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GIT-PULL(1)                                      Git Manual                                      GIT-PULL(1)



NAME
       git-pull - Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch

SYNOPSIS
       git pull [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]


DESCRIPTION
       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch. In its default mode, git pull
       is shorthand for git fetch followed by git merge FETCH_HEAD.

       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and calls git merge to merge the
       retrieved branch heads into the current branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git
       merge.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name
       an arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with
       corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually it is
       the name of a branch in the remote repository.

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the "remote" and "merge" configuration for
       the current branch as set by git-branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

                     A---B---C master on origin
                    /
               D---E---F---G master


       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote master branch since it diverged
       from the local master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master and record the result
       in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message from the user
       describing the changes.

                     A---B---C remotes/origin/master
                    /         \
               D---E---F---G---H master


       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are presented and handled.

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset --merge. Warning: In older
       versions of Git, running git pull with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves
       you in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes, the merge will be automatically
       cancelled and the work tree untouched. It is generally best to get any local changes in working order
       before pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).

OPTIONS
       Options meant for git pull itself and the underlying git merge must be given before the options meant
       for git fetch.

       -q, --quiet
           This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of during transfer, and
           underlying git-merge to squelch output during merging.

       -v, --verbose
           Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

       --[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]
           This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should be fetched too (see git-config(1) gitconfig(1)
           config(1) and gitmodules(5)). That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging
           submodule commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a merge will not be
           checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update" has to be called afterwards to bring the
           work tree up to date with the merge result.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
           Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override --no-commit.

           With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do not autocommit, to give
           the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before committing.

       --edit, --no-edit
           Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to further edit the auto-generated
           merge message, so that the user can explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be
           used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally discouraged). The --edit option is
           still useful if you are giving a draft message with the -m option from the command line and want
           to edit it in the editor.

           Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not allowing the user to edit the merge
           log message. They will see an editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust
           such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to
           no at the beginning of them.

       --ff
           When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch pointer, without creating a
           merge commit. This is the default behavior.

       --no-ff
           Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a fast-forward. This is the default
           behaviour when merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag.

       --ff-only
           Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current HEAD is already up-to-date or
           the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
           In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line descriptions from at most <n>
           actual commits that are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

           With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being merged.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
           Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also controlled by the configuration
           option merge.stat.

           With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.

       --squash, --no-squash
           Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge happened (except for the merge
           information), but do not actually make a commit or move the HEAD, nor record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD
           to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit. This allows you to create a single
           commit on top of the current branch whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more
           in case of an octopus).

           With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to override
           --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
           Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to specify them in the order they
           should be tried. If there is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
           merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus otherwise).

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
           Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
           Verify that the commits being merged have good and trusted GPG signatures and abort the merge in
           case they do not.

       --summary, --no-summary
           Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be removed in the future.

       -q, --quiet
           Operate quietly. Implies --no-progress.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       --progress, --no-progress
           Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified, progress is shown if standard error is
           connected to a terminal. Note that not all merge strategies may support progress reporting.

       -r, --rebase
           Rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after fetching. If there is a
           remote-tracking branch corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased
           since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing non-local changes.

           See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autosetuprebase in git-config(1) if you want to
           make git pull always use --rebase instead of merging.

               Note
               This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites history, which does not bode
               well when you published that history already. Do not use this option unless you have read
               git-rebase(1) carefully.

       --no-rebase
           Override earlier --rebase.

   Options related to fetching
       --all
           Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
           Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD.
           Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

       --depth=<depth>
           Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository created by git clone with --depth=<depth>
           option (see git-clone(1)) to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch
           history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

       --unshallow
           Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow
           repositories.

       -f, --force
           When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses to update the local branch
           <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
           overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
           Keep downloaded pack.

       --no-tags
           By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the remote repository are fetched
           and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
           remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagopt setting. See git-config(1).

       -u, --update-head-ok
           By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds to the current branch. This
           flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git
           fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
           When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack>
           is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

       --progress
           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is attached to a
           terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard error
           stream is not directed to a terminal.

       <repository>
           The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull operation. This parameter can be
           either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES
           below).

       <refspec>
           The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by the source ref <src>,
           followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>.

           The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local ref
           that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is
           updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.

               Note
               If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in non-linear ways such as being
               rewound and rebased frequently, then a pull will attempt a merge with an older version of
               itself, likely conflict, and fail. It is under these conditions that you would want to use
               the + sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed. There is currently no easy
               way to determine or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository with this
               behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.

               Note
               You never do your own development on branches that appear on the right hand side of a
               <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they are to be updated by git fetch. If you intend to do
               development derived from a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to track it (i.e.  Pull:
               B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do your development on top of it. The latter
               is created by git branch my-B remote-B (or its equivalent git checkout -b my-B remote-B). Run
               git fetch to keep track of the progress of the remote side, and when you see something new on
               the remote branch, merge it into your development branch with git pull . remote-B, while you
               are on my-B branch.

               Note
               There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull command line
               and having multiple Pull: <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running git pull command
               without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec> listed explicitly on the command line
               are always merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more
               than one remote refs, you would be making an Octopus. While git pull run without any explicit
               <refspec> parameter takes default <refspec>s from Pull: lines, it merges only the first
               <refspec> found into the current branch, after fetching all the remote refs. This is because
               making an Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote
               heads in one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
           Some short-cut notations are also supported.

               tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>; it requests fetching everything
               up to the given tag.

