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javadoc(1)                                                                                        javadoc(1)



NAME
       javadoc - Java API documentation generator

SYNOPSIS
       javadoc  [ options ] [ packagenames ] [ sourcefilenames ] [ -subpackages pkg1:pkg2:...  ] [ @argfiles
       ]

PARAMETERS
       Arguments can be in any order.

       options        Command-line options, as specified in this document.  To see a typical use of  javadoc
                      options, see Real World Example.

       packagenames   A   series   of   names   of   packages,   separated  by  spaces,  such  as  java.lang
                      java.lang.reflect java.awt.  You must separately specify each package you want to doc-ument. document.
                      ument.   The  Javadoc  tool  uses  -sourcepath  to  look for these package names.  The
                      Javadoc tool does not recursively traverse subpackages.  Wildcards such  as  asterisks
                      (*) are not allowed.  See EXAMPLES, Documenting One or More Packages.

       sourcefilenames
                      A  series  of  source file names, separated by spaces, each of which can include paths
                      and wildcards such as asterisk (*).  The Javadoc tool will process  every  file  whose
                      name  ends  with  .java  , and whose name, when stripped of that suffix, is actually a
                      legal class name (see Identifiers).  Therefore, you can name files with  dashes  (such
                      as  X-Buffer),  or  other  illegal  characters, to prevent them from being documented.
                      This is useful for test files and files generated from templates.  The path that  pre-cedes precedes
                      cedes  the  source  file  name  determines  where javadoc will look for the file.  The
                      Javadoc tool does not use -sourcepath to look for these source file names.)  For exam-ple, example,
                      ple,  passing  in  Button.java  is identical to ./Button.java.  An example source file
                      name with a full path is /home/src/java/awt/Graphics*.java.  See EXAMPLES, Documenting
                      One  or  More Classes.  You can also mix packagenames and sourcefilenames, as in EXAM-PLES, EXAMPLES,
                      PLES, Documenting Both Packages and Classes.

       -subpackages pkg1:pkg2:...
                      Generates documentation from source files in the specified packages and recursively in
                      their subpackages. An alternative to supplying packagenames or sourcefilenames.

       @argfiles      One or more files that contain a list of Javadoc options, packagenames and sourcefile-names sourcefilenames
                      names in any order. Wildcards (*) and -J options are not allowed in these files.

DESCRIPTION
       The Javadoc tool parses the declarations and documentation comments in a set of Java source files and
       produces  a corresponding set of HTML pages describing (by default) the public and protected classes,
       nested classes (but not anonymous inner classes), interfaces, constructors, methods, and fields.

       You can run the Javadoc tool on entire packages, individual source files,  or  both.   In  the  first
       case,  you pass in as an argument to javadoc a series of package names.  In the second case, you pass
       in a series of source (.java) file names.  See EXAMPLES at the end of this document.

              NOTE - When you pass in package names to the Javadoc tool, it currently  processes  all  .java
              classes  in  the  specified  package directories, even if the .java files are code examples or
              other classes that are not actually members of the specified packages. It does not parse  each
              .java file for a package declaration; we may add this parsing in a future release.

       During  a run, the Javadoc tool automatically adds cross-reference links to package, class and member
       names that are being documented as part of that run. Links appear in several places:

        Declarations (return types, argument types, field types)

        "See Also" sections generated from @see tags

        In-line text generated from {@link} tags

        Exception names generated from @throws tags

        Specified by links to members in interfaces and Overrides links to members in classes

        Summary tables listing packages, classes and members

        Package and class inheritance trees

        The index

       You can add hyperlinks to existing text for classes not included on the command line  (but  generated
       separately) by way of the -link and -linkoffline options.

       The  Javadoc tool produces one complete document each time it is run; it cannot do incremental builds
       - that is, it cannot modify or directly incorporate results from previous runs of  Javadoc.  However,
       it can link to results from other runs, as just mentioned.

       As  implemented, the Javadoc tool requires and relies on the java compiler to do its job. The Javadoc
       tool calls part of javac to compile the declarations, ignoring the member implementation.  It  builds
       a  rich  internal  representation  of the classes, including the class hierarchy, and "use" relation-ships, relationships,
       ships, then generates the HTML from that. The Javadoc tool also picks up user-supplied  documentation
       from documentation comments in the source code.

       In fact, the Javadoc tool will run on .java source files that are pure stub files with no method bod-ies. bodies.
       ies.  This means you can write documentation comments and run the Javadoc tool in the earliest stages
       of design while creating the API, before writing the implementation.

       Relying  on the compiler ensures that the HTML output corresponds exactly with the actual implementa-tion, implementation,
       tion, which may rely on implicit, rather than explicit, source code.  For example, the  Javadoc  tool
       will document default constructors (section 8.6.7 of Java Language Specification) that are present in
       the .class files but not in the source code.

       In many cases, the Javadoc tool allows you to generate documentation from source files whose code  is
       incomplete  or  erroneous.  This  is  a benefit that enables you to generate documentation before all
       debugging and troubleshooting is done. For example, according to the Java Language  Specification,  a
       class  that contains an abstract method should itself be declared abstract. The Javadoc tool does not
       check for this, and would proceed without a warning, whereas the javac compiler stops on this  error.
       The  Javadoc  tool  does do some primitive checking of doc comments. Use the DocCheck doclet to check
       the doc comments more thoroughly.

