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GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)                              Git Manual                              GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)



NAME
       git-http-backend - Server side implementation of Git over HTTP

SYNOPSIS
       git http-backend


DESCRIPTION
       A simple CGI program to serve the contents of a Git repository to Git clients accessing the
       repository over http:// and https:// protocols. The program supports clients fetching using both the
       smart HTTP protocol and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients pushing using
       the smart HTTP protocol.

       It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to
       export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
       GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).

       By default, only the upload-pack service is enabled, which serves git fetch-pack and git ls-remote
       clients, which are invoked from git fetch, git pull, and git clone. If the client is authenticated,
       the receive-pack service is enabled, which serves git send-pack clients, which is invoked from git
       push.

SERVICES
       These services can be enabled/disabled using the per-repository configuration file:

       http.getanyfile
           This serves Git clients older than version 1.6.6 that are unable to use the upload pack service.
           When enabled, clients are able to read any file within the repository, including objects that are
           no longer reachable from a branch but are still present. It is enabled by default, but a
           repository can disable it by setting this configuration item to false.

       http.uploadpack
           This serves git fetch-pack and git ls-remote clients. It is enabled by default, but a repository
           can disable it by setting this configuration item to false.

       http.receivepack
           This serves git send-pack clients, allowing push. It is disabled by default for anonymous users,
           and enabled by default for users authenticated by the web server. It can be disabled by setting
           this item to false, or enabled for all users, including anonymous users, by setting it to true.

URL TRANSLATION
       To determine the location of the repository on disk, git http-backend concatenates the environment
       variables PATH_INFO, which is set automatically by the web server, and GIT_PROJECT_ROOT, which must
       be set manually in the web server configuration. If GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is not set, git http-backend
       reads PATH_TRANSLATED, which is also set automatically by the web server.

EXAMPLES
       All of the following examples map http://$hostname/git/foo/bar.git to /var/www/git/foo/bar.git.

       Apache 2.x
           Ensure mod_cgi, mod_alias, and mod_env are enabled, set GIT_PROJECT_ROOT (or DocumentRoot)
           appropriately, and create a ScriptAlias to the CGI:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
               SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
               ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

           To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access, require authorization for both
           the initial ref advertisement (which we detect as a push via the service parameter in the query
           string), and the receive-pack invocation itself:

               RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} service=git-receive-pack [OR]
               RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /git-receive-pack$
               RewriteRule ^/git/ - [E=AUTHREQUIRED:yes]

               <LocationMatch "^/git/">
                       Order Deny,Allow
                       Deny from env=AUTHREQUIRED

                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Git Access"
                       Require group committers
                       Satisfy Any
                       ...
               </LocationMatch>

           If you do not have mod_rewrite available to match against the query string, it is sufficient to
           just protect git-receive-pack itself, like:

               <LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Git Access"
                       Require group committers
                       ...
               </LocationMatch>

           In this mode, the server will not request authentication until the client actually starts the
           object negotiation phase of the push, rather than during the initial contact. For this reason,
           you must also enable the http.receivepack config option in any repositories that should accept a
           push. The default behavior, if http.receivepack is not set, is to reject any pushes by
           unauthenticated users; the initial request will therefore report 403 Forbidden to the client,
           without even giving an opportunity for authentication.

           To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location directive around the
           repository, or one of its parent directories:

               <Location /git/private>
                       AuthType Basic
                       AuthName "Private Git Access"
                       Require group committers
                       ...
               </Location>

           To serve gitweb at the same url, use a ScriptAliasMatch to only those URLs that git http-backend
           can handle, and forward the rest to gitweb:

               ScriptAliasMatch \
                       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
                                       info/refs | \
                                       objects/(info/[^/]+ | \
                                                [0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | \
                                                pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}\.(pack|idx)) | \
                                       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
                       /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1

               ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/

           To serve multiple repositories from different gitnamespaces(7) in a single repository:

               SetEnvIf Request_URI "^/git/([^/]*)" GIT_NAMESPACE=$1
               ScriptAliasMatch ^/git/[^/]*(.*) /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/storage.git$1


       Accelerated static Apache 2.x
           Similar to the above, but Apache can be used to return static files that are stored on disk. On
           many systems this may be more efficient as Apache can ask the kernel to copy the file contents
           from the file system directly to the network:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
               ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

           This can be combined with the gitweb configuration:

               SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
               AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
               ScriptAliasMatch \
                       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
                                       info/refs | \
                                       objects/info/[^/]+ | \
                                       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
                       /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
               ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/


       Lighttpd
           Ensure that mod_cgi, mod_alias, `mod_auth, mod_setenv are loaded, then set GIT_PROJECT_ROOT
           appropriately and redirect all requests to the CGI:

               alias.url += ( "/git" => "/usr/lib/git-core/git-http-backend" )
               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git" {
                       cgi.assign = ("" => "")
                       setenv.add-environment = (
                               "GIT_PROJECT_ROOT" => "/var/www/git",
                               "GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL" => ""
                       )
               }

           To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access:

               $HTTP["querystring"] =~ "service=git-receive-pack" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"
               }
               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"
               }

           where git-auth.conf looks something like:

               auth.require = (
                       "/" => (
                               "method" => "basic",
                               "realm" => "Git Access",
                               "require" => "valid-user"
                              )
               )
               # ...and set up auth.backend here

           To require authentication for both reads and writes:

               $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/private" {
                       include "git-auth.conf"
               }


ENVIRONMENT
       git http-backend relies upon the CGI environment variables set by the invoking web server, including:

          PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)

          REMOTE_USER

          REMOTE_ADDR

          CONTENT_TYPE

          QUERY_STRING

          REQUEST_METHOD

       The GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable may be passed to git-http-backend to bypass the check
       for the "git-daemon-export-ok" file in each repository before allowing export of that repository.

       The backend process sets GIT_COMMITTER_NAME to $REMOTE_USER and GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL to
       ${REMOTE_USER}@http.${REMOTE_ADDR}, ensuring that any reflogs created by git-receive-pack contain
       some identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.

       All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks invoked by the git-receive-pack.

AUTHOR
       Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org[1]>.

DOCUMENTATION
       Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org[1]>.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
        1. spearce@spearce.org
           mailto:spearce@spearce.org



Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                              GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)

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