Mac Developer Library Developer


This manual page is part of Xcode Tools version 5.0

To obtain these tools:

If you are running a version of Xcode Tools other than 5.0, view the documentation locally:

  • In Xcode

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.

GIT-SUBMODULE(1)                                 Git Manual                                 GIT-SUBMODULE(1)

       git-submodule - Initialize, update or inspect submodules

       git submodule [--quiet] add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>]
                     [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
       git submodule [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
       git submodule [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
       git submodule [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] [--] <path>...
       git submodule [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
                     [-f|--force] [--rebase] [--reference <repository>]
                     [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
       git submodule [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
                     [commit] [--] [<path>...]
       git submodule [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
       git submodule [--quiet] sync [--] [<path>...]

       Submodules allow foreign repositories to be embedded within a dedicated subdirectory of the source
       tree, always pointed at a particular commit.

       They are not to be confused with remotes, which are meant mainly for branches of the same project;
       submodules are meant for different projects you would like to make part of your source tree, while
       the history of the two projects still stays completely independent and you cannot modify the contents
       of the submodule from within the main project. If you want to merge the project histories and want to
       treat the aggregated whole as a single project from then on, you may want to add a remote for the
       other project and use the subtree merge strategy, instead of treating the other project as a
       submodule. Directories that come from both projects can be cloned and checked out as a whole if you
       choose to go that route.

       Submodules are composed from a so-called gitlink tree entry in the main repository that refers to a
       particular commit object within the inner repository that is completely separate. A record in the
       .gitmodules (see gitmodules(5)) file at the root of the source tree assigns a logical name to the
       submodule and describes the default URL the submodule shall be cloned from. The logical name can be
       used for overriding this URL within your local repository configuration (see submodule init).

       This command will manage the tree entries and contents of the gitmodules file for you, as well as
       inspect the status of your submodules and update them. When adding a new submodule to the tree, the
       add subcommand is to be used. However, when pulling a tree containing submodules, these will not be
       checked out by default; the init and update subcommands will maintain submodules checked out and at
       appropriate revision in your working tree. You can briefly inspect the up-to-date status of your
       submodules using the status subcommand and get a detailed overview of the difference between the
       index and checkouts using the summary subcommand.

           Add the given repository as a submodule at the given path to the changeset to be committed next
           to the current project: the current project is termed the "superproject".

           This requires at least one argument: <repository>. The optional argument <path> is the relative
           location for the cloned submodule to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
           "humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for "/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for
           "host.xz:foo/.git"). The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its configuration
           entries unless --name is used to specify a logical name.

           <repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository. This may be either an absolute
           URL, or (if it begins with ./ or ../), the location relative to the superproject's origin
           repository (Please note that to specify a repository foo.git which is located right next to a
           superproject bar.git, you'll have to use ../foo.git instead of ./foo.git - as one might expect
           when following the rules for relative URLs - because the evaluation of relative URLs in Git is
           identical to that of relative directories). If the superproject doesn't have an origin configured
           the superproject is its own authoritative upstream and the current working directory is used

           <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to exist in the superproject. If <path>
           does not exist, then the submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does exist
           and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added to the changeset without cloning. This
           second form is provided to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes the user will
           later push the submodule to the given URL.

           In either case, the given URL is recorded into .gitmodules for use by subsequent users cloning
           the superproject. If the URL is given relative to the superproject's repository, the presumption
           is the superproject and submodule repositories will be kept together in the same relative
           location, and only the superproject's URL needs to be provided: git-submodule will correctly
           locate the submodule using the relative URL in .gitmodules.

           Show the status of the submodules. This will print the SHA-1 of the currently checked out commit
           for each submodule, along with the submodule path and the output of git describe for the SHA-1.
           Each SHA-1 will be prefixed with - if the submodule is not initialized, + if the currently
           checked out submodule commit does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
           repository and U if the submodule has merge conflicts.

           If --recursive is specified, this command will recurse into nested submodules, and show their
           status as well.

           If you are only interested in changes of the currently initialized submodules with respect to the
           commit recorded in the index or the HEAD, git-status(1) and git-diff(1) will provide that
           information too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).

           Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were added and committed elsewhere) by
           copying submodule names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config. Optional <path> arguments limit
           which submodules will be initialized. It will also copy the value of submodule.$name.update into
           .git/config. The key used in .git/config is submodule.$name.url. This command does not alter
           existing information in .git/config. You can then customize the submodule clone URLs in
           .git/config for your local setup and proceed to git submodule update; you can also just use git
           submodule update --init without the explicit init step if you do not intend to customize any
           submodule locations.

           Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole submodule.$name section from .git/config
           together with their work tree. Further calls to git submodule update, git submodule foreach and
           git submodule sync will skip any unregistered submodules until they are initialized again, so use
           this command if you don't want to have a local checkout of the submodule in your work tree
           anymore. If you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit that use git-rm(1) gitrm(1)
           rm(1) instead.

           If --force is specified, the submodule's work tree will be removed even if it contains local

           Update the registered submodules, i.e. clone missing submodules and checkout the commit specified
           in the index of the containing repository. This will make the submodules HEAD be detached unless
           --rebase or --merge is specified or the key submodule.$name.update is set to rebase, merge or
           none.  none can be overridden by specifying --checkout.

           If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the setting as stored in
           .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the submodule with the --init option.

