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GIT-FETCH(1)                                     Git Manual                                     GIT-FETCH(1)



NAME
       git-fetch - Download objects and refs from another repository

SYNOPSIS
       git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
       git fetch [<options>] <group>
       git fetch --multiple [<options>] [(<repository> | <group>)...]
       git fetch --all [<options>]


DESCRIPTION
       Fetches named heads or tags from one or more other repositories, along with the objects necessary to
       complete them.

       The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored in .git/FETCH_HEAD. This information
       is left for a later merge operation done by git merge.

       When <refspec> stores the fetched result in remote-tracking branches, the tags that point at these
       branches are automatically followed. This is done by first fetching from the remote using the given
       <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are pointed by remote tags that it does not yet
       have, then fetch those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at branches you are not
       interested in, you will not get them.

       git fetch can fetch from either a single named repository, or from several repositories at once if
       <group> is given and there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file. (See git-config(1)).

OPTIONS
       --all
           Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD.
           Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

       --depth=<depth>
           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth>
           option (see git-clone(1)) to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch
           history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

       --unshallow
           Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow
           repositories.

       --dry-run
           Show what would be done, without making any changes.

       -f, --force
           When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the local branch
           <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
           overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

       --multiple
           Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be specified. No <refspec>s may be specified.

       -p, --prune
           After fetching, remove any remote-tracking branches which no longer exist on the remote.

       -n, --no-tags
           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository are fetched
           and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
           remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagopt setting. See git-config(1).

       -t, --tags
           This is a short-hand for giving "refs/tags/:refs/tags/" refspec from the command line, to ask all
           tags to be fetched and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit refspec, the default
           refspecs (configured with the remote.$name.fetch variable) are overridden and not used.

       --recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]
           This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of populated submodules should be
           fetched too. It can be used as a boolean option to completely disable recursion when set to no or
           to unconditionally recurse into all populated submodules when set to yes, which is the default
           when this option is used without any value. Use on-demand to only recurse into a populated
           submodule when the superproject retrieves a commit that updates the submodule's reference to a
           commit that isn't already in the local submodule clone.

       --no-recurse-submodules
           Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as using the
           --recurse-submodules=no option).

       --submodule-prefix=<path>
           Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages such as "Fetching submodule foo". This
           option is used internally when recursing over submodules.

       --recurse-submodules-default=[yes|on-demand]
           This option is used internally to temporarily provide a non-negative default value for the
           --recurse-submodules option. All other methods of configuring fetch's submodule recursion (such
           as settings in gitmodules(5) and git-config(1)) override this option, as does specifying
           --[no-]recurse-submodules directly.

       -u, --update-head-ok
           By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current branch. This
           flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git
           fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack>
           is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

       -q, --quiet
           Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally used git commands. Progress is
           not reported to the standard error stream.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       --progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a
           terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard error
           stream is not directed to a terminal.

       <repository>
           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This parameter can be
           either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES
           below).

       <group>
           A name referring to a list of repositories as the value of remotes.<group> in the configuration
           file. (See git-config(1)).

       <refspec>
           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source ref <src>,
           followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local ref
           that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is
           updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.

               Note
               If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in non-linear ways such as being
               rewound and rebased frequently, then a pull will attempt a merge with an older version of
               itself, likely conflict, and fail. It is under these conditions that you would want to use
               the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed. There is currently no easy
               way to determine or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository with this
               behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.

               Note
               You never do your own development on branches that appear on the right hand side of a
               <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they are to be updated by git fetch. If you intend to do
               development derived from a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to track it (i.e.  Pull:
               B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do your development on top of it. The latter
               is created by git branch my-B remote-B (or its equivalent git checkout -b my-B remote-B). Run
               git fetch to keep track of the progress of the remote side, and when you see something new on
               the remote branch, merge it into your development branch with git pull . remote-B, while you
               are on my-B branch.

               Note
               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull command line
               and having multiple Pull: <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running git pull command
               without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec> listed explicitly on the command line
               are always merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more
               than one remote refs, you would be making an Octopus. While git pull run without any explicit
               <refspec> parameter takes default <refspec>s from Pull: lines, it merges only the first
               <refspec> found into the current branch, after fetching all the remote refs. This is because
               making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote
               heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
           Some short-cut notations are also supported.

               tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching everything
               up to the given tag.

              A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to <ref>: when pulling/fetching, so it merges
               <ref> into the current branch without storing the remote branch anywhere locally

GIT URLS
       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the remote server,
       and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be
       absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used for fetching
       and rsync can be used for fetching and pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use
       them).

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

          ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

          [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

          ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

          git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

          [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be used:

          /path/to/repo.git/

           file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies --local
       option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the
       remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following
       syntax may be used:

          <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string recognized by the
       specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a different
       format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:


       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context that
       takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/


       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.

REMOTES
       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

          a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

          a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

          a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each contain a
       refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using git-remote(1), gitremote(1),
       remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote
       will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by default when you do
       not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>


       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file will be used
       to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a
       refspec on the command line. This file should have the following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>


       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch. Multiple Push:
       and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used
       to access the repository. This file should have the following format:

                   <url>#<head>


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don't provide one on
       the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to
       master.

       git fetch uses:

                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>


       git push uses:

                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>


EXAMPLES
          Update the remote-tracking branches:

               $ git fetch origin

           The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/ namespace and stores them to
           the local refs/remotes/origin/ namespace, unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to
           specify a non-default refspec.

          Using refspecs explicitly:

               $ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp

           This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches pu and tmp in the local repository by fetching
           from the branches (respectively) pu and maint from the remote repository.

           The pu branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward, because it is prefixed with a
           plus sign; tmp will not be.

BUGS
       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules right now.
       When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the
       submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
       having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.

SEE ALSO
       git-pull(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                     GIT-FETCH(1)

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