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GIT-SVN(1)                                       Git Manual                                       GIT-SVN(1)

       git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git

       git svn <command> [options] [arguments]

       git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git. It provides a bidirectional
       flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git repository.

       git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the common "trunk/branches/tags"
       layout, with the --stdlayout option. It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the
       -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the clone command).

       Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git repository can be
       updated from Subversion by the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the dcommit command.

           Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata directories for git svn. The
           Subversion URL may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full URL arguments to -T/-t/-b.
           Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified as a second argument. Normally
           this command initializes the current directory.

           -T<trunk_subdir>, --trunk=<trunk_subdir>, -t<tags_subdir>, --tags=<tags_subdir>,
           -b<branches_subdir>, --branches=<branches_subdir>, -s, --stdlayout
               These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these flags can point to a relative
               repository path (--tags=project/tags) or a full url (--tags=
               You can specify more than one --tags and/or --branches options, in case your Subversion
               repository places tags or branches under multiple paths. The option --stdlayout is a
               shorthand way of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the Subversion
               default. If any of the other options are given as well, they take precedence.

               Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This option is not recommended, please
               read the svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using this option.

               Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

               Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

               For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http, https, and plain svn), specify the
               username. For other transports (eg svn+ssh://), you must include the username in the URL, eg

               This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the names of remotes if
               trunk/branches/tags are specified. The prefix does not automatically include a trailing
               slash, so be sure you include one in the argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b
               is specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash. Setting a prefix is useful if you
               wish to track multiple projects that share a common repository.

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See
               fetch for a description of --ignore-paths.

               When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See
               fetch for a description of --include-paths.

               When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout, --branches, or --tags options), git
               svn will attempt to connect to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion
               repository. This default allows better tracking of history if entire projects are moved
               within a repository, but may cause issues on repositories where read access restrictions are
               in place. Passing --no-minimize-url will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is without
               attempting to connect to a higher level directory. This option is off by default when only
               one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

           Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are tracking. The name of the [svn-remote
           "..."] section in the .git/config file may be specified as an optional command-line argument.

               Store Git commit times in the local timezone instead of UTC. This makes git log (even without
               --date=local) show the same times that svn log would in the local timezone.

               This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion repository you cloned from,
               but if you wish for your local Git repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's
               local Git repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in the same
               local timezone.

               Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause skipping of all matching
               paths from checkout from SVN. The --ignore-paths option should match for every fetch
               (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths

               If the ignore-paths config key is set and the command line option is also given, both regular
               expressions will be used.


               Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch


               Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories


               This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause the inclusion of only
               matching paths from checkout from SVN. The --include-paths option should match for every
               fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.
               --ignore-paths takes precedence over --include-paths.

               Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history. The default is 100. For
               very large Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for clone/fetch to complete
               in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and request

           Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based on the basename of the URL
           passed to it; or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory and work within that.
           It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch commands accept; with the exception of
           --fetch-all and --parent. After a repository is cloned, the fetch command will be able to update
           revisions without affecting the working tree; and the rebase command will be able to update the
           working tree with the latest changes.

               Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each empty directory fetched from
               Subversion. This includes directories that become empty by removing all entries in the
               Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The placeholder files are also tracked
               and removed when no longer necessary.

               Set the name of placeholder files created by --preserve-empty-dirs. Default: ".gitignore"

           This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and rebases the current
           (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

           This works similarly to svn update or git pull except that it preserves linear history with git
           rebase instead of git merge for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

           This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept. However, --fetch-all only
           fetches from the current [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.

           Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and have no uncommitted changes.

           -l, --local
               Do not fetch remotely; only run git rebase against the last fetched commit from the upstream

           Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN repository, and then rebase or reset
           (depending on whether or not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create a revision
           in SVN for each commit in Git.

           When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is specified as an argument, the
           subcommand works on the specified branch, not on the current branch.

           Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

               After committing, do not rebase or reset.

           --commit-url <URL>
               Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to allow existing git svn
               repositories created with one transport method (e.g.  svn:// or http:// for anonymous read)
               to be reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport method (e.g.
               svn+ssh:// or https://) for commit.

                   config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
                   config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)

               Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask) is very strongly discouraged.

               Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.  --mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10").
               All svn server versions can store this information (as a property), and svn clients starting
               from version 1.5 can make use of it. To specify merge information from multiple branches, use
               a single space character between the branches (--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10

                   config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

               This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the svn:mergeinfo
               property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can only be done when
               dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the first have already been pushed
               into SVN.

               Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN. For each patch, one
               may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this patch), "all" (accept all patches),
               or "quit".

               git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer if "no" or "quit", without committing anything
               to SVN.