       When the Javadoc tool builds its internal structure for the documentation, it  loads  all  referenced
       classes.   Because  of  this,  the  Javadoc tool must be able to find all referenced classes, whether
       bootstrap classes, extensions, or user classes.  For more about this,  see  How  Classes  Are  Found.
       Generally speaking, classes you create must either be loaded as an extension or in the Javadoc tool's
       class path.

   javadoc Doclets
       You can customize the content and format of the Javadoc tool's output by using doclets.  The  Javadoc
       tool  has  a default "built-in" doclet, called the standard doclet, that generates HTML-formatted API
       documentation.  You can modify or subclass the standard doclet, or write your own doclet to  generate
       HTML, XML, MIF, RTF or whatever output format you'd like.  Information about doclets and their use is
       at the following locations:


        Javadoc Doclets

        The -doclet command-line option

       When a custom doclet is not specified with the -doclet command line option, the Javadoc tool uses the
       default  standard  doclet.   The  Javadoc  tool  has  several command line options that are available
       regardless of which doclet is being used.  The standard doclet adds a supplementary  set  of  command
       line options.  Both sets of options are described below in the options section.

   Related Documentation and Doclets
        Javadoc Enhancements for details about improvements added in Javadoc 1.4.

        Javadoc  FAQ  for  answers  to  common questions, information about Javadoc-related tools and work-arounds workarounds
         arounds for bugs.

        How to Write Doc Comments for Javadoc for more information about Sun conventions for writing  docu-mentation documentation
         mentation comments.

        Requirements  for  Writing  API Specifications - Standard requirements used when writing the Java 2
         Platform Specification.  It can be useful whether you are writing API specifications in source fiel
         documentation  comments or in  other formats.  It covers requirements for packages, classes, inter-faces, interfaces,
         faces, fields and methods to stisfy testable assertions.

        Documentation Comments Specification - The original specification on documentation comments,  Chap-ter Chapter
         ter  18,  Documentation  Comments,  in  the  Java  Language  Specification, First Edition, by James
         Gosling, Bill Joy and Guy Steele. (This chapter was removed from the second edition.)

        DocCheck Doclet - Check doc comments in source files and generates a report listing the errors  and
         irregularities it finds. It is part of the Sun Doc Check Utilities.

        MIF  Doclet  - Can automate the generation of API documentation in MIF, FrameMaker and PDF formats.
         MIF is Adobe FrameMaker's interchange format.

   Terminology
       A few terms have specific meanings within the context of the Javadoc tool:

       generated document
                      The document generated by the javadoc tool from the doc comments in Java source  code.
                      The default generated document is in HTML and is created by the standard doclet.

       name           A  name  in  the Java Language, namely the name of a package, class, interface, field,
                      constructor,   or   method.    A   name    can    be    fully-qualified,    such    as
                      java.lang.String.equals(java.lang.Object),    or    partially-qualified,    such    as
                      equals(Object).

       documented classes
                      The classes and interfaces for which full documentation is generated during a  javadoc
                      run.  To  be  documented,  the source files must be available, and either their source
                      filenames or package names must be passed into the javadoc command.  We also refer  to
                      these as the classes included in the javadoc run, or the included classes.

       inlcuded classes
                      Classes  and  interfaces  whose  source filenames or package names are passed into the
                      javadoc command.

       excluded classes
                      Classes and interfaces whose source filename or package names are not passed into  the
                      javadoc command.

       referenced classes
                      The  classes  and interfaces that are explicitly referred to in the definition (imple-mentation) (implementation)
                      mentation) or doc comments of the documented classes and interfaces.  Examples of ref-erences references
                      erences  include  return  type, parameter type, cast type, extended class, implemented
                      interface,  imported  classes,  classes  used  in  method   bodies,   @see,   {@link},
                      {@linkplain}, and {@inheritDoc} tags.  (Notice this definition has changed since 1.3.)
                      tags) do not qualify as referenced classes.  When thE Javadoc tool is run,  it  should
                      load  into  memory all of the referenced classes in javadoc's bootclasspath and class-path. classpath.
                      path.  (The Javadoc tool prints a "Class not found" warning for referenced classes not
                      found.)   The  Javadoc  tool  can  derive  enough information from the .class files to
                      determine their existence and the fully qualified names of their members.

       external referenced classes
                      The referenced classes whose documentation not being generated during a  javadoc  run.
                      In other words, these classes are not passed into the Javadoc tool on the comand line.
                      Links for names in the generated documentation to those classes are said to be  exter-nal external
                      nal  references  or  external links.  For example, if you run the Javadoc tool on only
                      the java.awt package, then any class in java.lang, such as Object, is an external ref-erenced referenced
                      erenced  class.   External  referenced  classes  can  be linked to using the -link and
                      -linkoffline options.  An important property of an external referenced class  is  that
                      its source comments are normally not available to the Javadoc run. In this case, these
                      comments cannot be inherited.

   Source Files
       The Javadoc tool will generate output originating from four different types of "source"  files:  Java
       language source files for classes (.java), package comment files, overview comment files, and miscel-laneous miscellaneous
       laneous unprocessed files.

   Class Source Code Files
       Each class or interface and its members can have their own  documentation  comment,  contained  in  a
       .java file.  For more details about these doc commments, see Documentation Comments below.

   Package Comment Files
       Each  package  can  have  its own documentation comment, contained in its own "source" file, that the
       Javadoc tool will merge into the package summary page that it generates.  You  typically  include  in
       this comment any documentation that applies to the entire package.

       To create a package comment file, you must name it package.html and place it in the package directory
       in the source tree along with the .java files. The Javadoc tool  will  automatically  look  for  this
       filename  in  this  location.   Notice  that the filename is identical for all packages. For explicit
       details, see the example of package.html.

