Mac Developer Library Developer


This manual page is part of Xcode Tools version 5.0

To obtain these tools:

If you are running a version of Xcode Tools other than 5.0, view the documentation locally:

  • In Xcode

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.

GIT-REV-LIST(1)                                  Git Manual                                  GIT-REV-LIST(1)

       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order

       git rev-list [ --max-count=<number> ]
                    [ --skip=<number> ]
                    [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
                    [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
                    [ --sparse ]
                    [ --merges ]
                    [ --no-merges ]
                    [ --min-parents=<number> ]
                    [ --no-min-parents ]
                    [ --max-parents=<number> ]
                    [ --no-max-parents ]
                    [ --first-parent ]
                    [ --remove-empty ]
                    [ --full-history ]
                    [ --not ]
                    [ --all ]
                    [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
                    [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
                    [ --ignore-missing ]
                    [ --stdin ]
                    [ --quiet ]
                    [ --topo-order ]
                    [ --parents ]
                    [ --timestamp ]
                    [ --left-right ]
                    [ --left-only ]
                    [ --right-only ]
                    [ --cherry-mark ]
                    [ --cherry-pick ]
                    [ --encoding[=<encoding>] ]
                    [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
                    [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
                    [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
                    [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
                    [ --date=(local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short) ]
                    [ [--objects | --objects-edge] [ --unpacked ] ]
                    [ --pretty | --header ]
                    [ --bisect ]
                    [ --bisect-vars ]
                    [ --bisect-all ]
                    [ --merge ]
                    [ --reverse ]
                    [ --walk-reflogs ]
                    [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
                    <commit>... [ -- <paths>... ]

       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the given commit(s), but exclude
       commits that are reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in
       reverse chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command line form a set of commits
       that are reachable from any of them, and then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in
       front are subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the command's output.
       Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further limit the result.

       Thus, the following command:

                   $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for "^'<commit1>' <commit2>".
       For example, either of the following may be used interchangeably:

                   $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
                   $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for merges. The resulting set of
       commits is the symmetric difference between the two operands. The following two commands are

                   $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
                   $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability to build and traverse commit
       ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be used by
       commands as different as git bisect and git repack.

   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations explained in
       the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g. --since=<date1> limits to commits newer
       than <date1>, and using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits whose log message has a
       line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as --reverse.

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the specified
           pattern (regular expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits whose author matches
           any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple --committer=<pattern>).

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the specified pattern (regular
           expression). With more than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message matches any of the
           given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern (regular
           expression). With more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message matches any of the given
           patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           When --show-notes is in effect, the message from the notes as if it is part of the log message.

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead of ones that match at least

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the default basic
           regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret pattern as a regular

           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regexp. Requires libpcre to be compiled in.

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as --max-parents=1.

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many commits. In particular,
           --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as --merges.
           --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus merges.

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again. Equivalent forms
           are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers
           denote no upper limit).

           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better
           overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic
           branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and this option
           allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision specifiers, up
           to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>. If <pattern>
           is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at
           the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If <pattern>
           is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the
           end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>. If
           <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
           lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the command line as
           <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /*
           at the end is implied.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not given.

           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard input. If a
           -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

           Don't print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant to allow the caller to test
           the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than
           redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting them, and
           inequivalent ones with +.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side" when the
           set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on only one side
           of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description of the --left-right
           option). It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch (for example,
           "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
           excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.e. only those which would be
           marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in A or are
           patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits from git cherry A B.
           More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact list.

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to the commits
           on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git
           log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent one to
           older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit,
           commit1..commit2, nor commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two
           extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in
           the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now}, output also uses
           commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with
           this information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1). gitreflog(1).

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don't exist on all heads
           to merge.

           Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not shown.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits modifying a
       particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the
       commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest
           because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with
           the same content)

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting history, as
           there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1), only
           display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and commit2, i.e.
           commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the
       rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the differences
       between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit

                    /     /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E
                    \   /   /   /   /

       The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The commits are:

           I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf", and a file quux exists with
           contents "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

          In A, foo contains just "foo".

