Mac Developer Library Developer
Search

 

This manual page is part of Xcode Tools version 5.0

To obtain these tools:

If you are running a version of Xcode Tools other than 5.0, view the documentation locally:

  • In Xcode

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.



GIT-RESET(1)                                     Git Manual                                     GIT-RESET(1)



NAME
       git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state

SYNOPSIS
       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-sh>] [--] [<paths>...]
       git reset [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]


DESCRIPTION
       In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index. In the third form, set the
       current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>, optionally modifying index and working tree to match. The
       <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults to HEAD in all forms.

       git reset [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
           This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their state at <tree-ish>. (It does not
           affect the working tree, nor the current branch.)

           This means that git reset <paths> is the opposite of git add <paths>.

           After running git reset <paths> to update the index entry, you can use git-checkout(1) to check
           the contents out of the index to the working tree. Alternatively, using git-checkout(1) and
           specifying a commit, you can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the
           working tree in one go.

       git reset (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
           Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD).
           The chosen hunks are applied in reverse to the index.

           This means that git reset -p is the opposite of git add -p, i.e. you can use it to selectively
           reset hunks. See the "Interactive Mode" section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate the --patch
           mode.

       git reset [<mode>] [<commit>]
           This form resets the current branch head to <commit> and possibly updates the index (resetting it
           to the tree of <commit>) and the working tree depending on <mode>. If <mode> is omitted, defaults
           to "--mixed". The <mode> must be one of the following:

           --soft
               Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all (but resets the head to <commit>,
               just like all modes do). This leaves all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as git
               status would put it.

           --mixed
               Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files are preserved but not
               marked for commit) and reports what has not been updated. This is the default action.

           --hard
               Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree since
               <commit> are discarded.

           --merge
               Resets the index and updates the files in the working tree that are different between
               <commit> and HEAD, but keeps those which are different between the index and working tree
               (i.e. which have changes which have not been added). If a file that is different between
               <commit> and the index has unstaged changes, reset is aborted.

               In other words, --merge does something like a git read-tree -u -m <commit>, but carries
               forward unmerged index entries.

           --keep
               Resets index entries and updates files in the working tree that are different between
               <commit> and HEAD. If a file that is different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes,
               reset is aborted.

       If you want to undo a commit other than the latest on a branch, git-revert(1) is your friend.

OPTIONS
       -q, --quiet
           Be quiet, only report errors.

EXAMPLES
       Undo add

               $ edit                                     (1)
               $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
               $ mailx                                    (2)
               $ git reset                                (3)
               $ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol  (4)

           1. You are happily working on something, and find the changes in these files are in good order.
           You do not want to see them when you run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files and
           changes with these files are distracting.
           2. Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of merging.
           3. However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does not match the HEAD commit). But
           you know the pull you are going to make does not affect frotz.c nor filfre.c, so you revert the
           index changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree remain there.
           4. Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c changes still in the working tree.

       Undo a commit and redo

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^      (1)
               $ edit                        (2)
               $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD  (3)

           1. This is most often done when you remembered what you just committed is incomplete, or you
           misspelled your commit message, or both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
           2. Make corrections to working tree files.
           3. "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the commit by starting with its log
           message. If you do not need to edit the message further, you can give -C option instead.

           See also the --amend option to git-commit(1).

       Undo a commit, making it a topic branch

               $ git branch topic/wip     (1)
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3  (2)
               $ git checkout topic/wip   (3)

           1. You have made some commits, but realize they were premature to be in the "master" branch. You
           want to continue polishing them in a topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the
           current HEAD.
           2. Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
           3. Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.

       Undo commits permanently

               $ git commit ...
               $ git reset --hard HEAD~3   (1)

           1. The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad and you do not want to ever see them
           again. Do not do this if you have already given these commits to somebody else. (See the
           "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1) for the implications of doing so.)

       Undo a merge or pull

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
               Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
               $ git reset --hard                 (2)
               $ git pull . topic/branch          (3)
               Updating from 41223... to 13134...
               Fast-forward
               $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       (4)

           1. Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of conflicts; you were not ready to spend a
           lot of time merging right now, so you decide to do that later.
           2. "pull" has not made merge commit, so "git reset --hard" which is a synonym for "git reset
           --hard HEAD" clears the mess from the index file and the working tree.
           3. Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted in a fast-forward.
           4. But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public consumption yet. "pull" or
           "merge" always leaves the original tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to
           it brings your index file and the working tree back to that state, and resets the tip of the
           branch to that commit.

       Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree

               $ git pull                         (1)
               Auto-merging nitfol
               Merge made by recursive.
                nitfol                |   20 +++++----... +++++---...
                ...
               $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD      (2)

           1. Even if you may have local modifications in your working tree, you can safely say "git pull"
           when you know that the change in the other branch does not overlap with them.
           2. After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find that the change in the other branch is
           unsatisfactory. Running "git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD" will let you go back to where you were, but
           it will discard your local changes, which you do not want. "git reset --merge" keeps your local
           changes.

       Interrupted workflow
           Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you are in the middle of a large
           change. The files in your working tree are not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to
           get to the other branch for a quick bugfix.

               $ git checkout feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
               $ work work work       ;# got interrupted
               $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP"                 (1)
               $ git checkout master
               $ fix fix fix
               $ git commit ;# commit with real log
               $ git checkout feature
               $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state  (2)
               $ git reset                                       (3)

           1. This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is OK.
           2. This removes the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets your working tree to the state
           just before you made that snapshot.
           3. At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you committed as snapshot WIP. This
           updates the index to show your WIP files as uncommitted.

           See also git-stash(1).

       Reset a single file in the index
           Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you do not want to add it to your
           commit. You can remove the file from the index while keeping your changes with git reset.

               $ git reset -- frotz.c                      (1)
               $ git commit -m "Commit files in index"     (2)
               $ git add frotz.c                           (3)

           1. This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the working directory.
           2. This commits all other changes in the index.
           3. Adds the file to the index again.

       Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits
           Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then you continue working a bit more,
           but now you think that what you have in your working tree should be in another branch that has
           nothing to do with what you committed previously. You can start a new branch and reset it while
           keeping the changes in your working tree.

               $ git tag start
               $ git checkout -b branch1
               $ edit
               $ git commit ...                            (1)
               $ edit
               $ git checkout -b branch2                   (2)
               $ git reset --keep start                    (3)

           1. This commits your first edits in branch1.
           2. In the ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier commit did not belong to the new
           topic when you created and switched to branch2 (i.e. "git checkout -b branch2 start"), but nobody
           is perfect.
           3. But you can use "reset --keep" to remove the unwanted commit after you switched to "branch2".

DISCUSSION
       The tables below show what happens when running:

           git reset --option target


       to reset the HEAD to another commit (target) with the different reset options depending on the state
       of the files.

       In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a file. For example, the first line of
       the first table means that if a file is in state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in
       state C in HEAD and in state D in the target, then "git reset --soft target" will leave the file in
       the working tree in state A and in the index in state B. It resets (i.e. moves) the HEAD (i.e. the
       tip of the current branch, if you are on one) to "target" (which has the file in state D).

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------A ---------------------------------------------------A
            A       B     C    D     --soft   A       B     D
                                     --mixed  A       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------A ---------------------------------------------------A
            A       B     C    C     --soft   A       B     C
                                     --mixed  A       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep   A       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------B ---------------------------------------------------B
            B       B     C    D     --soft   B       B     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge  D       D     D
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------B ---------------------------------------------------B
            B       B     C    C     --soft   B       B     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  C       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------B ---------------------------------------------------B
            B       C     C    D     --soft   B       C     D
                                     --mixed  B       D     D
                                     --hard   D       D     D
                                     --merge (disallowed)
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------B ---------------------------------------------------B
            B       C     C    C     --soft   B       C     C
                                     --mixed  B       C     C
                                     --hard   C       C     C
                                     --merge  B       C     C
                                     --keep   B       C     C

       "reset --merge" is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted merge. Any mergy operation
       guarantees that the working tree file that is involved in the merge does not have local change wrt
       the index before it starts, and that it writes the result out to the working tree. So if we see some
       difference between the index and the target and also between the index and the working tree, then it
       means that we are not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left after failing with a
       conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option in this case.

       "reset --keep" is meant to be used when removing some of the last commits in the current branch while
       keeping changes in the working tree. If there could be conflicts between the changes in the commit we
       want to remove and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the reset is disallowed. That's
       why it is disallowed if there are both changes between the working tree and HEAD, and between HEAD
       and the target. To be safe, it is also disallowed when there are unmerged entries.

       The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------X ---------------------------------------------------X
            X       U     A    B     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       B     B
                                     --hard   B       B     B
                                     --merge  B       B     B
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

           working index HEAD target         working index HEAD
           ----------------------------------------------------X ---------------------------------------------------X
            X       U     A    A     --soft  (disallowed)
                                     --mixed  X       A     A
                                     --hard   A       A     A
                                     --merge  A       A     A
                                     --keep  (disallowed)

       X means any state and U means an unmerged index.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                     GIT-RESET(1)

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation with the feedback links below.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API through Bug Reporter.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.

Feedback