       The content of the package comment file is one big documentation comment, written in HTML,  like  all
       other  comments, with one exception: The documentation comment should not include the comment separa-tors separators
       tors /** and */ or leading asterisks.  When writing the comment, you should make the first sentence a
       summary  about  the  package, and not put a title or any other text between <body> and the first sen-tence. sentence.
       tence.  You can include package tags; as with any documentation comment, all tags except {@link} must
       appear  after the description.  If you add a @see tag in a package comment file, it must have a fully
       qualified name.

       When the Javadoc tool runs, it automatically looks for this file; if found, the Javadoc tool does the
       following:


        Copies all content between <body> and </body> tags for processing.

        Processes any package tags that are present.

        Inserts  the  processed  text  at  the bottom of the package summary page it generates, as shown in
         Package Summary.

        Copies the first sentence of the package comment to the top of the package summary page.   It  also
         adds  the  package  name  and  this first sentence to the list of packages on the overview page, as
         shown in Overview Summary.  The end-of-sentence is determined by the same rules used for the end of
         the first sentence of class and member descriptions.

   Overview Comment File
       Each  application or set of packages that you are documenting can have its own overview documentation
       comment, kept in its own "source" file, that the Javadoc tool will merge into the overview page  that
       it  generates.   You  typically  include in this comment any documentation that applies to the entire
       application or set of packages.

       To create an overview comment file, you can name the file anything you want, typically overview.html,
       and  place it anywhere, typically at the top level of the source tree.  Notice that you can have mul-tiple multiple
       tiple overview comment files for the same set of source files, in case you want to run javadoc multi-ple multiple
       ple  times on different sets of packages.  For example, if the source files for the java.applet pack-age package
       age are contained in /home/user/src/java/applet directory, you could create an overview comment  file
       at /home/user/src/overview.html.

       The  content of the overview comment file is one big documentation comment, written in HTML, like the
       package comment file described previously.  See that description for  details.   To  reiterate,  when
       writing  the  comment,  you  should make the first sentence a summary about the application or set of
       packages, and not put a title or any other text between <body>  and  the  first  sentence.   You  can
       include  overview  tags; as with any documentation comment, all tags except {@link} must appear after
       the description.  If you add a @see tag, it must have a fully-qualified name.

       When you run the Javadoc tool, you specify the overview comment file name with the -overview  option.
       The file is then processed, similar to that of a package comment file:

        Copies all content between <body> and </body> tags for processing.

        Processes any overview tags that are present.

        Inserts  the  processed  text at the bottom of the overview page it generates, as shown in Overview
         Summary.

        Copies the first sentence of the overview comment to the top of the overview summary page.

   Miscellaneous Unprocessed Files
       You can also include in your source any miscellaneous files that you want the Javadoc tool to copy to
       the  destination  directory.  These typically include graphic files (for example, Java source (.java)
       and class (.class) files) and self-standing HTML files whose content would overwhelm  the  documenta-tion documentation
       tion comment of a normal Java source file.

       To  include  unprocessed files, put them in a directory called doc-files, which can be a subdirectory
       of any package directory.  You can have one such subdirectory for each package.   You  might  include
       images,  example code, source files, .class files, applets, and HTML files.  For example, if you want
       to include the image of a button button.gif in the java.awt.Button  class  documentation,  you  place
       that file in the /home/user/src/java/awt/doc-files/ directory.  Notice the doc-files directory should
       not be located at /home/user/src/java/doc-files because java is not a package - that is, it does  not
       directly contain any source files.

       All  links  to  these unprocessed files must be hard-coded, because the Javadoc tool does not look at
       the files - it simply copies the directory and all its contents to the destination.  For example, the
       link in the Button.java doc comment might look like:

       /**
       * This button looks like this:
       * <img src="doc-files/Button.gif">
       */

Test Files and Template Files
       Some  developers  have indicated they want to store test files and templates files in the source tree
       near their corresponding source files.  That is, they would like to put them in the  same  directory,
       or a subdirectory, of those source files.

       If you run the Javadoc tool by explicitly passing in individual sourcefilenames, you can deliberately
       omit test and templates files andprevent them from being processed. However, if you  are  passing  in
       package  names or wildcards, you need to follow certain rulesto ensure these test files and templates
       files are not processed.

       Test files differ from template files in that the former arelegal, compilable source files, while the
       latter are not, but may end with ".java".

       Test files -Often filesOften
              Often  developers  want to put compilable, runnable test files for a given package in the same
              directory as the source files for that package.  But they want the test files to belong  to  a
              package other than the source file package, such as the unnamed package (so test files have no
              package statement or a different package statement from the source). In  this  scenario,  when
              the  source  is being documented by specifying its package name specified on the command line,
              the test files will cause warnings or errors. You need to put such test files in  a  subdirec-tory. subdirectory.
              tory.  For example, if you want to add test files for source files in com.package1 put them in
              a subdirectory that would be an invalid package name (because it contains a hyphen):

            com/package1/test-files/

       The test directory will be skipped by the Javadoc tool with no warnings.

       If your test files contain doc comments, you can set up a separate run of the Javadoc tool to produce
       documentation  of  the  test  files by passing in their test source filenames with wildcards, such as
       com/package/   est-filesjava .

       Tempaltes for source files -Template filesTemplate
              Template files have names that often end in ".java" and are not compilable. If you have a tem-plate template
              plate  for a source file that you want to keep in the source directory, you can name it with a
              dash (such as Buffer-Template.java ), or any other illegal Java character, to prevent it  from
              being  processed.  This relies on the fact that the Javadoc tool will only process sourcefiles
              whose name, when stripped of the ".java" suffix, is actually a legal class name  (see  Identi-fiers Identifiers
              fiers ).