           Create a branch in the SVN repository.

           -m, --message
               Allows to specify the commit message.

           -t, --tag
               Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir specified during git svn

           -d<path>, --destination=<path>
               If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the init or clone command, you
               must provide the location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository.
               <path> specifies which path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern
               on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags refspecs. You can see these
               refspecs with the commands

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags

               where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to init (or
               "svn" by default).

               Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides the username
               configuration property.

               Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion repository. This is useful in
               cases where the source SVN repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration
               property commiturl.

                   git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl

               Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter --parents on svn cp
               commands and is useful for non-standard repository layouts.

           Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch -t.

           This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users refer to -r/--revision

           The following features from `svn log' are supported:

           -r <n>[:<n>], --revision=<n>[:<n>]
               is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...

           -v, --verbose
               it's not completely compatible with the --verbose output in svn log, but reasonably close.

               is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn't count merged/excluded commits


           New features:

               shows the Git commit sha1, as well

               our version of --pretty=oneline

               SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn client converts the UTC
               time to the local time (or based on the TZ= environment). This command has the same
           Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The output of this mode is
           format-compatible with the output of `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command, local
           uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version of the file in the HEAD revision
           is annotated. Unknown arguments are passed directly to git blame.

               Produce output in the same format as git blame, but with SVN revision numbers instead of Git
               commit hashes. In this mode, changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
               working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.

           When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the corresponding Git commit hash (this
           can optionally be followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given
           a tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

               Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find the commit corresponding
               to the state of the SVN repository (on the current branch) at the specified revision.

               Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is not an exact match return
               the closest match searching forward in the history.

           You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit specified commit or tree
           objects to SVN. This relies on your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes absolutely
           no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply overwrites files with those
           specified in the tree or commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place independently of git
           svn functions.

           Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and creates matching .gitignore files.
           The resulting files are staged to be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/--revision to refer
           to a specific revision.

           Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories. The output is suitable for
           appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

           Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track based on information in
           $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files. Empty directories are automatically recreated when
           using "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended for use after commands like
           "git checkout" or "git reset". (See the svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for more

           Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line. This command does not rely on
           being inside an git svn init-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the original
           tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL of the target Subversion repository.
           The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a git svn-aware repository (that
           has been init-ed with git svn). The -r<revision> option is required for this.

           Shows information about a file or directory similar to what `svn info' provides. Does not
           currently support a -r/--revision argument. Use the --url option to output only the value of the
           URL: field.

           Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a given file or directory. Use
           -r/--revision to refer to a specific Subversion revision.

           Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a file. A specific revision can be
           specified with -r/--revision.

           Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a specific revision.

           Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files in .git/svn and remove
           $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>index files in .git/svn.

           Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This allows you to re-fetch an SVN
           revision. Normally the contents of an SVN revision should never change and reset should not be
           necessary. However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter your --ignore-paths option, a
           fetch may fail with "not found in commit" (file not previously visible) or "checksum mismatch"
           (missed a modification). If the problem file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the
           only way to repair the repo is to use reset.

           Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed. Follow reset with a fetch and then git
           reset or git rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

           -r <n>, --revision=<n>
               Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions are discarded.

           -p, --parent
               Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest parent instead.

               Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to refetch "r2".

                       r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
                                    A---B master

               Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused "r2" to be incomplete in the
               first place. Then:

                   git svn reset -r2 -p
                   git svn fetch

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                          r2---r3---A---B master

               Then fixup "master" with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or your history will not be
               compatible with a future dcommit!

                   git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

                       r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
                                    A'--B' master

       --shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody)], --template=<template_directory>
           Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git init.

       -r <arg>, --revision <arg>
           Used with the fetch command.

           This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be supported. $NUMBER,
           $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges), $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

           This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but is generally not recommended
           because history will be skipped and lost.

       -, --stdin
           Only used with the set-tree command.

           Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order. Only the leading sha1 is read
           from each line, so git rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.

           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left behind. SVN can version empty
           directories, and they are not removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git cannot
           version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the commit to SVN act like Git.

               config key: svn.rmdir

       -e, --edit
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by default for objects that are
           commits, and forced on when committing tree objects.

               config key: svn.edit

       -l<num>, --find-copies-harder
           Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

           They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-tree(1) for more information.

               config key: svn.l
               config key: svn.findcopiesharder

       -A<filename>, --authors-file=<filename>
           Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport:

                       loginname = Joe User <>

           If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer name that does not exist in
           the authors-file, git svn will abort operation. The user will then have to add the appropriate
           entry. Re-running the previous git svn command after the authors-file is modified should continue

               config key: svn.authorsfile

           If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does not exist in the authors file,
           the given file is executed with the committer name as the first argument. The program is expected
           to return a single line of the form "Name <email>", which will be treated as if included in the
           authors file.