           If --recursive is specified, this command will recurse into the registered submodules, and update
           any nested submodules within.

           If --force is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using git checkout --force if
           appropriate), even if the commit specified in the index of the containing repository already
           matches the commit checked out in the submodule.

           Show commit summary between the given commit (defaults to HEAD) and working tree/index. For a
           submodule in question, a series of commits in the submodule between the given super project
           commit and the index or working tree (switched by --cached) are shown. If the option --files is
           given, show the series of commits in the submodule between the index of the super project and the
           working tree of the submodule (this option doesn't allow to use the --cached option or to provide
           an explicit commit).

           Using the --submodule=log option with git-diff(1) will provide that information too.

           Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule. The command has access to the
           variables $name, $path, $sha1 and $toplevel: $name is the name of the relevant submodule section
           in .gitmodules, $path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the superproject, $sha1
           is the commit as recorded in the superproject, and $toplevel is the absolute path to the
           top-level of the superproject. Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
           ignored by this command. Unless given --quiet, foreach prints the name of each submodule before
           evaluating the command. If --recursive is given, submodules are traversed recursively (i.e. the
           given shell command is evaluated in nested submodules as well). A non-zero return from the
           command in any submodule causes the processing to terminate. This can be overridden by adding ||
           : to the end of the command.

           As an example, git submodule foreach 'echo $path `git rev-parse HEAD`' will show the path and
           currently checked out commit for each submodule.

           Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting to the value specified in .gitmodules.
           It will only affect those submodules which already have a URL entry in .git/config (that is the
           case when they are initialized or freshly added). This is useful when submodule URLs change
           upstream and you need to update your local repositories accordingly.

           "git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while "git submodule sync -- A" synchronizes
           submodule "A" only.

       -q, --quiet
           Only print error messages.

       -b, --branch
           Branch of repository to add as submodule. The name of the branch is recorded as
           submodule.<path>.branch in .gitmodules for update --remote.

       -f, --force
           This option is only valid for add, deinit and update commands. When running add, allow adding an
           otherwise ignored submodule path. When running deinit the submodule work trees will be removed
           even if they contain local changes. When running update, throw away local changes in submodules
           when switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation in the submodule, even
           if the commit listed in the index of the containing repository matches the commit checked out in
           the submodule.

           This option is only valid for status and summary commands. These commands typically use the
           commit found in the submodule HEAD, but with this option, the commit stored in the index is used

           This option is only valid for the summary command. This command compares the commit in the index
           with that in the submodule HEAD when this option is used.

       -n, --summary-limit
           This option is only valid for the summary command. Limit the summary size (number of commits
           shown in total). Giving 0 will disable the summary; a negative number means unlimited (the
           default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The size is always limited to 1 for
           added/deleted/typechanged submodules.

           This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using the superproject's recorded
           SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the status of the submodule's remote tracking branch. The
           remote used is branch's remote (branch.<name>.remote), defaulting to origin. The remote branch
           used defaults to master, but the branch name may be overridden by setting the
           submodule.<name>.branch option in either .gitmodules or .git/config (with .git/config taking

           This works for any of the supported update procedures (--checkout, --rebase, etc.). The only
           change is the source of the target SHA-1. For example, submodule update --remote --merge will
           merge upstream submodule changes into the submodules, while submodule update --merge will merge
           superproject gitlink changes into the submodules.

           In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, update --remote fetches the submodule's
           remote repository before calculating the SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use
           submodule update --remote --no-fetch.

       -N, --no-fetch
           This option is only valid for the update command. Don't fetch new objects from the remote site.

           This option is only valid for the update command. Merge the commit recorded in the superproject
           into the current branch of the submodule. If this option is given, the submodule's HEAD will not
           be detached. If a merge failure prevents this process, you will have to resolve the resulting
           conflicts within the submodule with the usual conflict resolution tools. If the key
           submodule.$name.update is set to merge, this option is implicit.

           This option is only valid for the update command. Rebase the current branch onto the commit
           recorded in the superproject. If this option is given, the submodule's HEAD will not be detached.
           If a merge failure prevents this process, you will have to resolve these failures with git-rebase(1). gitrebase(1).
           rebase(1). If the key submodule.$name.update is set to rebase, this option is implicit.

           This option is only valid for the update command. Initialize all submodules for which "git
           submodule init" has not been called so far before updating.

           This option is only valid for the add command. It sets the submodule's name to the given string
           instead of defaulting to its path. The name must be valid as a directory name and may not end
           with a /.

       --reference <repository>
           This option is only valid for add and update commands. These commands sometimes need to clone a
           remote repository. In this case, this option will be passed to the git-clone(1) command.

           NOTE: Do not use this option unless you have read the note for git-clone(1)'s --reference and
           --shared options carefully.

           This option is only valid for foreach, update and status commands. Traverse submodules
           recursively. The operation is performed not only in the submodules of the current repo, but also
           in any nested submodules inside those submodules (and so on).

           Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command to only operate on the
           submodules found at the specified paths. (This argument is required with add).

       When initializing submodules, a .gitmodules file in the top-level directory of the containing
       repository is used to find the url of each submodule. This file should be formatted in the same way
       as $GIT_DIR/config. The key to each submodule url is "submodule.$name.url". See gitmodules(5) for

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                 GIT-SUBMODULE(1)

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation with the feedback links below.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API through Bug Reporter.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.