   Generated Files
       By  default, javadoc uses a standard doclet that generates HTML-formatted documentation.  This doclet
       generates the following kinds of files (where each HTML "page" corresponds to a separate file).  Note
       that javadoc generates files with two types of names: those named after classes/interfaces, and those
       that are not (such as package-summary.html).  Files in the latter group contain  hyphens  to  prevent
       file name conflicts with those in the former group.

   Basic Content Pages
        One class or interface page (classname.html) for each class or interface it is documenting.

        One  package  page  (package-summary.html)  for  each  package  it is documenting. The Javadoc tool
         includes any HTML text provided in a file named package.html in the package directory of the source
         tree.

        One  overview  page (overview-summary.html) for the entire set of packages.  This is the front page
         of the generated document.  The Javadoc tool includes any HTML text provided in  a  file  specified
         with  the  -overview  option.   Note that this file is created only if you pass into javadoc two or
         more package names.  For further explanation, see HTML Frames below.

   Cross-Reference Pages
        One class hierarchy page for the entire set of packages (overview-tree.html).  To view this,  click
         on "Overview" in the navigation bar, then click on "Tree".

        One  class  hierarchy  page for each package (package-tree.html).  To view this, go to a particular
         package, class or interface page; click "Tree" to display the hierarchy for that package.

        One "use" page for each package (package-use.html) and a separate one for each class and  interface
         (class-use/classname.html).  This page describes what packages, classes, methods, constructors, and
         fields use any part of the given class, interface, or package.  Given a class or interface  A,  its
         "use"  page  includes subclasses of A, fields declared as A, methods that return A, and methods and
         constructors with parameters of type A.  You can access this page by first going  to  the  package,
         class, or interface, then clicking on the "Use" link in the navigation bar.

        A  deprecated  API page (deprecated-list.html) listing all deprecated names.  (A deprecated name is
         not recommended for use, generally due to improvements, and a replacement name  is  usually  given.
         Deprecated APIs may be removed in future implementations.)

        A constant field values page (constant-values.html) for the values of static fields.

        A serialized form page (serialized-form.html) for information about serializable and externalizable
         classes.  Each such class has a description of its serialization fields and methods.  This informa-tion information
         tion is of interest to re-implementors, not to developers using the API.  While there is no link in
         the navigation bar, you can get to this information by going to any serialized class  and  clicking
         "Serialized Form" in the "See also" section of the class description.  The standard doclet automat-ically automatically
         ically generates a serialized form page: any class (public or non-public) that implements Serializ-able Serializable
         able  is  included,  along with readObject and writeObject methods, the fields that are serialized,
         and the doc comments from the @serial, @serialField,  and  @serialData  tags.  Public  serializable
         classes  can  be excluded by marking them (or their package) with @serial exclude, and package-pri-vate package-private
         vate serializable classes can be included by marking them (or their package) with @serial  include.
         As  of 1.4, you can generate the complete serialized form for public and private classes by running
         javadoc without specifying the -private option.

        An index (index-*.html) of all class, interface, constructor, field and  method  names,  alphabeti-cally alphabetically
         cally  arranged.  This is internationalized for Unicode and can be generated as a single file or as
         a separate file for each starting character (such as A-Z for English).

   Support Files
        A help page (help-doc.html) that describes the navigation bar and the above pages.  You can provide
         your own custom help file to override the default using -helpfile.

        One index.html file that creates the HTML frames for display.  This is the file you load to display
         the front page with frames.  This file itself contains no text content.

        Several frame files (*-frame.html) containing lists of packages, classes and interfaces, used  when
         HTML frames are being displayed.

        A  package  list  file  (package-list), used by the -link and -linkoffline options.  This is a text
         file, not HTML, and is not reachable through any links.

        A style sheet file (stylesheet.css) that controls a limited amount  of  color,  font  family,  font
         size, font style, and positioning on the generated pages.

        A  doc-files  directory  that  holds  any image, example, source code, or other files that you want
         copied to the destination directory.  These files are not processed by the Javadoc tool in any man-ner, manner,
         ner,  that is, any javadoc tags in them will be ignored.  This directory is not generated unless it
         exists in the source tree.

   HTML Frames
       The Javadoc tool will generate either two or three HTML frames, as shown in the figure  below.   When
       you  pass  source  files  (*.java) or a single package name as arguments into the javadoc command, it
       creates only one frame (C) in the left-hand column, that is, the list of classes.  When you pass into
       javadoc  two  or more package names, it creates a third frame (P) listing all packages, as well as an
       overview page (Detail).  This overview page has the file  name,  overview-summary.html.   Thus,  this
       file  is created only if you pass in two or more package names.  You can bypass frames by clicking on
       the "No Frames" link or entering at overview-summary.html.

       If you are unfamiliar with HTML frames, you should be aware that frames can have focus  for  printing
       and  scrolling.   To give a frame focus, click on it.  Then, on many browsers the arrow keys and page
       keys will scroll that frame, and the print menu command will print it.

           ------------                  ------------|C| -----------|C|
           |C| Detail |                  |P| Detail |
           | |        |                  | |        |
           | |        |                  |-|        |
           | |        |                  |C|        |
           | |        |                  | |        |
           | |        |                  | |        |
           ------------                  ------------javadoc -----------javadoc
          javadoc *.java           javadoc java.lang java.awt

       Load one of the following two files as the starting page depending on whether you want HTML frames or
       not:


        index.html (for frames)

        overview-summary.html (for no frames)

   Generated File Structure
       The  generated class and interface files are organized in the same directory hierarchy as Java source
       files and class files.  This structure is one directory per subpackage.