           B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence TREESAME to all parents.

           C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to "foobar", so it is not TREESAME to any

           D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is
           not TREESAME to any parent.

           E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite
           appearing interesting, P is TREESAME to all parents.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether
       --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The following settings
       are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be changed, see
           --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that
           parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow
           all parents.

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B from
           consideration entirely.  C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
           empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the commits
           selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge, even if it
           is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
           included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O

           P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent.  E, C and B were all walked, but
           only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the parent/child
           relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed, see
           --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each parent, prune
           away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because it is
           TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C
           and N. Note also that P was included despite being TREESAME.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents is
           TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never walked.

           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting does (see

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to the following

              Set C' to C.

              Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the process, drop parents that are
               ancestors of other parents, and remove duplicates.

              If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1 parents), a
               boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent rewriting. The
           example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N and P over --full-history:

               N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N
               remained because it is !TREESAME.

               P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed completely, because it had one
               parent and is TREESAME.

       Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the "from" and "to"
           commits in the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
           commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M, but excludes the ones that
           are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history leading to M since D, in
           the sense that "what does M have that did not exist in D". The result in this example would be
           all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of course).

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need
           fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D..M that are actually descendants of
           D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the
           D..M range, it results in:

                                \       \

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the topology of the
       history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in
       other words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1) they are referenced by
       tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths given on the command line. All other commits are
       marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between included and excluded
           commits. Note that the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it
           exists) and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are added to the excluded commits (if they
           exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs in refs/bisect/, if

                   $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

       outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                   $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                   $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

       would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which introduces a regression is thus reduced
       to a binary search: repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length

           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in refs/bisect/ are not used, and except
           that this outputs text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the
           midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected number of commits to be tested
           after bisect_rev is tested to bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested if
           bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected number of commits to be tested if
           bisect_rev turns out to be bad to bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right
           now to bisect_all.

           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded commits, ordered by their
           distance to the included and excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest
           from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by --bisect.)

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to test when you want to avoid to
           test some of them for some reason (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case, after all the sorted commit
           objects, there will be the same text as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in the commit
           timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid showing commits on multiple lines
           of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                       \              \
                        3----5----6----8---where 3----5----6----8--where

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list and friends with
           --date-order show the commits in the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3 1); some older commits are
           shown before newer ones in order to avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track
           mixed together.

           Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.  --objects foo ^bar thus
           means "send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit object bar, but not

           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a "-" character.
           This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form
           based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors. This has no effect if a range
           is specified. If the argument "unsorted" is given, the commits are show in the order they were
           given on the command line. Otherwise (if "sorted" or no argument was given), the commits are show
           in reverse chronological order by commit time.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more specialized family of commit log
       tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be one of
           oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. See the "PRETTY FORMATS"
           section for some additional details for each format. When omitted, the format defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see git-config(1)). gitconfig(1)).

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix.
           Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff
           output, if it is displayed).

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using 80-column

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit and those
           options which imply it such as "--oneline". It also overrides the log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this
           option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
           preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

           Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit log message.
           This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty,
           --format nor --oneline option given on the command line.

           By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the core.notesRef and
           notes.displayRef variables (or corresponding environment overrides). See git-config(1) for more

           With an optional <ref> argument, show this notes ref instead of the default notes ref(s). The ref
           is taken to be in refs/notes/ if it is not qualified.

           Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are being displayed. Examples:
           "--notes=foo" will show only notes from "refs/notes/foo"; "--notes=foo --notes" will show both
           notes from "refs/notes/foo" and from the default notes ref(s).

           Do not show notes. This negates the above --notes option, by resetting the list of notes refs
           from which notes are shown. Options are parsed in the order given on the command line, so e.g.
           "--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes from "refs/notes/bar".

