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curl(1)                                          Curl Manual                                         curl(1)



NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is  a  tool  to  transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols (DICT,
       FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S, RTMP, RTSP,  SCP,  SFTP,
       SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without user interaction.

       curl  offers  a  busload  of  useful tricks like proxy support, user authentication, FTP upload, HTTP
       post, SSL connections, cookies, file transfer resume, Metalink, and more. As you will see below,  the
       number of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed description in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You  can  specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be fetched in a sequential manner
       in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess  what  protocol  you  might
       want.  It  will  then default to HTTP but try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.
       For example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not trying to validate it as a  syn-tactically syntactically
       tactically correct URL by any means but is instead very liberal with what it accepts.

       curl  will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so that getting many files from
       the same server will not do multiple connects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of  course  this  is
       only  done  on  files  specified  on  a  single command line and cannot be used between separate curl
       invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the amount of transferred data,
       transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.

       curl  displays  this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl to do an operation and it
       is about to write data to the terminal, it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess  up
       the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If  you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to redirect the response output
       to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit out any response data  to  the
       terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your friend.

OPTIONS
       In  general,  all  boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again disabled with --no-option.
       That is, you use the exact same option name but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly
       only list and show the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options was added in 7.19.0.
       Previously most options were toggled on/off on repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of  the  standard,  more  informa-tional, informational,
              tional, meter.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP)  Forces  curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead of using its internally pre-ferred: preferred:
              ferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -4, --ipv4
              If curl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions  (which  it  is  if  it  is
              IPv6-capable), this option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses only.

       -6, --ipv6
              If  curl  is  capable  of  resolving  an address to multiple IP versions (which it is if it is
              IPv6-capable), this option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append to the target file instead of
              overwriting it. If the file doesn't exist, it will be created.  Note that this flag is ignored
              by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server. Some badly done CGIs fail  if
              this  field  isn't  set  to "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string, surround the string
              with single quote marks. This can also be set with the -H, --header option of course.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use the most  secure  one
              the  remote  site  claims  to  support. This is done by first doing a request and checking the
              response-headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-trip. This is used instead  of
              setting a specific authentication method, which you can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and
              --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you  do  uploads  from  stdin,  since  it  may
              require  data  to be sent twice and then the client must be able to rewind. If the need should
              arise when uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It  is  supposedly  the  data  previously
              received  from  the  server  in  a  "Set-Cookie:"  line.   The  data  should  be in the format
              "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If no '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename to use  to  read  previously
              stored  cookie  lines  from,  which  should  be used in this session if they match. Using this
              method also activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl record  incoming  cookies  too,
              which  may  be  handy  if you're using this in combination with the -L, --location option. The
              file format  of  the  file  to  read  cookies  from  should  be  plain  HTTP  headers  or  the
              Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE  that  the  file  specified  with  -b, --cookie is only used as input. No cookies will be
              stored in the file. To store cookies, use the -c, --cookie-jar option or you could  even  save
              the HTTP headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -B, --use-ascii
              (FTP/LDAP) Enable ASCII transfer. For FTP, this can also be enforced by using an URL that ends
              with ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the default  and  this  option  is
              usually pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option that sets a different
              authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negotiate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
              (HTTP) Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies after a  completed  operation.
              Curl  writes all cookies previously read from a specified file as well as all cookies received
              from remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be  written.  The  file  will  be
              written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you set the file name to a single dash, "-",
              the cookies will be written to stdout.

              This command line option will activate the cookie engine that makes curl record and use  cook-ies. cookies.
              ies. Another way to activate it is to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If  the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl operation won't fail or even
              report an error clearly. Using -v will get a warning displayed, but that is the  only  visible
              feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the last specified file name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume  a  previous  file transfer at the given offset. The given offset is the exact
              number of bytes that will be skipped, counting from the beginning of the source file before it
              is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the FTP server command SIZE will not
              be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to resume the  transfer.  It  then
              uses the given output/input files to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list of ciphers must specify valid
              ciphers.    Read    up     on     SSL     cipher     list     details     on     this     URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS  ciphers  are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The full list of NSS ciphers is in
              the       NSSCipherSuite       entry       at       this        URL:        http://git.fedora-
              hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --compressed
              (HTTP)  Request  a compressed response using one of the algorithms curl supports, and save the
              uncompressed document.  If this option is used and the server sends an  unsupported  encoding,
              curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection to the server to take.  This only limits
              the connection phase, once curl has connected this option is of no more use. See also the  -m,
              --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When  used  in  conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the necessary local directory
              hierarchy as needed. This option creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing  else.
              If  the -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already exist, no dir will be cre-ated. created.
              ated.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS) Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate Revocation List that may spec-ify specify
              ify peer certificates that are to be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP server, in the same way that a
              browser does when a user has filled in an HTML form and presses the submit button.  This  will
              cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type application/x-www-form-urlen-coded. application/x-www-form-urlencoded.
              coded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d, --data is the same as --data-ascii. To post data purely binary, you should instead use the
              --data-binary option. To URL-encode the value of a form field you may use --data-urlencode.

