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GIT-REV-PARSE(1)                                 Git Manual                                 GIT-REV-PARSE(1)

       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters

       git rev-parse [ --option ] <args>...

       Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters that begin with a dash -) and
       parameters meant for the underlying git rev-list command they use internally and flags and parameters
       for the other commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This command is used to distinguish
       between them.

           Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo out the first -- met instead
           of skipping it.

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at the first non-option argument.
           This can be used to parse sub-commands that take options themselves.

           Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section below). In contrast to the --sq
           option below, this mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.

           Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output non-flag parameters.

           Do not output flag parameters.

       --default <arg>
           If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.

           Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it can be turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1
           that can be used to access the object database. If so, emit it to the standard output; otherwise,
           error out.

           If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object in your object database and/or
           can be used as a specific type of object For example, git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}" will make
           sure $VAR names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit, or an annotated tag that
           points at a commit). To make sure that $VAR names an existing object of any type, git rev-parse
           "$VAR^{object}" can be used.

       -q, --quiet
           Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if the first argument is not a
           valid object name; instead exit with non-zero status silently.

           Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This option makes output a single
           line, properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when you expect your parameter to contain
           whitespaces and newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git diff-*). In contrast to the
           --sq-quote option, the command input is still interpreted as usual.

           When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix from the object names that
           already have one.

           Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with possible ^ prefix); this option makes
           them output in a form as close to the original input as possible.

           This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs (i.e. branch or tag names; or
           more explicitly disambiguating "heads/master" form, when you want to name the "master" branch
           when there is an unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full refnames (e.g.

           A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to
           select the strict abbreviation mode.

           Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix. The <prefix> must be at least 4
           hexadecimal digits long to avoid listing each and every object in the repository by mistake.

           Show all refs found in refs/.

       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
           Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively (i.e., refs found in
           refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes, respectively).

           If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are shown. If the pattern does not
           contain a globbing character (?, *, or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

           Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the pattern does not start with refs/,
           this is automatically prepended. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or
           [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

           Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the current directory relative
           to the top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the top-level directory
           relative to the current directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).

           Show $GIT_DIR if defined. Otherwise show the path to the .git directory. The path shown, when
           relative, is relative to the current working directory.

           If $GIT_DIR is not defined and the current directory is not detected to lie in a Git repository
           or work tree print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.

           When the current working directory is below the repository directory print "true", otherwise

           When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the repository print "true",
           otherwise "false".

           When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".

           List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or
           GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR). Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
           even if they are set.

       --short, --short=number
           Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to abbreviate them to a shorter
           unique name. When no length is specified 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.

       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age= parameter for git rev-list.

       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age= parameter for git rev-list.

           Flags and parameters to be parsed.

       --resolve-git-dir <path>
           Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that points at a valid repository, and print
           the location of the repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path to the real
           repository is printed.

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a commit object. It uses what is
       called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near
       the end of this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e195_b1277e545cee18_55175__29cfe735, dae86e
           The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a leading substring that is unique
           within the repository. E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
           same commit object if there is no other object in your repository whose object name starts with

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed by a dash and a number of
           commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object referenced by
           refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly
           say heads/master to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <refname> is disambiguated by
           taking the first match in the following rules:

            1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is usually useful only for HEAD,

            2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records
               the branch which you fetched from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
               ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a drastic way, to record the position
               of the HEAD before their operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch back
               to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) which you are merging
               into your branch when you run git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
               cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or
               from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
               preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.
           {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1 second ago} or {1979-_2-26 18:3_:__}) specifies the
           value of the ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used immediately following a
           ref name and the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the
           state of your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master branch last week. If
           you want to look at commits made during certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1},
           {15}) specifies the n-th prior value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
           value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master. This suffix may only be used
           immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a reflog entry of the current
           branch. For example, if you are on branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out before the current one.

