At each step in the development of your app, you should consider the implications of your design choices on the overall performance of your app. The operating environment for iOS apps is more constrained than that for Mac OS X apps. The following sections describe the factors you should consider throughout the development process.
Make App Backups More Efficient
Backups occur wirelessly via iCloud or when the user syncs the device with iTunes. During backups, files are transferred from the device to the user’s computer or iCloud account. The location of files in your app sandbox determines whether or not those files are backed up and restored. If your application creates many large files that change regularly and puts them in a location that is backed up, backups could be slowed down as a result. As you write your file-management code, you need to be mindful of this fact.
App Backup Best Practices
You do not have to prepare your app in any way for backup and restore operations. Devices with an active iCloud account have their app data backed up to iCloud at appropriate times. And for devices that are plugged into a computer, iTunes performs an incremental backup of the app’s data files. However, iCloud and iTunes do not back up the contents of the following directories:
To prevent the syncing process from taking a long time, be selective about where you place files inside your app’s home directory. Apps that store large files can slow down the process of backing up to iTunes or iCloud. These apps can also consume a large amount of a user's available storage, which may encourage the user to delete the app or disable backup of that app's data to iCloud. With this in mind, you should store app data according to the following guidelines:
Critical data should be stored in the <Application_Home>
/Documentsdirectory. Critical data is any data that cannot be recreated by your app, such as user documents and other user-generated content.
Support files include files your application downloads or generates and that your application can recreate as needed. The location for storing your application’s support files depends on the current iOS version.
In iOS 5.1 and later, store support files in the <Application_Home>
/Library/Application Supportdirectory and add the
NSURLIsExcludedFromBackupKeyattribute to the corresponding
NSURLobject using the
setResourceValue:forKey:error:method. (If you are using Core Foundation, add the
kCFURLIsExcludedFromBackupKeykey to your
CFURLRefobject using the
CFURLSetResourcePropertyForKeyfunction.) Applying this attribute prevents the files from being backed up to iTunes or iCloud. If you have a large number of support files, you may store them in a custom subdirectory and apply the extended attribute to just the directory.
In iOS 5.0 and earlier, store support files in the <Application_Home>
/Library/Cachesdirectory to prevent them from being backed up. If you are targeting iOS 5.0.1, see How do I prevent files from being backed up to iCloud and iTunes? for information about how to exclude files from backups.
Cached data should be stored in the <Application_Home>
/Library/Cachesdirectory. Examples of files you should put in the
Cachesdirectory include (but are not limited to) database cache files and downloadable content, such as that used by magazine, newspaper, and map apps. Your app should be able to gracefully handle situations where cached data is deleted by the system to free up disk space.
Temporary data should be stored in the <Application_Home>
/tmpdirectory. Temporary data comprises any data that you do not need to persist for an extended period of time. Remember to delete those files when you are done with them so that they do not continue to consume space on the user's device.
Although iTunes backs up the app bundle itself, it does not do this during every sync operation. Apps purchased directly from a device are backed up when that device is next synced with iTunes. Apps are not backed up during subsequent sync operations, though, unless the app bundle itself has changed (because the app was updated, for example).
For additional guidance about how you should use the directories in your app, see File System Programming Guide.
Files Saved During App Updates
When a user downloads an app update, iTunes installs the update in a new app directory. It then moves the user’s data files from the old installation over to the new app directory before deleting the old installation. Files in the following directories are guaranteed to be preserved during the update process:
Although files in other user directories may also be moved over, you should not rely on them being present after an update.
Use Memory Efficiently
Because the iOS virtual memory model does not include disk swap space, apps are more limited in the amount of memory they have available for use. Using large amounts of memory can seriously degrade system performance and potentially cause the system to terminate your app. In addition, apps running under multitasking must share system memory with all other running apps. Therefore, make it a high priority to reduce the amount of memory used by your app.
There is a direct correlation between the amount of free memory available and the relative performance of your app. Less free memory means that the system is more likely to have trouble fulfilling future memory requests. If that happens, the system can always remove suspended apps, code pages, or other nonvolatile resources from memory. However, removing those apps and resources from memory may be only a temporary fix, especially if they are needed again a short time later. Instead, minimize your memory use in the first place, and clean up the memory you do use in a timely manner.