              If any of these options is used more than once on the same command line, the data pieces spec-ified specified
              ified will be merged together with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d  name=daniel  -d
              skill=lousy' would generate a post chunk that looks like 'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file name to read the data from,
              or - if you want curl to read the data from stdin.  The contents of the file must  already  be
              URL-encoded.  Multiple  files  can  also be specified. Posting data from a file named 'foobar'
              would thus be done with --data @foobar.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This option is handy to use when you want to store the headers that an HTTP site sends to you.
              Cookies  from  the  headers  could  then  be read in a second curl invocation by using the -b,
              --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a better way to store cookies.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers"  and  thus  are
              saved there.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.


       --data-ascii <data>
              See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra processing whatsoever.

              If  you  start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a filename.  Data is posted in a
              similar manner as --data-ascii does, except that newlines are preserved  and  conversions  are
              never done.

              If  this  option  is  used  several  times,  the  ones following the first will append data as
              described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with the exception that this  per-forms performs
              forms URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To  be  CGI-compliant,  the <data> part should begin with a name followed by a separator and a
              content specification. The <data> part can be passed to curl using one of the  following  syn-taxes: syntaxes:
              taxes:

              content
                     This  will  make  curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful so that
                     the content doesn't contain any = or @ symbols, as that will then make the syntax match
                     one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding = symbol is
                     not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note  that  the  name
                     part is expected to be URL-encoded already.

              @filename
                     This  will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines), URL-encode
                     that data and pass it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines),  URL-encode
                     that  data  and  pass  it  on  in  the POST. The name part gets an equal sign appended,
                     resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name is expected  to  be  URL-encoded URLencoded
                     encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes to user credentials.
              Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the Kerberos service ticket,
                     which is a matter of realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP)  Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an authentication scheme that prevents the
              password from being sent over the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the  normal
              -u,  --user  option  to set user name and password. See also --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth
              for related options.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing active FTP  trans-fers. transfers.
              fers.  Curl  will  normally always first attempt to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but
              with this option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT are extensions  to  the  original
              FTP  protocol, and may not work on all servers, but they enable more functionality in a better
              way than the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt is an  alias  for  --disable-eprt. --disableeprt.
              eprt.

              Disabling  EPRT  only  changes  the active behavior. If you want to switch to passive mode you
              need to not use -P, --ftp-port or force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPSV command when doing passive FTP transfers.  Curl
              will  normally always first attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option, it will not
              try using EPSV.

              --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv is an  alias  for  --disable-epsv. --disableepsv.
              epsv.

              Disabling  EPSV  only  changes  the passive behavior. If you want to switch to active mode you
              need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP) Sends the "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server. This can also be set with  the
              -H,  --header  flag  of  course.   When used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the
              --referer URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL  when  it  follows  a  Location:
              header. The ";auto" string can be used alone, even if you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL)  Tells curl to use the specified client certificate file when getting a file with HTTPS,
              FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The certificate must be in PEM format.   If  the  optional
              password  isn't  specified,  it  will  be  queried  for on the terminal. Note that this option
              assumes a "certificate" file that is the private key and the private certificate concatenated!
              See --cert and --key to specify them independently.

              If  curl  is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option can tell curl the nickname of
              the certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or
              by default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM
              files may be loaded. If you want to use a file from the current directory, please  precede  it
              with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select  the  OpenSSL  crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use --engine list to print a
              list of build-time supported engines. Note that not all (or none) of the engines may be avail-able available
              able at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC  OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the names the -w option supports,
              to allow easier extraction of useful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The socket is used to seed
              the random engine for SSL connections. See also the --random-file option.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl  what certificate type the provided certificate is in. PEM, DER and ENG are
              recognized types.  If not specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The file  may  con-tain contain
              tain  multiple  CA  certificates.  The  certificate(s) must be in PEM format. Normally curl is
              built to use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to alter  that  default
              file.

              curl  recognizes  the  environment  variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is set, and uses the
              given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option overrides that variable.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look for a CA certs  file  named  'curl-ca-bun-dle.crt', 'curl-ca-bundle.crt',
              dle.crt', either in the same directory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in
              any folder along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library, the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module (libnsspem.so)  needs
              to be available for this option to work properly.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate directory to verify the peer. Multiple paths
              can be provided by separating them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
              be in PEM format, and if curl is built against OpenSSL, the directory must have been processed
              using the c_rehash utility supplied with OpenSSL. Using  --capath  can  allow  OpenSSL-powered
              curl  to  make  SSL-connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the --cacert file
              contains many CA certificates.