       For  example,  the  document  generated  for  the  class  java.applet.Applet  would  be  located   at
       java/applet/Applet.html.  The file structure for the java.applet package follows, given that the des-tination destination
       tination directory is named apidocs.  All files that contain the word "frame" appear  in  the  upper-left upperleft
       left or lower-left frames, as noted.  All other HTML files appear in the right-hand frame.

       NOTE:  Directories  are shown in bold.  The asterisks (*) indicate the files and directories that are
       omitted when the arguments to javadoc are source file  names  (*.java)  rather  than  package  names.
       Also,  when  arguments  are  source  file names, package-list is created but is empty.  The doc-files
       directory is not created in the destination unless it exists in the source tree.



       apidocs                         Top directory
         index.html                    Initial page that sets up HTML frames
       * overview-summary.html         Lists all packages with first sentence summaries
         overview-tree.html            Lists class hierarchy for all packages
         deprecated-list.html          Lists deprecated API for all packages
         constant-values.html          Lists values of static fields for all packages
         serialized-form.html          Lists serialized form for all packages
       * overview-frame.html           Lists all packages, used in upper-left frame
         allclasses-frame.html         Lists all package classes, lower-left frame
         help-doc.html                 Lists user help for how pages are organized
         index-all.html                Default index created w/o -splitindex option
         index-files                   Directory created with -splitindex option

            index-<number>.html        Index files created with -splitindex option
         package-list                  Lists package names used only for resolving external refs
         stylesheet.css                HTML style sheet for defining fonts, colors, positions
         java                          Package directory
            applet                     Subpackage directory
               Applet.html             Page for Applet class
               AppletContext.html      Page for AppletContext interface
               AppletStub.html         Page for AppletStub interface
               AudioClip.html          Page for AudioClip interface
             * package-summary.html    Lists classes with first sentence summaries
             * package-frame.html      Lists package classes, lower left-hand frame
             * package-tree.html       Lists class hierarchy for this package
               package-use             Lists where this package is used
               doc-files               Directory holding image & example files
               class-use               Directory holding pages API is used
                  Applet.html          Page for uses of Applet class
                  AppletContext.html   Page for uses of AppletContext interface
                  AppletStub.html      Page for uses of AppletStub interface
                  AudioClip.html       Page for uses of AudioClip interface
         src-html                      Source code directory
            java                       Package directory
               applet                  Subpackage directory
                  Applet.html          Page for Applet source code
                  AppletContext.html   Page for AppletContext source code
                  AppletStub.html      Page for AppletStub source code
                  AudioClip.html       Page for AudioClip source code

   Generated API Declarations
       The Javadoc tool generates a declaration at the start of each class, interface,  field,  constructor,
       and  method description. This declaration is the declaration for that API item. For example, the dec-laration declaration
       laration for the Boolean class is:

              public final class Boolean
              extends Object
              implements Serializable

       and the declaration for the Boolean.valueOf method is:

              public static Boolean valueOf(String s)

       The Javadoc tool can include the modifiers public, protected, private, abstract, final, static, tran-sient, transient,
       sient,  and volatile, but not synchronized or native.  These last two modifiers are considered imple-mentation implementation
       mentation detail and not part of the API specification.

       Rather than relying on the keyword synchronized, APIs should document their concurrency semantics  in
       the  comment  description,  as  in  "a  single Enumeration cannot be used by multiple threads concur-rently". concurrently".
       rently".  The document should not describe how to achieve these semantics. As another example,  while
       Hashtable  should  be thread-safe, there's no reason to specify that we achieve this by synchronizing
       all of its exported methods. We should reserve the right to  synchronize  internally  at  the  bucket
       level, thus offering higher concurrency.


   Documentation Comments
       The original "Documentation Comments Specification" can be found under related documentation.

   Commenting the Source Code
       You can include documentation comments ("doc comments") in the source code, ahead of declarations for
       any entity (classes, interfaces, methods, constructors, or fields).  You can also create doc comments
       for  each  package  and another one for the overview, though their syntax is slightly different.  Doc
       comments are also known as Javadoc comments.  A doc comment consists of the  characters  between  the
       characters  /**  that  begin  the  comment  and the characters */ that end it.  Leading asterisks are
       allowed on each line and are described further below.  The text can continue onto multiple lines.

              /**
              * This is the typical format of a simple documentation comment
              * that spans two lines.
              */

       To save space you can put a comment on one line:

              /** This comment takes up only one line. */

       Placement of comments - Documentation comments are recognized only  when  placed  immediately  before
       class,  interface, constructor, method, or field declarations (see the class example, method example,
       and field example).  Documentation comments placed in the body of a method  are  ignored.   Only  one
       documentation comment per declaration statement is recognized by the Javadoc tool.

       A  common  mistake is to put an import statement between the class comment and the class declaration.
       Avoid this, as javadoc will ignore the class comment.