The following sections provide more guidance on how to use memory efficiently and how to respond when there is only a small amount of available memory.
Observe Low-Memory Warnings
When the system dispatches a low-memory warning to your app, respond immediately. iOS notifies all running apps whenever the amount of free memory dips below a safe threshold. (It does not notify suspended apps.) If your app receives this warning, it must free up as much memory as possible. The best way to do this is to remove strong references to caches, image objects, and other data objects that can be recreated later.
UIKit provides several ways to receive low-memory warnings, including the following:
applicationDidReceiveMemoryWarning:method of your app delegate.
didReceiveMemoryWarningmethod in your custom
Upon receiving any of these warnings, your handler method should respond by immediately freeing up any unneeded memory. For example, the default behavior of the
UIViewController class is to purge its view if that view is not currently visible; subclasses can supplement the default behavior by purging additional data structures. An app that maintains a cache of images might respond by releasing any images that are not currently onscreen.
If your data model includes known purgeable resources, you can have a corresponding manager object register for the
UIApplicationDidReceiveMemoryWarningNotification notification and remove strong references to its purgeable resources directly. Handling this notification directly avoids the need to route all memory warning calls through the app delegate.
Reduce Your App’s Memory Footprint
Starting off with a low footprint gives you more room for expanding your app later. Table 7-1 lists some tips on how to reduce your app’s overall memory footprint.
Actions to take
Eliminate memory leaks.
Because memory is a critical resource in iOS, your app should have no memory leaks. You can use the Instruments app to track down leaks in your code, both in Simulator and on actual devices. For more information on using Instruments, see Instruments User Guide.
Make resource files as small as possible.
Files reside on disk but must be loaded into memory before they can be used. Property list files and images can be made smaller with some very simple actions. To reduce the space used by property list files, write those files out in a binary format using the
Use Core Data or SQLite for large data sets.
If your app manipulates large amounts of structured data, store it in a Core Data persistent store or in a SQLite database instead of in a flat file. Both Core Data and SQLite provides efficient ways to manage large data sets without requiring the entire set to be in memory all at once.
The Core Data framework was introduced in iOS 3.0.
Load resources lazily.
You should never load a resource file until it is actually needed. Prefetching resource files may seem like a way to save time, but this practice actually slows down your app right away. In addition, if you end up not using the resource, loading it wastes memory for no good purpose.
Build your program using the Thumb option.
Allocate Memory Wisely
Table 7-2 lists tips for improving memory usage in your app.
Actions to take
Reduce your use of autoreleased objects.
With automatic reference counting (ARC), it is better to alloc/init objects and let the compiler release them for you at the appropriate time. This is true even for temporary objects that in the past you might have autoreleased to prevent them from living past the scope of the current method.
Impose size limits on resources.
Avoid loading a large resource file when a smaller one will do. Instead of using a high-resolution image, use one that is appropriately sized for iOS-based devices. If you must use large resource files, find ways to load only the portion of the file that you need at any given time. For example, rather than load the entire file into memory, use the
Avoid unbounded problem sets.
Unbounded problem sets might require an arbitrarily large amount of data to compute. If the set requires more memory than is available, your app may be unable to complete the calculations. Your apps should avoid such sets whenever possible and work on problems with known memory limits.
For detailed information about ARC and memory management, see Transitioning to ARC Release Notes.
Reduce Power Consumption
Power consumption on mobile devices is always an issue. The power management system in iOS conserves power by shutting down any hardware features that are not currently being used. You can help improve battery life by optimizing your use of the following features:
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and baseband (EDGE, 3G) radios
The Core Location framework
The goal of your optimizations should be to do the most work you can in the most efficient way possible. You should always optimize your app’s algorithms using Instruments. But even the most optimized algorithm can still have a negative impact on a device’s battery life. You should therefore consider the following guidelines when writing your code:
idleTimerDisabledproperty of the shared
UIApplicationobject set to
NOwhenever possible. The idle timer turns off the device’s screen after a specified period of inactivity. If your app does not need the screen to stay on, let the system turn it off. If your app experiences side effects as a result of the screen being turned off, you should modify your code to eliminate the side effects rather than disable the idle timer unnecessarily.