              If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored, and if  it  is  used  several
              times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This is mostly done to better enable
              scripts etc to better deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP server fails  to
              deliver a document, it returns an HTML document stating so (which often also describes why and
              more). This flag will prevent curl from outputting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-successful response codes  will
              slip through, especially when authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP)  This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the submit button.
              This causes curl to POST data using the  Content-Type  multipart/form-data  according  to  RFC
              2388.  This  enables  uploading of binary files etc. To force the 'content' part to be a file,
              prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the file
              name  with  the  symbol  <.  The  difference  between  @ and < is then that @ makes a file get
              attached in the post as a file upload, while the < makes a text field and just  get  the  con-
              tents for that text field from a file.

              Example,  to  send your password file to the server, where 'password' is the name of the form-field formfield
              field to which /etc/passwd will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the filename. This goes for both @  and
              < constructs.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=', in a manner similar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a file upload part by setting filename=, like
              this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              If filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by double-quotes like:

              curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com

              or

              curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com

              Note that if a filename/path is quoted by double-quotes, any double-quote or backslash  within
              the filename must be escaped by backslash.

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP)  When  an  FTP server asks for "account data" after user name and password has been pro-
              vided, this data is sent off using the ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails, send this command.   When  con-necting connecting
              necting  to  Tumbleweed's  Secure Transport server over FTPS using a client certificate, using
              "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the username  from  the  certificate.  (Added  in
              7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't currently exist on the
              server, the standard behavior of curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt
              to create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP)  Control  what  method  curl  should use to reach a file on an FTP(S) server. The method
              argument should be one of the following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the given URL. For deep  hierar-chies hierarchies
                     chies  this means very many commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it should be done. This
                     is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and give a full path to  the
                     server for all these commands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl  does  one  CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the file "nor-mally" "normally"
                     mally" (like in the multicwd case). This is  somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
                     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the internal default behavior, but
              using this option can be used to override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. Undoing an enforced  passive
              really isn't doable but you must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive  mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and then PASV, unless --disable-epsv --disableepsv
              epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in its response to  curl's  PASV
              command  when  curl connects the data connection. Instead curl will re-use the same IP address
              it already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV).  Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly
              drftpd,  require  this non-standard command for directory listings as well as up and downloads
              in PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer after  authenticating.  The
              rest of the control channel communication will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol-low follow
              low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other  modes.
              (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will not initiate
              the shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not  reply  to  the  shutdown
              from the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for a reply from the server.
              (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.   Allows  secure  authentication,
              but  non-encrypted  data  transfers  for efficiency.  Fails the transfer if the server doesn't
              support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but will be  removed  in  a  future
              version.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP)  Similar  to --form except that the value string for the named parameter is used liter-ally. literally.
              ally. Leading '@' and '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the  value  have  no  special
              meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility that the string value may
              accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set this option, you can  specify
              URLs  that contain the letters {}[] without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note
              that these letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should be encoded  according  to
              the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When  used,  this  option  will make all data specified with -d, --data or --data-binary to be
              used in an HTTP GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would be used. The data
              will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If  used in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be appended to the URL with a HEAD
              request.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. This is  because  undoing  a
              GET doesn't make sense, but you should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
              (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may specify any number of extra  head-ers. headers.
              ers. Note that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as one of the internal
              ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used instead of the internal one. This
              allows  you  to  make  even trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not replace
              internally set headers without knowing perfectly well what you're doing.  Remove  an  internal
              header  by  giving  a  replacement  without  content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H
              "Host:". If you send the custom header with no-value then its header must be terminated with a
              semicolon, such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl  will  make  sure  that  each  header you add/replace is sent with the proper end-of-line
              marker, you should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do not add  newlines  or
              carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              (SCP/SFTP)  Pass  a  string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be the 128 bit
              MD5 checksum of the remote host's public key, curl will refuse the connection  with  the  host
              unless the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length  header.  This  is particularly useful for servers running
              Apache 1.x, which will report incorrect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
              (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header  includes  things  like  server-name, servername,
              name, date of the document, HTTP-version and more...