              /**
              * This is the class comment for the class Whatever.
              */

              import com.sun;   // MISTAKE - Important not to put statement here

              public class Whatever {
              }

       A comment is a description followed by tags - The description begins after the starting delimiter /**
       and continues until the tag section.  The tag section starts with the first character @ that begins a
       line (ignoring leading asterisks and white space).  It is possible to have a comment with  only  tags
       and no description.  The description cannot continue after the tag section begins.  The argument to a
       tag can span multiple lines.  There can be any number of tags - some types of tags  can  be  repeated
       while others cannot.  This @see starts the tag section:

               /**
               * This is a doc comment.
               * @see java.lang.Object
               */

       Standard and in-line tags - A tag is a special keyword within a doc comment that the Javadoc tool can
       process.  The Javadoc tool has standalone tags, which appear as @tag, and in-line tags, which  appear
       within  braces,  as  {@tag}.   To  be interpreted, a standalone tag must appear at the beginning of a
       line, ignoring leading asterisks, white space and comment separator (/**).  This means  you  can  use
       the  @  character  elsewhere in the text and it will not be interpreted as the start of a tag. If you
       want to start a line with the @ character and not have it be interpreted, use the HTML entity &#064;.
       Each  standalone  tag  has  associated text, which includes any text following the tag up to, but not
       including, either the next tag, or the end of the doc comment. This associated text can span multiple
       lines.   An in-line tag is allowed and interpreted anywhere that text is allowed. The following exam-ple example
       ple contains the standalone tag @deprecated and in-line tag {@link}.

              /**
               * @deprecated As of JDk 1.1, replaced by {@link #setBounds(int,int,int,int)}
               */

       Comments are written in HTML - The text must be written in HTML, in that they should use  HTML  enti-ties entities
       ties and HTML tags.  You can use whichever version of HTML your browser supports; we have written the
       standard doclet to generate HTML 3.2-compliant code elsewhere (outside of the documentation comments)
       with  the inclusion of cascading style sheets and frames.  (We preface each generated file with "HTML
       4.0" because of the frame sets.)

       For example, entities for the less-than (<) and greater-than (>) symbols should be written  &lt;  and
       &gt;.   Likewise,  the  ampersand (&) should be written &amp;.  The bold HTML tag <b> is shown in the
       following example:

              /**
              * This is a <b>doc</b> comment.
              * @see java.lang.Object
              */

       Leading asterisks - When javadoc parses a doc comment, leading asterisk (*) characters on  each  line
       are  discarded; blanks and tabs preceding the initial asterisk (*) characters are also discarded.  If
       you omit the leading asterisk on a line, all leading white space is removed.  Therefore,  you  should
       not  omit leading asterisks if you want leading white space to be kept, such as when indenting sample
       code with the <pre> tag.

       First sentence - The first sentence of each doc comment should be a summary  sentence,  containing  a
       concise but complete description of the declared entity.  This sentence ends at the first period that
       is followed by a blank, tab, or line terminator, or at the first standalone  tag.  The  Javadoc  tool
       copies this first sentence to the member summary at the top of the HTML page.

       Declaration  with  multiple fields - Java allows declaring multiple fields in a single statement, but
       this statement can have only one documentation comment, which is copied for all  fields.   Therefore,
       if  you want individual documentation comments for each field, you must declare each field in a sepa-rate separate
       rate statement.  For example, the following documentation comment doesn't make sense when written  as
       a single declaration and would be better handled as two declarations:

              /**
              * The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y)
              */
              public int x, y;      // Avoid this

       The Javadoc tool generates the following documentation from the above code:

              public int x
              The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y).
              public int y
              The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y).

       Use  header  tags  carefully - When writing documentation comments for members, it is best not to use
       HTML heading tags such as <H1> and <H2>, because the Javadoc tool creates an entire structured  docu-ment document
       ment and these structural tags can interfere with the formatting of the generated document.  However,
       it is fine to use these headings in class and package comments to provide your own structure.


   Automatic Reuse of Method Comments
       The Javadoc tool has the ability to automatically reuse or "inherit" method comments in  classes  and
       interfaces. When a description, or @return, @param, @see or @throws tag is missing from a method com-ment, comment,
       ment, the Javadoc tool instead copies the corresponding description or tag comment from the method it
       overrides or implements (if any), according to the algorithm below.

       More specifically, when a @param tag for a particular parameter is missing, then the comment for that
       parameter is copied.  When an @throws tag for a particular exception is missing, the @throws  tag  is
       copied only if that exception is declared.

       This  behavior  contrasts  with version 1.3 and earlier, where the presence of any description or tag
       would prevent all comments from being inherited.

       Also of interest, is the inline tag {@inheritDoc} is present in a description or any tag, the  corre-sponding corresponding
       sponding description or tag is copied at that spot.

       The  overridden  method  must be a member of a documented class, and not an external referenced class
       for the doc comment to actually be available to copy.

       Inheriting of comments occurs in three cases:

        When a method in a class overrides a method in a superclass
        When a method in an interface overrides a method in a superinterface
        When a method in a class implements a method in an interface

       In the first two cases, for method overrides, the Javadoc tool generates a subheading "Overrides"  in
       the documentation for the overriding method, with a link to the method it is overriding.

       In  the  third  case, when a method in a given class implements a method in an interface, the Javadoc
       tool generates a subheading "Specified by" in the documentation for the  overriding  method,  with  a
       link to the method it is implementing.

       Algorithm  for  Inheriting  Method  Descriptions If a method does not have a doc comment, the Javadoc
       tool searches for an applicable comment using the following algorithm, which is designed to find  the
       most specific applicable doc comment, giving preference to interfaces over superclasses:

       1.  Look  in each directly implemented (or extended) interface in the order they appear following the
           word implements (or extends) in the method declaration. Use the first doc comment found for  this
           method.

       2.  If  step 1 failed to find a doc comment, recursively apply this entire algorithm to each directly
           implemented (or extended) interface, in the same order they were examined in step 1.