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
           The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that
           the branch specified by branchname is set to build on top of. A missing branchname defaults to
           the current one.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^_
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that commit object.  ^<n> means the
           <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^_ means the commit
           itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that is the <n>th generation
           ancestor of the named commit object, following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is
           equivalent to <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an illustration of the
           usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v_.99.8^{commit}
           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair means the object could be a
           tag, and dereference the tag recursively until an object of that type is found or the object
           cannot be dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf).  <rev>^_ is a short-hand for

           rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that exists, without requiring rev to
           be a tag, and without dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does not have to
           be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v_.99.8^{}
           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could be a tag, and dereference the
           tag recursively until a non-tag object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that contains a text led by a slash,
           is the same as the :/fix nasty bug syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching
           commit which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit whose commit message matches the
           specified regular expression. This name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable
           from any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat that; the special
           sequence :/!, followed by something else than !, is reserved for now. The regular expression can
           match any part of the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given path in the tree-ish object
           named by the part before the colon.  :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special
           case of the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the given path. A path
           starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the current working directory. The given path will be
           converted to be relative to the working tree's root directory. This is most useful to address a
           blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :_:README, :README
           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a colon, followed by a path, names a
           blob object in the index at the given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows
           it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common ancestor, stage 2 is the target
           branch's version (typically the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
           is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are parents of commit node A.
       Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of commits, not just a single commit. To
       these commands, specifying a single revision with the notation described in the previous section
       means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits
       reachable from r2 but exclude the ones reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it. When you have two commits r1
       and r2 (named according to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for
       commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be
       written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2 and is defined as r1 r2 --not
       $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or
       r2 but not from both.

       In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD. For example, origin.. is a
       shorthand for origin..HEAD and asks "What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?" Similarly,
       ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did the origin do since I forked from them?"
       Note that .. would mean HEAD..HEAD which is an empty range that is both reachable and unreachable
       from HEAD.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits exist. The
       r1^@ notation means all parents of r1. r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       To summarize:

           Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

           Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

           Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those that are reachable from <rev1>.
           When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

           Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but exclude those that are
           reachable from both. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
           A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all parents of <rev> (meaning, include
           anything reachable from its parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
           A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving commit <rev> and then all its
           parents prefixed with ^ to exclude them (and their ancestors).

       Here are a handful of examples:

           D                G H D
           D F              G H I J D F
           ^G D             H D
           ^D B             E I J F B
           B..C             C
           B...C            G H D E B C
           ^D B C           E I J F B C
           C                I J F C
           C^@              I J F
           C^!              C
           F^! D            G H D F

       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to shell scripts the same
       facilities C builtins have. It works as an option normalizer (e.g. splits single switches aggregate
       values), a bit like getopt(1) does.

       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to parse and understand, and echoes
       on the standard output a string suitable for sh(1) eval to replace the arguments with normalized
       ones. In case of error, it outputs usage on the standard error stream, and exits with code 129.

       Note: Make sure you quote the result when passing it to eval. See below for an example.

   Input Format
       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two parts, separated by a line that
       contains only --. The lines before the separator (should be more than one) are used for the usage.
       The lines after the separator describe the options.

       Each line of options has this format:

           <opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF

           its format is the short option character, then the long option name separated by a comma. Both
           parts are not required, though at least one is necessary.  h,help, dry-run and f are all three
           correct <opt_spec>.


           <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.

              Use = if the option takes an argument.

              Use ?  to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).

              Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage generated for the -h
               argument. It's shown for --help-all as documented in gitcli(7).

              Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option available.

       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the help associated to the option.

       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don't match this specification are used as option group
       headers (start the line with a space to create such lines on purpose).

           some-command [options] <args>...

           some-command does foo and bar!
           --h,help -h,help
           h,help    show the help

           foo       some nifty option --foo
           bar=      some cool option --bar with an argument

             An option group Header
           C?        option C with an optional argument"

           eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"

       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a single line suitable for sh(1)
       eval. This line is made by normalizing the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing other than quoting
       the arguments is done.

       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git rev-parse before the output is
       shell quoted, see the --sq option.

           $ cat > <<\EOF
           args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
           command="git frotz -n24 $args"          # and use it inside a handcrafted
                                                   # command line
           eval "$command"

           $ sh "a b'c"

          Print the object name of the current commit:

               $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD

          Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:

               $ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}

           This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.

          Similar to above:

               $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV

           but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be printed.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                 GIT-REV-PARSE(1)

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