       -I, --head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE)  Fetch  the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this
              uses to get nothing but the header of a document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl  dis-plays displays
              plays the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
              Perform  an operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name, IP address or
              host name. An example could look like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option will make  it  discard
              all  "session  cookies".  This  will  basically  have  the  same effect as if a new session is
              started. Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the server-specified Content-Dis-position Content-Disposition
              position filename instead of extracting a filename from the URL.

       -k, --insecure
              (SSL)  This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections and transfers.
              All SSL connections are attempted to be  made  secure  by  using  the  CA  certificate  bundle
              installed by default. This makes all connections considered "insecure" fail unless -k, --inse-cure --insecure
              cure is used.

              See this online resource for further details: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
              Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The config file is a text file in which
              command  line  arguments can be written which then will be used as if they were written on the
              actual command line. Options and their parameters must be specified on the  same  config  file
              line, separated by whitespace, colon, the equals sign or any combination thereof (however, the
              preferred separator is the equals sign). If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the param-eter parameter
              eter  must be enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are
              available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter  is  ignored.  If
              the  first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will be treated as
              a comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need to  specify  it  using  the
              --url  option, and not by simply writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to
              this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long option names can optionally be given in  the  config  file  without  the  initial  double
              dashes.

              When  curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a default config file and uses
              it if found. The default config file is checked for in the following places in this order:

              1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the  CURL_HOME  and  then  the  HOME
              environment  variables.  Failing  that, it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like systems (which returns
              the home dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then checks for  the  APP-DATA APPDATA
              DATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USERPROFILE%\Application Data'.

              2)  On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks for one in the same dir
              the curl executable is placed. On UNIX-like systems, it will simply try to load  .curlrc  from
              the determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---# --#
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---This --This

              This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the time a connection needs to remain idle before sending keepalive probes
              and the time between individual keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating  sys-tems systems
              tems  offering  the  TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options (meaning Linux, recent AIX,
              HP-UX and more). This option has no effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. If  unspecified,  the  option
              defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your private key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key provided private key is. DER,  PEM,
              and ENG are supported. If not specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP)  Enable  Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and should be one of
              'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or 'private'. Should you use a  level  that  is  not  one  of
              these, 'private' will instead be used.

              This option requires a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI (GSS-Negotiate) support. This is
              not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-only view.   Especially  useful
              if  you want to machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since the normal directory view
              doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This option causes an FTP NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP servers list only files in  their
              response to NLST; they do not include subdirectories and symbolic links.


       -L, --location
              (HTTP/HTTPS)  If  the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different location
              (indicated with a Location: header and a 3XX response code), this option will make  curl  redo
              the  request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or -I, --head, headers from
              all requested pages will be shown. When authentication is used, curl only  sends  its  creden-tials credentials
              tials  to  the initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it won't be able to
              intercept the user+password. See also --location-trusted on how to change this. You can  limit
              the amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When  curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for example POST or PUT), it
              will do the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302,  or  303.  If  the
              response  code  was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the following request using the same
              unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and  you  will  get  a  libcurl-using  C
              source  code  written to the file that does the equivalent of what your command-line operation
              does!

              If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify  the  maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This feature is useful if you have a
              limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire bandwidth.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended.   Appending  'k'  or
              'K'  will  count the number as kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes
              it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The given rate is the average speed counted during the entire transfer.  It  means  that  curl
              might use higher transfer speeds in short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given
              rate.

              If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence and might crip-ple cripple
              ple the rate-limiting slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s).  Note that
              port numbers by nature are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this  range
              to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all hosts that
              the site may redirect to. This may or may not introduce a security breach if  the  site  redi-rects redirects
              rects  you  to a site to which you'll send your authentication info (which is plaintext in the
              case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take.  This is useful  for  pre-venting preventing
              venting  your batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow networks or links going down.  See
              also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be  used  to  specify  the  authentication  address
              (identity) of a submitted message that is being relayed to another server.

              (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify  the  maximum  size  (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is larger
              than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63.

              NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for such files this option  has
              no  effect even if the file transfer ends up being larger than this given limit. This concerns
              both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent to.  This  option  can  be
              used multiple times to specify many recipients.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set  maximum  number of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --location is used, this option
              can be used to prevent curl from following redirections "in absurdum". By default,  the  limit
              is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limitless.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --metalink
              This  option  can  tell curl to parse and process a given URI as Metalink file (both version 3
              and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported) and make use of the mirrors  listed  within  for  failover  if
              there  are  errors  (such  as the file or server not being available). It will also verify the
              hash of the file after the download completes. The Metalink file itself is downloaded and pro-cessed processed
              cessed in memory and not stored in the local file system.

              Example to use a remote Metalink file:

              curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink

              To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE protocol (file://):

              curl --metalink file://example.metalink

              Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to use a local Metalink file at
              the time of this writing. Also note that  if  --metalink  and  --include  are  used  together,
              --include  will  be ignored. This is because including headers in the response will break Met-alink Metalink
              alink parser and if the headers are included in the file  described  in  Metalink  file,  hash
              check will fail.

              (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.)

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the  .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory for login
              name and password. This is typically used for FTP on UNIX. If used with HTTP, curl will enable
              user authentication. See ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not complain if that
              file doesn't have the right permissions (it should not be either  world-  or  group-readable).
              The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A  quick  and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl to FTP to the machine
              host.domain.com with user name 'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work situations, curl will use a  stan-dard standard
              dard  buffered output stream that will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks,
              not necessarily exactly when the data arrives.  Using this option will disable that buffering.

              Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to enforce the
              buffering.

       --netrc-file
              This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the path (absolute or relative)  to
              the  netrc  file that Curl should use.  You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If
              several --netrc-file options are provided, only the last one will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

              This option overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive.  It will  also  abide
              by --netrc-optional if specified.


       --netrc-optional
              Very  similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage optional and not mandatory as
              the --netrc option does.


       --negotiate
              (HTTP)  Enables  GSS-Negotiate  authentication.  The  GSS-Negotiate  method  was  designed  by
              Microsoft  and  is used in their web applications. It is primarily meant as a support for Ker-beros5 Kerberos5
              beros5 authentication but may be also used along with another authentication method. For  more
              information see IETF draft draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-negotiate.

              This  option  requires  a  library built with GSSAPI support. This is not very common. Use -V,
              --version to see if your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to activate the authen-tication authentication
              tication  code  properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user name and password from the -u
              option aren't actually used.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as by default curl enables them.

              Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive to enforce
              keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default all transfers are  done  using
              the  cache.  Note  that while nothing should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, sessionIDs,
              IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may require you  to  disable
              this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0)

              Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid to enforce
              session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is specified.  The  only  wild-card wildcard
              card  is  a  single  * character, which matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy.
              Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which contains the hostname, or the host-name hostname
              name  itself.  For  example, local.com would match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com,
              but not www.notlocal.com.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed  by  Microsoft
              and  is  used  by  IIS web servers. It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever
              people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of  behavior  should  not  be
              endorsed,  you  should  encourage  everyone who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented
              authentication method instead, such as Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see if  your  curl
              supports NTLM.

              If this option is used several times, only the first one is used.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write  output  to  <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multiple docu-ments, documents,
              ments, you can use '#' followed by a number in the <file> specifier.  That  variable  will  be
              replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

              See  also the --create-dirs option to create the local directories dynamically. Specifying the
              output as '-' (a single dash) will force the output to be done to stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the  file  part  of  the
              remote file is used, the path is cut off.)

              The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing else.

              Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working directory. If you want the file
              saved in a different directory, make sure you change  current  working  directory  before  you
              invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols to attempt
              to tunnel through the proxy instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The  tunnel
              approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the proxy allows direct
              connect to the remote port number curl wants to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when  connecting  with  FTP.  This  switch
              makes  curl  use  active  mode. In practice, curl then tells the server to connect back to the
              client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an IP address
              and port for it to connect to. <address> should be one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want to use (Unix only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control connection

       If  this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. --ftppasv.
       pasv. Disable the attempt to use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using  --disable-eprt.  EPRT  is
       really PORT++.

       Starting  in  7.19.5,  you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to tell curl what
       TCP port range to use. That means you specify a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single
       number  works  as  well,  but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the port may not be
       available.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into  GET  requests
              when following a 301 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl
              does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server may require  a  POST
              to  remain  a  POST  after  such  a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L,
              --location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
              (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 2616/10.3.2 and not convert POST requests into  GET  requests
              when following a 302 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl
              does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server may require  a  POST
              to  remain  a  POST  after  such  a redirection. This option is meaningful only when using -L,
              --location (Added in 7.19.1)

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left
              to  right,  are comma separated, and are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally prefixed by
              zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permitted (this is the default if  no
                 modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted.

