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DC(1)                                                                                                  DC(1)



NAME
       dc - an arbitrary precision calculator

SYNOPSIS
       dc [-V] [--version] [-h] [--help]
          [-e scriptexpression] [--expression=scriptexpression]
          [-f scriptfile] [--file=scriptfile]
          [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       Dc is a reverse-polish desk calculator which supports unlimited precision arithmetic.  It also allows
       you to define and call macros.  Normally dc reads from the standard input; if any  command  arguments
       are given to it, they are filenames, and dc reads and executes the contents of the files before read-ing reading
       ing from standard input.  All normal output is to standard output; all error output  is  to  standard
       error.

       A  reverse-polish  calculator  stores  numbers on a stack.  Entering a number pushes it on the stack.
       Arithmetic operations pop arguments off the stack and push the results.

       To enter a number in dc, type the digits with an optional decimal point.  Exponential notation is not
       supported.   To enter a negative number, begin the number with ``_''.  ``-'' cannot be used for this,
       as it is a binary operator for subtraction instead.  To enter two  numbers  in  succession,  separate
       them with spaces or newlines.  These have no meaning as commands.

OPTIONS
       Dc may be invoked with the following command-line options:

       -V

       --version
              Print out the version of dc that is being run and a copyright notice, then exit.

       -h

       --help Print  a  usage  message  briefly summarizing these command-line options and the bug-reporting
              address, then exit.

       -e script

       --expression=script
              Add the commands in script to the set of commands to be run while processing the input.

       -f script-file

       --file=script-file
              Add the commands contained in the file script-file to the set of commands to be run while pro-cessing processing
              cessing the input.

       If any command-line parameters remain after processing the above, these parameters are interpreted as
       the names of input files to be processed.  A file name of - refers to the standard input stream.  The
       standard input will processed if no file names are specified.

Printing Commands
       p      Prints  the  value  on the top of the stack, without altering the stack.  A newline is printed
              after the value.

       n      Prints the value on the top of the stack, popping it off, and does not print a newline  after.

       P      Pops  off  the  value  on top of the stack.  If it it a string, it is simply printed without a
              trailing newline.  Otherwise it is a number, and the integer portion of its absolute value  is
              printed  out as a "base (UCHAR_MAX+1)" byte stream.  Assuming that (UCHAR_MAX+1) is 256 (as it
              is on most machines with 8-bit bytes), the sequence KSK  0k1/  [_1*]sx  d0>x  [256~aPd0<x]dsxx
              sxLKk could also accomplish this function, except for the side-effect of clobbering the x reg-
              ister.

       f      Prints the entire contents of the stack without altering anything.  This is a good command  to
              use if you are lost or want to figure out what the effect of some command has been.

Arithmetic
       +      Pops  two values off the stack, adds them, and pushes the result.  The precision of the result
              is determined only by the values of the arguments, and is enough to be exact.

       -      Pops two values, subtracts the first one popped from the second one  popped,  and  pushes  the
              result.

       *      Pops two values, multiplies them, and pushes the result.  The number of fraction digits in the
              result depends on the current precision value and the number of fraction  digits  in  the  two
              arguments.

       /      Pops  two  values,  divides  the  second  one popped from the first one popped, and pushes the
              result.  The number of fraction digits is specified by the precision value.

       %      Pops two values, computes the remainder of the division that  the  /  command  would  do,  and
              pushes that.  The value computed is the same as that computed by the sequence Sd dld/ Ld*- .

       ~      Pops  two  values,  divides  the second one popped from the first one popped.  The quotient is
              pushed first, and the remainder is pushed next.  The number of fraction  digits  used  in  the
              division  is  specified  by  the  precision  value.  (The sequence SdSn lnld/ LnLd% could also
              accomplish this function, with slightly different error checking.)

       ^      Pops two values and exponentiates, using the first value popped as the exponent and the second
              popped as the base.  The fraction part of the exponent is ignored.  The precision value speci-fies specifies
              fies the number of fraction digits in the result.

       |      Pops three values and computes a modular exponentiation.  The first value popped  is  used  as
              the  reduction  modulus;  this value must be a non-zero number, and should be an integer.  The
              second popped is used as the exponent; this value must be a non-negative number, and any frac-tional fractional
              tional  part  of this exponent will be ignored.  The third value popped is the base which gets
              exponentiated, which should be an integer.  For small  integers  this  is  like  the  sequence
              Sm^Lm%, but, unlike ^, this command will work with arbitrarily large exponents.

       v      Pops  one value, computes its square root, and pushes that.  The precision value specifies the
              number of fraction digits in the result.

       Most arithmetic operations are affected by the ``precision value'', which you can set with the k com-mand. command.
       mand.   The  default precision value is zero, which means that all arithmetic except for addition and
       subtraction produces integer results.

Stack Control
       c      Clears the stack, rendering it empty.

       d      Duplicates the value on the top of the stack, pushing another copy of it.  Thus, ``4d*p'' com-putes computes
              putes 4 squared and prints it.

       r      Reverses the order of (swaps) the top two values on the stack.