       3. If step 2 failed to find a doc comment and this is
           a class other than Object (not an interface):

           a. If the superclass has a doc comment for this method, use it.
           b. If step 3a failed to find a doc comment, recursively apply this
           entire algorithm to the superclass.


   javadoc Tags
       The Javadoc tool parses special tags when they are embedded within a Java  doc  comment.   These  doc
       tags enable you to autogenerate a complete, well-formatted API from your source code.  The tags start
       with an "at" sign (@) and are case-sensitive - they must be typed with the  uppercase  and  lowercase
       letters  as  shown.   A  tag  must  start at the beginning of a line (after any leading spaces and an
       optional asterisk) or it is treated as normal text.  By convention,  tags  with  the  same  name  are
       grouped together.  For example, put all @see tags together.

       Tags come in two types:

        Standalone tags - Can be placed only in the tag section that follows the desription. There tags are
       not set off with curly braces: @tag.

        Inline tags - Can be placed anywhere in the comments description or in the comments for  standalone
       tags. Inline tags are set off with curly braces:{@tag}.

       For information about tags we might introduce in future releases, see Proposed Tags.

       The current tags are:



                                           +--------------+-------------+
                                           |     Tag      | Introduced  |
                                           |              | in JDK      |
                                           +--------------+-------------+
                                           |@author       | 1.0         |
                                           |{@code}       | 1.5         |
                                           |{@docRoot}    | 1.3         |
                                           |@deprecated   | 1.0         |
                                           |@exception    | 1.0         |
                                           |{@inheritDoc} | 1.4         |
                                           |{@link}       | 1.2         |
                                           |{@linkplain}  | 1.4         |
                                           |{@literal}    | 1.5         |
                                           |@param        | 1.0         |
                                           |@return       | 1.0         |
                                           |@see          | 1.0         |
                                           |@serial       | 1.2         |
                                           |@serialData   | 1.2         |
                                           |@serialField  | 1.2         |
                                           |@since        | 1.1         |
                                           |@throws       | 1.2         |
                                           |{@value}      | 1.4         |
                                           |@version      | 1.0         |
                                           +--------------+-------------+
       For custom tags, see the -tag option.

       @author name-text
              Adds  an  "Author"  entry  with the specified name-text to the generated docs when the -author
              option is used.  A doc comment may contain multiple @author tags.  You can  specify  one  name
              per  @author  tag  or  multiple names per tag.  In the former case, the Javadoc tool inserts a
              comma (,) and space between names.  In the latter case, the entire text is  simply  copied  to
              the  generated  document  without being parsed.  Therefore, use multiple names per line if you
              want a localized name separator other than a comma.

       @deprecated deprecated-text
              Adds a comment indicating that this API should no longer be used (even though  it  might  con-tinue continue
              tinue  to  work).   javadoc  moves the deprecated-text ahead of the description, placing it in
              italics and preceding it with a bold warning: "Deprecated".

              The first sentence of deprecated-text should at least tell the user when the  API  was  depre-cated deprecated
              cated and what to use as a replacement.  javadoc copies just the first sentence to the summary
              section and index.  Subsequent sentences can also explain why it  has  been  deprecated.   You
              should include a {@link} tag (for javadoc 1.2 or later) that points to the replacement API:


               For  javadoc  1.2,  use a {@link} tag. This creates the link in-line, where you want it. For
                example:

                     /**
                      * @deprecated  As of JDK 1.1, replaced by
                      *    {@link #setBounds(int,int,int,int)}
                      */


               For javadoc 1.1, the standard format is to create a @see tag (which cannot be  in-line)  for
                each @deprecated tag.

              For more about deprecation, see the @deprecated tag.

       {@code text}
              Equivalent to <code>{@literal}</code> .

       Displays  text in code font without interpreting the text as HTML markup or nested javadoc tags. This
       enables you to use regular angle brackets ( < and > ) instead of the HTML entities ( &lt; and &gt;  )
       in  doc  comments, such as in parameter types ( <Object> ), inequalities ( 3 < 4 ), or arrows ( <- ).
       For example, the doc comment text:

            {@code A<B>C}

       displays in the generated HTML page unchanged as:

            A<B>C

       The noteworthy point is that the <B> is not interpreted as boldand is in code font.

       If you want the same functionality without the code font, use {@literal}.

       {@docRoot}
              Represents the relative path to the generated document's (destination) root directory from any
              generated  page.   It  is  useful when you want to include a file, such as a copyright page or
              company logo, that you want to reference from all generated pages.  Linking to  the  copyright
              page from the bottom of each page is common.

              This {@docRoot} tag can be used both on the command line and in a doc comment:

              1.  On the command line, where the header/footer/bottom are defined:

                  javadoc -bottom '<a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">Copyright</a>'

              NOTE  -  When using {@docRoot} this way in a make file, some makefile programs require special
              escaping for the brace {} characters. For example, the Inprise MAKE  version  5.2  running  on
              Windows  requires  double  braces:  {{@docRoot}}. It also requires double (rather than single)
              quotes to enclose arguments to options such as -bottom (with the quotes around the href  argu-ment argument
              ment omitted).

              2.     In a doc comment:

                     /**
                     * See the <a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">Copyright</a>.
                     */

              The  reason  this tag is needed is because the generated docs are in hierarchical directories,
              as deep as the number of subpackages.  This expression:

                   <a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">

              would resolve to:

                   <a href="../../copyright.html">   ... for java/lang/Object.java

              and

                   <a href="../../../copyright.html"> ... for java/lang/ref/Reference.java

       @exception class-name description
              The @exception tag is a synonym for @throws.

       {@inheritDoc}
              Inherits documentation from the nearest superclass into the current doc comment.  This  allows
              comments  to be abstracted up the inheritance tree, and enables developers to write around the
              copied text. Also see inheriting comments.

       This tag can be placed in two positions:

             In the comment body (before the first standalone tag), where it will copy the  entire  comment
              body from its superclass.