              =  Permit  only  this  protocol (ignoring the list already permitted), though subject to later
                 modification by subsequent entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely on being able to  dis-able disable
              able  potentially  dangerous  protocols,  without relying upon support for that protocol being
              built into curl to avoid an error.

              This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as  concatenating
              the protocols into one instance of the option.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells  curl  to  use  the listed protocols after a redirect. See --proto for how protocols are
              represented.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when communicating with the  given  proxy.
              This might cause an extra request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Basic  authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use
              --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic is the default authentication method
              curl uses with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Digest authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use
              --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicating with the given  proxy.  Use
              --negotiate for enabling HTTP Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --ntlm
              for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed  at  port
              1080.

              The  only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy), is that attempts to
              use CONNECT through the proxy will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of  the  default  HTTP
              1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If  used  as  the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not be read
              and used. See the -K, --config for details on the default config file search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote commands are sent
              BEFORE  the transfer takes place (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be
              exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer, prefix them with a dash  '-'.
              To  make commands be sent after curl has changed the working directory, just before the trans-fer transfer
              fer command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is only supported for FTP). You may  spec-ify specify
              ify  any number of commands. If the server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire
              operation will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959 defines
              to  FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to SFTP servers.  This option can be used
              multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the command with  an  asterisk  (*)  to
              make curl continue even if the command fails as by default curl will stop at first failure.

              SFTP  is  a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP quote commands itself before
              sending them to the server.  File names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces  or  special
              characters.  Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote commands:

              chgrp group file
                     The  chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to the group
                     ID specified by the group operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the specified file. The  mode  operand
                     is an octal integer mode number.

              chown user file
                     The  chown  command sets the owner of the file named by the file operand to the user ID
                     specified by the user operand. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file location pointing
                     to the source_file location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand.

              pwd    The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current working directory.

              rename source target
                     The  rename  command  renames  the file or directory named by the source operand to the
                     destination path named by the target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file operand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory operand,  pro-vided provided
                     vided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE)  Retrieve  a  byte range (i.e a partial document) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or
              SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges can be specified in a number of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop' range syn-tax. syntax.
       tax.  If  a  non-digit  character  is  given in the range, the server's response will be unspecified,
       depending on the server's configuration.

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature enabled,  so  that  when
       you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get the whole document.

       FTP  and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syntax (optionally with one of the
       numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
              When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the timestamp of the remote file, and  if
              that is available make the local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL)  Specify  the  path  name to file containing what will be considered as random data. The
              data is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections.  See also the --egd-file option.

       --raw  (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or transfer encodings  and
              instead makes them passed on unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as if -O, --remote-name --remotename
              name were used for each one. So if you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name-all --remotename-all
              name-all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name. (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
              Provide  a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can make the curl
              requests(s) use a specified address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to  be
              used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the command line. The port num-ber number
              ber should be the number used for the specific protocol the host will be used  for.  It  means
              you need several entries if you want to provide address for the same host but different ports.

              This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve.

              (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a transfer,  it  will  retry  this
              number  of  times before giving up. Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is
              the default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx response code or an HTTP 5xx
              response code.

              When  curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for all forth-coming forthcoming
              coming retries it will double the waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will  be
              the  delay  between the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-delay you disable this exponen-tial exponential
              tial backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries.
              (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make  curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed with a tran-sient transient
              sient error (it changes the default backoff time algorithm between retries).  This  option  is
              only  interesting  if  --retry is also used. Setting this delay to zero will make curl use the
              default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as usual (see
              --retry) as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't
              reached the limit, the request will be made and while performing, it may take longer than this
              given  time  period.  To  limit a single request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this
              option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -s, --silent
              Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error messages.  Makes Curl mute.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Reverts to a  non-secure  con-nection connection
              nection  if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for
              different levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can  still  be
              used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP,  POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Terminates the connection if the
              server doesn't support SSL/TLS. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in 7.15.5). That option name can still
              be used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              (SSL)  This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 proto-cols protocols
              cols known as BEAST.  If this option isn't used, the SSL layer may use work-arounds  known  to
              cause  interoperability  problems  with  some  older SSL implementations. WARNING: this option
              loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it  is  assumed  at  port
              1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy
              using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is  assumed  at  port
              1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this  option  is  superfluous  since  you can specify a socks4a proxy with -x,
              --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the  port  number
              is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this  option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname proxy with
              -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option  was  previously
              wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use  the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port number is not
              specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy
              using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              If  this  option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously
              wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This  option  allows  you  to
              change it.