       -q, --quiet
           Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even less verbose.

       --repack[=<n>], --repack-flags=<flags>
           These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches with many revisions.

           --repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions to fetch before repacking. This
           defaults to repacking every 1000 commits fetched if no argument is specified.

           --repack-flags are passed directly to git repack.

               config key: svn.repack
               config key: svn.repackflags

       -m, --merge, -s<strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>, -p, --preserve-merges
           These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

           Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset cannot be used (see dcommit).

       -n, --dry-run
           This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

           For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show which diffs would be committed
           to SVN.

           For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream svn repository associated with
           the current branch and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched from.

           For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying when creating the branch or

           When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or dcommit operations), look for
           the first From: or Signed-off-by: line in the log message and use that as the author string.

           When committing to svn from Git (as part of commit-diff, set-tree or dcommit operations), if the
           existing log message doesn't already have a From: or Signed-off-by: line, append a From: line
           based on the Git commit's author string. If you use this, then --use-log-author will retrieve a
           valid author string for all commits.

       -i<GIT_SVN_ID>, --id <GIT_SVN_ID>
           This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This allows the user to override the
           default refname to fetch from when tracking a single URL. The log and dcommit commands no longer
           require this switch as an argument.

       -R<remote name>, --svn-remote <remote name>
           Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use, this allows SVN multiple repositories to
           be tracked. Default: "svn"

           This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one of the repository layout
           options --trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find out where
           its revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch.
           This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory that has been moved around within the
           repository. If this feature is disabled, the branches created by git svn will all be linear and
           not share any history, meaning that there will be no information on where branches were branched
           off or merged. However, following long/convoluted histories can take a long time, so disabling
           this feature may speed up the cloning process. This feature is enabled by default, use
           --no-follow-parent to disable it.

               config key: svn.followparent

       svn.noMetadata, svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata
           This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

           This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will not be able to fetch again
           without metadata. Additionally, if you lose your .git/svn/*/.rev_map.  files, git svn will not be
           able to rebuild them.

           The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this, either. Using this conflicts
           with the useSvmProps option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

           This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down old references to SVN
           revision numbers in existing documentation, bug reports and archives. If you plan to eventually
           migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider git-filter-branch(1)
           instead. filter-branch also allows reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting
           authorship info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.

       svn.useSvmProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps
           This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from mirrors created using SVN::Mirror
           (or svk) for metadata.

           If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely that the revision was created by
           SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want
           to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so introduce a helper function that
           returns the original identity URL and UUID, and use it when generating metadata in commit

       svn.useSvnsyncProps, svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops
           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the svnsync(1) command distributed with
           SVN 1.4.x and later.

           This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For example, an administrator could
           run git svn on the server locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute the repository
           with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so users of it will see the public URL.

           Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to remap the UUID manually. This
           may be useful in situations where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps or

           Similar to Git's remote.<name>.pushurl, this key is designed to be used in cases where url points
           to an SVN repository via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write transport. It
           is assumed that both keys point to the same repository. Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path.
           If either commiturl or pushurl could be used, commiturl takes precedence.

           This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks checked into SVN by
           broken clients. Set this option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with many empty blobs
           that are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is running and take effect on the
           next revision fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be "true".

           This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It can be used by windows users
           and by those who work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII
           characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl's Encode module.

           Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands attempt to recreate empty directories
           that are in the Subversion repository. If this option is set to "false", then empty directories
           will only be created if the "git svn mkdirs" command is run explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes
           this option to be "true".

       Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps options all affect
       the metadata generated and used by git svn; they must be set in the configuration file before any
       history is imported and these settings should never be changed once they are set.

       Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote section because they affect the
       git-svn-id: metadata line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.

       Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project (ignoring tags and branches):

           # Clone a repo (like git clone):
                   git svn clone
           # Enter the newly cloned directory:
                   cd trunk
           # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
                   git branch
           # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
                   git commit ...
           # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
           # latest changes in SVN:
                   git svn rebase
           # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
           # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
                   git svn dcommit
           # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
                   git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

       Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project (complete with a trunk, tags and

           # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
                   git svn clone --stdlayout
           # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
                   git svn clone -T tr -b branch -t tag
           # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
                   git branch -r
           # Create a new branch in SVN
               git svn branch waldo
           # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
           # with the appropriate name):
                   git reset --hard remotes/trunk
           # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time.  The usage
           # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

       The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for large Subversion repositories).
       If multiple people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use git svn to interact with the
       same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone to a repository on a server and have
       each person clone that repository with git clone:

           # Do the initial import on a server
                   ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone
           # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
                   mkdir project
                   cd project
                   git init
                   git remote add origin server:/pub/project
                   git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
                   git fetch
           # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
           # we only want to use git svn for future updates
                   git config --remove-section remote.origin
           # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
                   git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
           # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and -T/-b/-t options as were used on server)
                   git svn init
           # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
                   git svn rebase

       Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git merge to synchronize
       unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits
       linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred git svn dcommit
       subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

       Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from the git svn branch. This was
       because the author favored git svn set-tree B to commit a single head rather than the git svn
       set-tree A..B notation to commit multiple commits. Use of git pull or git merge with git svn set-tree
       A..B will cause non-linear history to be flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to
       merge commits unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.

       While git svn can track copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
       standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened inside git back upstream to SVN
       users. Therefore it is advised that users keep history as linear as possible inside Git to ease
       compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).

       If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches is in effect), it sometimes creates
       multiple Git branches for one SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form
       branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional branches are created if git svn
       cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the
       history of the other branches.

       Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists of a copy operation. git svn will read this
       commit to get the SVN revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the Git commit
       that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the parent of the branch. However, it is
       possible that there is no suitable Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other
       reasons, if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by git svn (e.g. because it
       is an old revision that was skipped with --revision), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not
       tracked by git svn (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a subdirectory of a tracked
       branch). In these cases, git svn will still create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git
       commit as the parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the branch was
       copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is indicated by the message "Initializing
       parent: <branchname>".

       Additionally, it will create a special branch named <branchname>@<SVN-Revision>, where <SVN-Revision>
       is the SVN revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will point to the newly created
       parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted and later recreated from a different
       version, there will be multiple such branches with an @.

       Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a single SVN revision.

       An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is
       created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. git svn clone -s will
       then create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these
       as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100 to
       r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a branch sub@2__
       pointing to the new parent commit of branch sub (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

       For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is recommended that all git svn
       users clone, fetch and dcommit directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git clone/pull/merge/push
       operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended method of exchanging code between
       Git branches and users is git format-patch and git am, or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.

       Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan to dcommit from because
       Subversion users cannot see any merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git
       branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong branch.

       If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt to commit on top of the SVN
       commit named in

           git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1

       You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you want to dcommit to is the
       first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older
       commit on the same SVN branch.

       git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or any git svn metadata, or
       config. So repositories created and managed with using git svn should use rsync for cloning, if
       cloning is to be done at all.

       Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to before dcommit on will require
       forcing an overwrite of the existing ref on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad
       practice, see the git-push(1) documentation for details.

       Do not use the --amend option of git-commit(1) on a change you've already dcommitted. It is
       considered bad practice to --amend commits you've already pushed to a remote repository for other
       users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

       When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing the repository layout is used
       (--trunk, --tags, --branches, --stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git repository with
       completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate directories in the working
       copy. While this is the easiest way to get a copy of a complete repository, for projects with many
       branches it will lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for projects
       using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags), it is recommended to clone with option
       --stdlayout. If the project uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
       required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk), without giving any repository
       layout options. If the full history with branches and tags is required, the options --trunk /
       --branches / --tags must be used.

       When using multiple --branches or --tags, git svn does not automatically handle name collisions (for
       example, if two branches from different paths have the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the
       same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git repository then, before your first fetch,
       edit the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with different name spaces.
       For example:

           branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
           branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*

       We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled properties are logged to

       Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not tracked when committing to SVN.
       I do not plan on adding support for this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working
       for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing renamed and copied files is
       fully supported if they're similar enough for Git to detect them.

       In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag (because a tag is just a
       directory copy, thus technically the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN repository, git svn
       cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus it acts conservatively and
       imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with tags/.

       git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository .git/config file. It is
       similar the core Git [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob arguments; but they are
       instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly configured with
       multiple projects glob expansions such those listed below are allowed:

           [svn-remote "project-a"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Keep in mind that the * (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref (right of the :) must be the farthest
       right path component; however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it's an independent path
       component (surrounded by / or EOL). This type of configuration is not automatically created by init
       and should be manually entered with a text-editor or using git config.

       It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a comma-separated list of names
       within braces. For example:

           [svn-remote "huge-project"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
                   branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/branches/*
                   tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*

       Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

           [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
                   url =
                   fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
                   fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
                   branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
                   branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
                   tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

       Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which location to use using the -d
       or --destination flag:

           $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

       Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch or tag has appeared. If the
       subset of branches or tags is changed after fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited
       to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.8.3                                        05/24/2013                                       GIT-SVN(1)

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