              A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to <ref>: when pulling/fetching, so it merges
               <ref> into the current branch without storing the remote branch anywhere locally

GIT URLS
       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the address of the remote server,
       and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be
       absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and ftps can be used for fetching
       and rsync can be used for fetching and pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use
       them).

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

          ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

          rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

          [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

          ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

          git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

          [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following syntaxes may be used:

          /path/to/repo.git/

           file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the former implies --local
       option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it attempts to use the
       remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following
       syntax may be used:

          <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary URL-like string recognized by the
       specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and you want to use a different
       format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           insteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "git://git.host.xz/"]
                           insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
                           insteadOf = work:


       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten in any context that
       takes a URL to be "git://git.host.xz/repo.git".

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a configuration section of the form:

                   [url "<actual url base>"]
                           pushInsteadOf = <other url base>


       For example, with this:

                   [url "ssh://example.org/"]
                           pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/


       a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.

REMOTES
       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as <repository> argument:

          a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

          a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

          a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line because they each contain a
       refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously configured using git-remote(1), gitremote(1),
       remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote
       will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by default when you do
       not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the config file would appear like this:

                   [remote "<name>"]
                           url = <url>
                           pushurl = <pushurl>
                           push = <refspec>
                           fetch = <refspec>


       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to <url>.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The URL in this file will be used
       to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not provide a
       refspec on the command line. This file should have the following format:

                   URL: one of the above URL format
                   Push: <refspec>
                   Pull: <refspec>


       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull and git fetch. Multiple Push:
       and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The URL in this file will be used
       to access the repository. This file should have the following format:

                   <url>#<head>


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs, if you don't provide one on
       the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to
       master.

       git fetch uses:

                   refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>


       git push uses:

                   HEAD:refs/heads/<head>


MERGE STRATEGIES
       The merge mechanism (git-merge and git-pull commands) allows the backend merge strategies to be
       chosen with -s option. Some strategies can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git-merge and/or git-pull.

       resolve
           This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and another branch you pulled from)
           using a 3-way merge algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
           considered generally safe and fast.

       recursive
           This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When there is more than one common
           ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and
           uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been reported to result in fewer
           merge conflicts without causing mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
           2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving renames.
           This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging one branch.

           The recursive strategy can take the following options:

           ours
               This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by favoring our version.
               Changes from the other tree that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
               result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from our side.

               This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which does not even look at what
               the other tree contains at all. It discards everything the other tree did, declaring our
               history contains all that happened in it.

           theirs
               This is the opposite of ours.

           patience
               With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to avoid mismerges that
               sometimes occur due to unimportant matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use
               this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also git-diff(1) --patience.

           diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers]
               Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which can help avoid mismerges that
               occur due to unimportant matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also
               git-diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

           ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol
               Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as unchanged for the sake of a
               three-way merge. Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored. See
               also git-diff(1) -b, -w, and --ignore-space-at-eol.

                  If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a line, our version is used;

                  If our version introduces whitespace changes but their version includes a substantial
                   change, their version is used;

                  Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

           renormalize
               This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when resolving a
               three-way merge. This option is meant to be used when merging branches with different clean
               filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging branches with differing
               checkin/checkout attributes" in gitattributes(5) for details.

           no-renormalize
               Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the merge.renormalize configuration variable.

           rename-threshold=<n>
               Controls the similarity threshold used for rename detection. See also git-diff(1) -M.

           subtree[=<path>]
               This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where the strategy makes a guess on
               how two trees must be shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead, the specified
               path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape of two trees to match.

       octopus
           This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a complex merge that needs manual
           resolution. It is primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is
           the default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one branch.

       ours
           This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the merge is always that of the
           current branch head, effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
           used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note that this is different from the
           -Xours option to the recursive merge strategy.

       subtree
           This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B, if B corresponds to a subtree
           of A, B is first adjusted to match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the
           same level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR
       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally, this has been equivalent to
       saying git pull origin. However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch
       <name>, that value is used instead of origin.

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the configuration
       remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any such variable, the value on URL: ` line in
       `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally store in the remote-tracking
       branches) when the command is run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the
       configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren't any,
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are used. In addition to the
       refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like
       this:

           refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were fetched in remote-tracking
       branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with /*. The above specifies that all remote branches are
       tracked using remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a bit involved, in order not to
       break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the refspec from the configuration
       or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such cases, the following rules apply:

        1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name> exists, that is the name of
           the branch at the remote site that is merged.

        2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

        3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

EXAMPLES
          Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned from, then merge one of them
           into your current branch:

               $ git pull, git pull origin

           Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository, but the choice is determined
           by the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1) for details.

          Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

               $ git pull origin next

           This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not update any remote-tracking
           branches. Using remote-tracking branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:

               $ git fetch origin
               $ git merge origin/next


       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want to start over, you can recover
       with git reset.

BUGS
       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked out submodules right now.
       When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the
       submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
       having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.

SEE ALSO
       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                      GIT-PULL(1)

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