              Examples:   --socks5  proxy-name  --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd  would  use  sockd/proxy-name
              --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd/real-name  would  use  sockd/real-name  for
              cases where the proxy-name does not match the principal name.  (Added in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As  part  of  the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negotiated. RFC 1961 says in section
              4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the NEC reference implementation  does  not.   The  option
              --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the protection mode negotiation. (Added
              in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is a plain  '-',
              it is instead written to stdout.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This  transfers  the  specified  local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part in the
              specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. NOTE that you must use a  trailing  /  on
              the  last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or curl will think that
              your last directory name is the remote file name to use.  That  will  most  likely  cause  the
              upload  operation to fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file.  Alternately,  the
              file  name  "." (a single period) may be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking
              mode to allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded.

              You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair specifies what  to
              upload  and  to  where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can
              upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style  supported  in  the
              URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn  on  the  TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man page for details about this
              option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl  will  try  to
              use when transferring data to or from a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
              Set  TLS  authentication type. Currently, the only supported option is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC
              5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option
              defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
              Set username for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires
              that --tlspassword also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
              Set password for use with the TLS authentication method specified with --tlsauthtype. Requires
              that --tlsuser also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP)  Request  a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the algorithms curl sup-ports, supports,
              ports, and uncompress the data while receiving it.

              (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,  including  descriptive  informa-tion, information,
              tion, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables  a  full  trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive informa-tion, information,
              tion, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only shows the ASCII part  of
              the dump. It makes smaller output that might be easier to read for untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays.  (Added in 7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for server authentication. Overrides -n, --netrc and
              --netrc-optional.

              If you just give the user name (without entering a colon) curl will prompt for a password.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force curl to  pick
              up  the  user name and password from your environment by simply specifying a single colon with
              this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication.

              If you use an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force curl to  pick
              up  the  user name and password from your environment by simply specifying a single colon with
              this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s) in a  con-fig config
              fig file.

              This option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is written, use the -o,
              --output or the -O, --remote-name options.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes the fetching more verbose/talkative. Mostly useful for debugging. A line  starting  with
              '>'  means "header data" sent by curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden
              in normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl.

              Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output,  -i,  --include  might  be  the  option
              you're looking for.

              If  you  think  this  option  still doesn't give you enough details, consider using --trace or
              --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and successful operation. The format is  a
              string that may contain plain text mixed with any number of variables. The string can be spec-ified specified
              ified as "string", to get read from a particular file you specify it "@filename" and  to  tell
              curl to read the format from stdin you write "@-".

              The  variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text that curl
              thinks fit, as described below. All variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to  output
              a  normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by using \n, a carriage return
              with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment, where all  occurrences  of  %
              must be doubled when using this option.

              The variables available are:

              content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any.

              filename_effective
                             The  ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaningful if curl
                             is told to write to a file with the --remote-name or --output option. It's most
                             useful in combination with the --remote-header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

              ftp_entry_path The  initial  path  curl  ended up in when logging on to the remote FTP server.
                             (Added in 7.15.4)

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found in the  last  retrieved  HTTP(S)  or
                             FTP(s)  transfer.  In 7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to show the same
                             info.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was found in the last response (from a proxy) to a curl
                             CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              local_ip       The  IP  address of the local end of the most recently done connection - can be
                             either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

              local_port     The local port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              num_connects   Number of new connects made in the recent transfer. (Added in 7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number of redirects that were followed in the request. (Added in 7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When an HTTP request was made without -L to  follow  redirects,  this  variable
                             will show the actual URL a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2)

              remote_ip      The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4
                             or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0)

              remote_port    The remote port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0)

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete download.  Bytes
                             per second.

              speed_upload   The  average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload. Bytes per
                             second.

              ssl_verify_result
                             The result of the SSL peer certificate verification that was requested. 0 means
                             the verification was successful. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_appconnect
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took  from  the  start until the SSL/SSH/etc con-nect/handshake connect/handshake
                             nect/handshake to the remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0)

              time_connect   The time, in seconds, it took from the start  until  the  TCP  connect  to  the
                             remote host (or proxy) was completed.

              time_namelookup
                             The  time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolving was com-pleted. completed.
                             pleted.