       --show-notes[=<ref>], --[no-]standard-notes
           These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes options instead.

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature to gpg --verify and show
           the output.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using "--pretty".
  config variable sets a default value for log command's --date option.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

           --date=local shows timestamps in user's local timezone.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in E-mail

           --date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

           --date=raw shows the date in the internal raw Git format %s %z format.

           --date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either committer's or author's).

           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is separated with a NUL character.

           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent..."). Also enables parent
           rewriting, see History Simplification below.

           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child..."). Also enables parent
           rewriting, see History Simplification below.

           Print the raw commit timestamp.

           Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from. Commits from the left side are
           prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are
           prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side of the
           output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph
           history to be drawn properly.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also be

           Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and suppress all other output.
           When used together with --left-right, instead print the counts for left and right commits,
           separated by a tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch equivalent commits from
           these counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated by a tab.

       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an additional line
       is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral
       commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the
       list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
       only interested in changes related to a certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a pretty.<name>
       config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as described below (see git-config(1)). gitconfig(1)).
       config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:


               <sha1> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.


               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>


               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>


               commit <sha1>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>


               commit <sha1>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>


               From <sha1> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>


           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object. Notably, the
           SHA-1s are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or --no-abbrev are used, and parents
           information show the true parent commits, without taking grafts nor history simplification into


           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show. It works a
           little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a newline with %n instead
           of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show something like

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

               %H: commit hash

               %h: abbreviated commit hash

               %T: tree hash

               %t: abbreviated tree hash

               %P: parent hashes

               %p: abbreviated parent hashes

               %an: author name

               %aN: author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ae: author email

               %aE: author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ad: author date (format respects --date= option)

               %aD: author date, RFC2822 style

               %ar: author date, relative

               %at: author date, UNIX timestamp

               %ai: author date, ISO 8601 format

               %cn: committer name

               %cN: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ce: committer email

               %cE: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %cd: committer date

               %cD: committer date, RFC2822 style

               %cr: committer date, relative

               %ct: committer date, UNIX timestamp

               %ci: committer date, ISO 8601 format

               %d: ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

               %e: encoding

               %s: subject

               %f: sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename

               %b: body

               %B: raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

               %N: commit notes

               %GG: raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

               %G?: show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good, untrusted
               signature and "N" for no signature

               %GS: show the name of the signer for a signed commit

               %GK: show the key used to sign a signed commit

               %gD: reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1}

               %gd: shortened reflog selector, e.g., stash@{1}

               %gn: reflog identity name

               %gN: reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %ge: reflog identity email

               %gE: reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

               %gs: reflog subject

               %Cred: switch color to red

               %Cgreen: switch color to green

               %Cblue: switch color to blue

               %Creset: reset color

               %C(...): color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option; adding auto, at
               the beginning will emit color only when colors are enabled for log output (by color.diff,
               color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto settings of the former if we are going to a
               terminal).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next placeholders
               until the color is switched again.

               %m: left, right or boundary mark

               %n: newline

               %%: a raw %

               %x__: print a byte from a hex code

               %w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]]): switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

               %<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc]): make the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding
               spaces on the right if necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle
               (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns. Note that truncating only
               works correctly with N >= 2.

               %<|(<N>): make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns, padding spaces on the
               right if necessary

               %>(<N>), %>|(<N>): similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding spaces on the left

               %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>): similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if the next
               placeholder takes more spaces than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces

               %><(<N>), %><|(<N>): similar to % <(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both sides
               (i.e. the text is centered)

           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine. For
           example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog
           entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if
           --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately before the
       expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede the
       expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before the
       expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.


           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator" semantics
           instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the message terminator
           character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator placed between entries. This
           means that the final entry of a single-line format will be properly terminated with a new line,
           just as the "oneline" format does. For example:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has tformat: in
           front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                  GIT-REV-LIST(1)

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation with the feedback links below.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API through Bug Reporter.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.