Registers
       Dc  provides at least 256 memory registers, each named by a single character.  You can store a number
       or a string in a register and retrieve it later.

       sr     Pop the value off the top of the stack and store it into register r.

       lr     Copy the value in register r and push it onto the stack.  This does not alter the contents  of
              r.

       Each  register  also contains its own stack.  The current register value is the top of the register's
       stack.

       Sr     Pop the value off the top of the (main) stack and push it onto the stack of register  r.   The
              previous value of the register becomes inaccessible.

       Lr     Pop the value off the top of register r's stack and push it onto the main stack.  The previous
              value in register r's stack, if any, is now accessible via the lr command.

Parameters
       Dc has three parameters that control its operation: the precision, the input radix,  and  the  output
       radix.   The  precision  specifies the number of fraction digits to keep in the result of most arith-metic arithmetic
       metic operations.  The input radix controls the interpretation of numbers typed in; all numbers typed
       in use this radix.  The output radix is used for printing numbers.

       The  input and output radices are separate parameters; you can make them unequal, which can be useful
       or confusing.  The input radix must be between 2 and 16 inclusive.  The output radix must be at least
       2.   The  precision  must  be  zero  or greater.  The precision is always measured in decimal digits,
       regardless of the current input or output radix.

       i      Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the input radix.

       o      Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the output radix.

       k      Pops the value off the top of the stack and uses it to set the precision.

       I      Pushes the current input radix on the stack.

       O      Pushes the current output radix on the stack.

       K      Pushes the current precision on the stack.

Strings
       Dc can operate on strings as well as on numbers.  The only things you can do with strings  are  print
       them and execute them as macros (which means that the contents of the string are processed as dc com-mands). commands).
       mands).  All registers and the stack can hold strings, and dc always knows whether any  given  object
       is a string or a number.  Some commands such as arithmetic operations demand numbers as arguments and
       print errors if given strings.  Other commands can accept either a number or a string;  for  example,
       the p command can accept either and prints the object according to its type.

       [characters]
              Makes  a  string  containing  characters  (contained between balanced [ and ] characters), and
              pushes it on the stack.  For example, [foo]P prints the characters foo (with no newline).

       a      The top-of-stack is popped.  If it was a number, then the low-order byte  of  this  number  is
              converted  into  a string and pushed onto the stack.  Otherwise the top-of-stack was a string,
              and the first character of that string is pushed back.

       x      Pops a value off the stack and executes it as a macro.  Normally it should be a string; if  it
              is  a  number, it is simply pushed back onto the stack.  For example, [1p]x executes the macro
              1p which pushes 1 on the stack and prints 1 on a separate line.

       Macros are most often stored in registers; [1p]sa stores a macro to print 1 into register a, and  lax
       invokes this macro.

       >r     Pops  two values off the stack and compares them assuming they are numbers, executing the con-tents contents
              tents of register r as a macro if the original top-of-stack is  greater.   Thus,  1  2>a  will
              invoke register a's contents and 2 1>a will not.

       !>r    Similar  but  invokes the macro if the original top-of-stack is not greater than (less than or
              equal to) what was the second-to-top.

       <r     Similar but invokes the macro if the original top-of-stack is less.

       !<r    Similar but invokes the macro if the original top-of-stack is not less than (greater  than  or
              equal to) what was the second-to-top.

       =r     Similar but invokes the macro if the two numbers popped are equal.

       !=r    Similar but invokes the macro if the two numbers popped are not equal.

       ?      Reads  a line from the terminal and executes it.  This command allows a macro to request input
              from the user.

       q      exits from a macro and also from the macro which invoked it.  If called from the top level, or
              from  a  macro  which  was  called directly from the top level, the q command will cause dc to
              exit.

       Q      Pops a value off the stack and uses it as a count of levels of macro execution to  be  exited.
              Thus, 3Q exits three levels.  The Q command will never cause dc to exit.

Status Inquiry
       Z      Pops  a  value off the stack, calculates the number of digits it has (or number of characters,
              if it is a string) and pushes that number.

       X      Pops a value off the stack, calculates the number of fraction digits it has, and  pushes  that
              number.  For a string, the value pushed is 0.

       z      Pushes the current stack depth: the number of objects on the stack before the execution of the
              z command.

Miscellaneous
       !      Will run the rest of the line as a system command.  Note that parsing of the !<,  !=,  and  !>
              commands  take  precedence,  so if you want to run a command starting with <, =, or > you will
              need to add a space after the !.

       #      Will interpret the rest of the line as a comment.

       :r     Will pop the top two values off of the stack.  The old second-to-top value will be  stored  in
              the array r, indexed by the old top-of-stack value.

       ;r     Pops  the  top-of-stack  and uses it as an index into the array r.  The selected value is then
              pushed onto the stack.

       Note that each stacked instance of a register has its own array associated with it.  Thus 1 0:a 0Sa 2
       0:a La 0;ap will print 1, because the 2 was stored in an instance of 0:a that was later popped.

BUGS
       Email bug reports to bug-dc@gnu.org.



GNU Project                                      1997-03-25                                            DC(1)

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