select(2), socket(2), write(2),

     The send() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution      February 21, 1994     4.2 Berkeley Distribution