Coalesce work whenever possible to maximize idle time. It generally takes less power to perform a set of calculations all at once than it does to perform them in small chunks over an extended period of time. Doing small bits of work periodically requires waking up the CPU more often and getting it into a state where it can perform your tasks.
Avoid accessing the disk too frequently. For example, if your app saves state information to the disk, do so only when that state information changes, and coalesce changes whenever possible to avoid writing small changes at frequent intervals.
Do not draw to the screen faster than is needed. Drawing is an expensive operation when it comes to power. Do not rely on the hardware to throttle your frame rates. Draw only as many frames as your app actually needs.
If you use the
UIAccelerometerclass to receive regular accelerometer events, disable the delivery of those events when you do not need them. Similarly, set the frequency of event delivery to the smallest value that is suitable for your needs. For more information, see Event Handling Guide for iOS.
The more data you transmit to the network, the more power must be used to run the radios. In fact, accessing the network is the most power-intensive operation you can perform. You can minimize that time by following these guidelines:
Connect to external network servers only when needed, and do not poll those servers.
When you must connect to the network, transmit the smallest amount of data needed to do the job. Use compact data formats, and do not include excess content that simply is ignored.
Transmit data in bursts rather than spreading out transmission packets over time. The system turns off the Wi-Fi and cell radios when it detects a lack of activity. When it transmits data over a longer period of time, your app uses much more power than when it transmits the same amount of data in a shorter amount of time.
When using the
NSURLSessionclass to enqueue multiple upload or download tasks, enqueue those items together rather than waiting for one to finish before starting the next one. The system manages automatically executes queued tasks when it is most efficient to do so.
Connect to the network using the Wi-Fi radios whenever possible. Wi-Fi uses less power and is preferred over cellular radios.
If you use the Core Location framework to gather location data, disable location updates as soon as you can and set the distance filter and accuracy levels to appropriate values. Core Location uses the available GPS, cell, and Wi-Fi networks to determine the user’s location. Although Core Location works hard to minimize the use of these radios, setting the accuracy and filter values gives Core Location the option to turn off hardware altogether in situations where it is not needed. For more information, see Location and Maps Programming Guide.
The Instruments app includes several instruments for gathering power-related information. You can use these instruments to gather general information about power consumption and to gather specific measurements for hardware such as the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth radios, GPS receiver, display, and CPU. You can also enable Energy Diagnostics Logging on a device to gather information. For information about using Instruments to gather power-related data, see Instruments User Guide. For information about how to enable Energy Diagnostics Logging on a device, see Instruments Help.
Move Work off the Main Thread
Be sure to limit the type of work you do on the main thread of your app. The main thread is where your app handles touch events and other user input. To ensure that your app is always responsive to the user, you should never use the main thread to perform long-running or potentially unbounded tasks, such as tasks that access the network. Instead, you should always move those tasks onto background threads. The preferred way to do so is to use Grand Central Dispatch (GCD) or operation objects to perform tasks asynchronously.
Moving tasks into the background leaves your main thread free to continue processing user input, which is especially important when your app is starting up or quitting. During these times, your app is expected to respond to events in a timely manner. If your app’s main thread is blocked at launch time, the system could kill the app before it even finishes launching. If the main thread is blocked at quitting time, the system could similarly kill the app before it has a chance to write out crucial user data.
For more information about using GCD, operation objects, and threads, see Concurrency Programming Guide.
Floating-Point Math Considerations
The processors found in iOS-based devices are capable of performing floating-point calculations in hardware. If you have an existing program that performs calculations using a software-based fixed-point math library, you should consider modifying your code to use floating-point math instead. Hardware-based floating-point computations are typically much faster than their software-based fixed-point equivalents.
In iOS 4 and later, you can also use the functions of the Accelerate framework to perform complex mathematical calculations. This framework contains high-performance vector-accelerated libraries for digital signal processing and linear algebra mathematics. You can apply these libraries to problems involving audio and video processing, physics, statistics, cryptography, and complex algebraic equations.
Tune Your Code
iOS comes with several apps for tuning the performance of your app. Most of these tools run on Mac OS X and are suitable for tuning some aspects of your code while it runs in iOS Simulator. For example, you can use Simulator to eliminate memory leaks and make sure your overall memory usage is as low as possible. You can also remove any computational hotspots in your code that might be caused by an inefficient algorithm or a previously unknown bottleneck.