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer  was  just
                             about  to  begin. This includes all pre-transfer commands and negotiations that
                             are specific to the particular protocol(s) involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps  include  name  lookup,
                             connect,  pretransfer  and  transfer  before the final transaction was started.
                             time_redirect shows the complete  execution  time  for  multiple  redirections.
                             (Added in 7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The  time,  in  seconds,  it  took from the start until the first byte was just
                             about to be transferred. This includes time_pretransfer and also the  time  the
                             server needed to calculate the result.

              time_total     The  total  time,  in seconds, that the full operation lasted. The time will be
                             displayed with millisecond resolution.

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is most meaningful if you've told  curl  to
                             follow location: headers.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use. If there's  an
              environment variable setting a proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it.

              All  operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will transparently be converted to HTTP.
              It means that certain protocol specific operations might not be available.  This  is  not  the
              case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --proxytunnel option.

              User  and  password  that  might be provided in the proxy string are URL decoded by curl. This
              allows you to pass in special characters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a.

              The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy environment variables, includ-ing including
              ing the protocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password.

              From  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alterna-tive alternative
              tive proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request  the  spe-cific specific
              cific  SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others will be treated
              as HTTP proxies.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicating with the HTTP server.   The
              specified  request  will be used instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to GET).
              Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explanations. Common additional HTTP  requests
              include  PUT  and DELETE, but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and
              more.

              Normally you don't need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST and PUT requests are  rather
              invoked by using dedicated command line options.

              This  option  only changes the actual word used in the HTTP request, it does not alter the way
              curl behaves. So for example if you want to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will not
              suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option.

              (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists with FTP.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.


       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store certain file metadata in extened
              file attributes. Currently, the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and,  for  HTTP,
              the  content  type  is  stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file system does not support
              extended attributes, a warning is issued.


       -y, --speed-time <time>
              If a download is slower than speed-limit bytes per second  during  a  speed-time  period,  the
              download  gets  aborted.  If  speed-time is used, the default speed-limit will be 1 unless set
              with -Y.

              This option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow connects etc. If this is  a  con-cern concern
              cern for you, try the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If  a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per second) for speed-time seconds it
              gets aborted. speed-time is set with -y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>|<file>
              (HTTP/FTP) Request a file that has been modified later than the given time and  date,  or  one
              that  has  been  modified  before  that  time.  The <date expression> can be all sorts of date
              strings or if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as a filename and tries  to  get
              the  modification date (mtime) from <file> instead. See the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date
              expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a document that is older than
              the given date/time, default is a document that is newer than the specified date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
              Usage help.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The first line includes the full version of curl, libcurl and other 3rd party libraries linked
              with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols that libcurl  reports  to  sup-port. support.
              port.

              The  third  line  (starts  with "Features:") shows specific features libcurl reports to offer.
              Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables more error-tracking and  memory
                     debugging etc. For curl-developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI  is  supported.  If you use NTLM and set a blank user name, curl will authenticate
                     with your current user and password.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported for TLS.

              Metalink
                     This curl supports Metalink (both version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854)), which describes  mirrors
                     and  hashes.   curl will use mirrors for failover if there are errors (such as the file
                     or server not being available).

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper case. The lower  case  version  has
       precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it is only available in lower case.

       Using an environment variable to set the proxy has the same effect as using the --proxy option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets  the  proxy  server to use for [url-protocol], where the protocol is a protocol that curl
              supports and as specified in a URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to  a  asterisk  '*'  only,  it
              matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl  version  7.21.7,  the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify
       alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't match a supported  one,  the
       proxy will be treated as an HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There  are  a  bunch  of different error codes and their corresponding error messages that may appear
       during bad conditions. At the time of this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request  was  not  enabled  or  was
              explicitly  disabled  at  build-time.  To make curl able to do this, you probably need another
              build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login or denied access  to  the  particular  resource  or
              directory  you  wanted  to  reach.  Most often you tried to change to a directory that doesn't
              exist on the server.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the 227-line.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or returned another  error  with  the
              HTTP error code being 400 or above. This return code only appears if -f, --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation, used for FTP uploading.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation timeout. The specified time-out period was reached according to the conditions.

       30     FTP  PORT  failed.  The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers support the PORT command, try
              doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP couldn't use REST. The REST command failed. This command is used for  resumed  FTP  trans-fers. transfers.
              fers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum amount.

       48     Unknown  option  specified  to  libcurl. This indicates that you passed a weird option to curl
              that was passed on to libcurl and rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format (added in 7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       XX     More error codes will appear here in future releases. The existing ones  are  meant  to  never
              change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel  Stenberg  is  the  main  author,  but the whole list of contributors is found in the separate
       THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1)



Curl 7.27.0                                     27 July 2012                                         curl(1)

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