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EMACS(1)                                                                                            EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]

       GNU Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stall-man. Stallman.
       The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you  can  read  using  Info,
       either from Emacs or as a standalone program.  Please look there for complete and up-to-date documen-tation. documentation.
       tation.  This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers'  pri-ority priority
       ority  goal  is  to  minimize  the  amount  of  time  this man page takes away from other more useful
       The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything other Emacs editors do, and it  is  easily
       extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help  facility, but the facility assumes that you know how to
       manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial  (CTRL-h
       t)  starts  an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamentals of Emacs in a few min-utes. minutes.
       utes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a  command  given  its  functionality,  Help  Character
       (CTRL-h  c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp
       function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so it is easy  to  recover  from
       editing mistakes.

       GNU  Emacs's  many  special  packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail), outline editing
       (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp  read-eval-print readeval-print
       eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), automated psychotherapy (Doctor), and much more.

       There  is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses should have little trouble adapt-ing adapting
       ing even without a copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic  features  fairly  rapidly  by
       studying the tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to  the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign and the num-ber). number).
               ber).  This applies only to the next file specified.

               Go to the specified line and column

       -q      Do not load an init file.

               Do not load the site-wide startup file.

               Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing of the user init  file  ~/.emacs.   This  is
               useful for debugging problems in the init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use  specified  file  as  the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.  This must be the first
               argument specified in the command line.

               Display Emacs version information and exit.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered):

       -f function
               Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       -eval expr
               Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  This option must be the  first
               in  the  argument list.  You must use -l and -f options to specify files to execute and func-tions functions
               tions to call.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       -L directory
               Add directory to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If you run Emacs from  under  X  win-dows, windows,
       dows, it will create its own X window to display in.  You will probably want to start the editor as a
       background process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -name name
               Specifies the name which should be assigned to the initial Emacs window.  This controls look-ing looking
               ing up X resources as well as the window title.

       -title name
               Specifies the title for the initial X window.

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -font font, -fn font
               Set  the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will find the various X fonts in
               the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts.  Under
               the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh
               field of the font name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the  form
               widthxheight  are  generally  fixed  width,  as  is the font fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more

               When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font name.

       -bw pixels
               Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults to
               one pixel on each side of the window.

       -ib pixels
               Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults
               to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

       --geometry geometry
               Set the Emacs window's width, height, and position as specified.  The geometry  specification
               is  in the standard X format; see X(1) for more information.  The width and height are speci-fied specified
               fied in characters; the default is 80 by 24.  See the Emacs manual, section "Options for Win-dow Window
               dow  Size and Position", for information on how window sizes interact with selecting or dese-lecting deselecting
               lecting the tool bar and menu bar.

       -fg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the text.

               Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

       -bg color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       -ms color
               On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
               Create the Emacs window on the display specified by displayname.  Must be  the  first  option
               specified in the command line.

       -nw     Tells  Emacs  not  to  use  its special interface to X.  If you use this switch when invoking
               Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)).  Use  the
       following format:


       where  value  specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for the fol-lowing following
       lowing keywords:

       font (class Font)
               Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
               If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
               If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window will iconify into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
               Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
               For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and white display,  the  window's  characteristics
       will  default as follows: the foreground color will be set to black, the background color will be set
       to white, the border color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be set to  black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window under X11.

       left                Set point.
       middle              Paste text.
       right               Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle        Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right         Paste text.
       CTRL-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right          Select  this  window, then split it into two windows.
                           Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left     X buffer menu -- hold the buttons and keys down, wait
                           for menu to appear, select buffer, and release.  Move
                           mouse out of menu and release to cancel.
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle   X help menu -- pop up index card menu for Emacs help.
       CTRL-SHIFT-right    Select window with mouse, and delete all  other  win-dows. windows.
                           dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You  can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the Free Software Foundation, which devel-ops develops
       ops GNU software.  See the file ORDERS for ordering information.
       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As with all software and  publications
       from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to
       the manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info - files for the Info documentation browser.  The complete  text  of  the  Emacs
       reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.  Also includes the Emacs Lisp Ref-erence Reference
       erence Manual, useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source files and compiled files that define most  editing
       commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH - various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc - various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*  -  contains  the documentation strings for the Lisp primi-tives primitives
       tives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the  size  of  Emacs

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE lists people offering various services to assist users of
       GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting, porting and customization.

       There is a mailing list,, for reporting  Emacs  bugs  and  fixes.   But  before
       reporting  something  as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding
       or a deliberate feature.  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near the end of the
       reference  manual  (or Info system) for hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the ver-sion version
       sion number of the Emacs you are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to get them  fixed
       for  everyone  in  the  next release, if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file
       (see above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For more information  about  Emacs
       mailing  lists,  see  the  file /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be fixed if
       they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in such a way that they can be  easily

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in the Emacs
       General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in  the
       reference manual.

       Copies  of  Emacs  may  sometimes  be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but it is
       never included in the scope of any license covering those systems.  Such inclusion violates the terms
       on which distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General Public License is to
       prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs,  and  urges  that  you  contribute  your
       extensions  to  the  GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for
       Unix.  Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the GNU system.

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.  Joachim Martillo and  Robert
       Krawitz added the X features.

       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
             2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the copyright
       notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the  conditions
       for  verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms
       of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this  document  into  another  language,
       under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in
       a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 22.1                                  2007 April 13                                       EMACS(1)

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