After you have tuned your code in Simulator, you should then use the Instruments app to further tune your code on a device. Running your code on an actual device is the only way to tune your code fully. Because Simulator runs in Mac OS X, it has the advantage of a faster CPU and more usable memory, so its performance is generally much better than the performance on an actual device. And using Instruments to trace your code on an actual device may point out additional performance bottlenecks that need tuning.
For more information on using Instruments, see Instruments User Guide.
Improve File Access Times
Minimize the amount of data you write to the disk. File operations are relatively slow and involve writing to the flash drive, which has a limited lifespan. Some specific tips to help you minimize file-related operations include:
Write only the portions of the file that changed, and aggregate changes when you can. Avoid writing out the entire file just to change a few bytes.
When defining your file format, group frequently modified content together to minimize the overall number of blocks that need to be written to disk each time.
If your data consists of structured content that is randomly accessed, store it in a Core Data persistent store or a SQLite database, especially if the amount of data you are manipulating could grow to more than a few megabytes.
Avoid writing cache files to disk. The only exception to this rule is when your app quits and you need to write state information that can be used to put your app back into the same state when it is next launched.
Tune Your Networking Code
The networking stack in iOS includes several interfaces for communicating over the radio hardware of iOS devices. The main programming interface is the CFNetwork framework, which builds on top of BSD sockets and opaque types in the Core Foundation framework to communicate with network entities. You can also use the
NSStream classes in the Foundation framework and the low-level BSD sockets found in the Core OS layer of the system.
For information about how to use the CFNetwork framework for network communication, see CFNetwork Programming Guide and CFNetwork Framework Reference. For information about using the
NSStream class, see Foundation Framework Reference.
Tips for Efficient Networking
Implementing code to receive or transmit data across the network is one of the most power-intensive operations on a device. Minimizing the amount of time spent transmitting or receiving data helps improve battery life. To that end, you should consider the following tips when writing your network-related code:
For protocols you control, define your data formats to be as compact as possible.
Avoid using chatty protocols.
Transmit data packets in bursts whenever you can.
Cellular and Wi-Fi radios are designed to power down when there is no activity. Depending on the radio, though, doing so can take several seconds. If your app transmits small bursts of data every few seconds, the radios may stay powered up and continue to consume power, even when they are not actually doing anything. Rather than transmit small amounts of data more often, it is better to transmit a larger amount of data once or at relatively large intervals.
When communicating over the network, packets can be lost at any time. Therefore, when writing your networking code, you should be sure to make it as robust as possible when it comes to failure handling. It is perfectly reasonable to implement handlers that respond to changes in network conditions, but do not be surprised if those handlers are not called consistently. For example, the Bonjour networking callbacks may not always be called immediately in response to the disappearance of a network service. The Bonjour system service immediately invokes browsing callbacks when it receives a notification that a service is going away, but network services can disappear without notification. This situation might occur if the device providing the network service unexpectedly loses network connectivity or the notification is lost in transit.
If your app accesses the network using the Wi-Fi radios, you must notify the system of that fact by including the
UIRequiresPersistentWiFi key in the app’s
Info.plist file. The inclusion of this key lets the system know that it should display the network selection dialog if it detects any active Wi-Fi hot spots. It also lets the system know that it should not attempt to shut down the Wi-Fi hardware while your app is running.
To prevent the Wi-Fi hardware from using too much power, iOS has a built-in timer that turns off the hardware completely after 30 minutes if no running app has requested its use through the
UIRequiresPersistentWiFi key. If the user launches an app that includes the key, iOS effectively disables the timer for the duration of the app’s life cycle. As soon as that app quits or is suspended, however, the system reenables the timer.
For more information on the
UIRequiresPersistentWiFi key and the keys of the
Info.plist file, see “The Information Property List File.”
The Airplane Mode Alert
If your app launches while the device is in airplane mode, the system may display an alert to notify the user of that fact. The system displays this alert only when all of the following conditions are met:
Your app’s information property list (
Info.plist) file contains the
UIRequiresPersistentWiFikey and the value of that key is set to
Your app launches while the device is currently in airplane mode.
Wi-Fi on the device has not been manually reenabled after the switch to airplane mode.