             In  the  text  argument  of  a standalone tag, where it will copy the text of the tag from its
              superclass.

       {@link " package.class#member label" }
              Inserts an in-line link with visible text label that points to the documentation for the spec-ified specified
              ified package, class or member name of a referenced class.

              This  tag  is  very  similar to @see - both require the same references and accept exactly the
              same syntax for package.class#member and label.  The main difference is that {@link} generates
              an  in-line link rather than placing the link in the "See Also" section. Also, the {@link} tag
              begins and ends with curly braces to separate it from the rest of the  in-line  text.  If  you
              need to use "}" inside the label, use the HTML entity notation &#125;

              There  is  no limit to the number of {@link} tags allowed in a sentence.  You can use this tag
              in the description part of a documentation comment or in the text portion of any tag (such  as
              @deprecated, @return, or @param).

              For example, here is a comment that refers to the getComponentAt(int, int) method:

              Use the {@link #getComponentAt(int, int) getComponentAt} method.

              >From  this,  the  standard  doclet  would  generate the following HTML (assuming it refers to
              another class in the same package):

              Use the
              <a href="Component.html#getComponentAt(int, int)">\
                             getComponentAt</a>method.

              which appears on the web page as:

              Use the getComponentAt method.

              You can extend {@link} to link to classes not being documented by using the -link otion.

       {@linkplain " package.class#member label"}
              Indentical to {@link}, except the link's label is displayed in plain text than code font. Use-ful Useful
              ful when the label is plain text.  Example:

       Refer to {@linkplain add() the overridden method}.

       This would display as

       Refer to the overridden method.


       {@literal text}
              Displays  text  without  interpreting  the  text  as  HTML markup or nested javadoc tags. This
              enables you to use regular angle brackets ( < and > ) instead of the HTML entities ( &lt;  and
              &gt;  )  in  doc comments, such as in parameter types ( <Object> ), inequalities ( 3 < 4 ), or
              arrows ( <- ).  For example, the doc comment text:

            {@literal A<B>C}

       displays unchanged in the generated HTML page in your browser, as:

            A<B>C

       The noteworthy point is that the <B> is not interpreted as bold(and it is not in code font).

       If you want the same functionality but with the text in code font, use {@code} .

       @param parameter-name description
              Adds a parameter with the specified parameter-name followed by the  specified  description  to
              the "Parameters" section.  When writing the doc comment, you may continue the description onto
              multiple lines.  This tag is valid only in a doc comment for a method, constructor or class.

       The parameter-name can be the name of a parameter in a method or constructor, or the name of  a  type
       parameter  of  a  class.  Use  angle  brackets around this parametername to specify the use of a type
       parameter, such as:

            ,nf /** * @param <E> Type of element stored in a list */ public interface List<E>  extends  Col-lection<E> Collection<E>
            lection<E> { }

       For more details, see writing @param tags.

       @return description
              Adds a "Returns" section with the description text.  This text should describe the return type
              and permissible range of values.

       @see <a href='URL#value'>label</a>
              Adds a link as defined by URL#value. The URL#value is a relative or absolute URL. The  Javadoc
              tool  distinguishes  this  from other cases by looking for a less-than symbol (<) as the first
              character.  For example:

            @see <a href="spec.html#section">Java Spec</a>

       This generated a link such as:

            See Also: "Java Spec"

       @see string
              Adds a text entry for string. No link is generated.  The string is a book or  other  reference
              to  information  not  available  by URL. The Javadoc tool distinguishes this from the previous
              cases by looking for a double-quote (") as the first character.  For example:

                   @see "The Java Programming Language"

              This generates text such as:

                   See Also:
                        "The Java Programming Language"

       @see <a href="URL#value">label</a>
              Adds a link as defined by URL#value.  The URL#value is a relative or absolute URL. The Javadoc
              tool  distinguishes  this  from other cases by looking for a less-than symbol (<) as the first
              character.  For example:

                   @see <a href="spec.html#section">Java Spec</a>

              This generates a link such as:

                  See Also:
                        Java Spec

       @see package.class#member label
              Adds a link, with visible text label, that points to the documentation for the specified  name
              in  the Java Language that is referenced.  The label is optional; if omitted, the name appears
              instead as the visible text, suitably shortened (see How a Name Is Displayed).  Use the  label
              when you want the visible text to be abbreviated or different from the name.

              In  version  1.2,  just  the  name but not the label would automatically appear in <code> HTML
              tags.  Starting with 1.2.2, the <code> is always included around the visible text, whether  or
              not a label is used.

               package.class#member  is  any  valid  name in the Java Language that is referenced (package,
                class, interface, constructor, method, or field name), except that you replace the dot ahead
                of  the  member  name with a hash character (#).  If this name is in the documented classes,
                the Javadoc tool will automatically create a link to it.  To create links to external refer-enced referenced
                enced  classes,  use the -link option.  Use either of the other two @see forms for referring
                to documentation of a name that does not belong to a referenced  class.   This  argument  is
                described at greater length below under Specifying a Name.

               label  is  optional  text  that is visible as the link's label.  The label can contain white
                space.  If a label is omitted, then package.class.member  will  appear,  suitably  shortened
                relative to the current class and package (see How a Name Is Displayed).

               A space is the delimiter between package.class#member and label.  A space inside parentheses
                does not indicate the start of a label, so spaces  can  be  used  between  parameters  in  a
                method.

              Example - In this example, an @see tag (in the Character class) refers to the equals method in
              the String class.  The tag includes both arguments, that is, the name  "String#equals(Object)"
              and the label "equals":

                    /**
                    * @see String#equals(Object) equals
                    */

              The standard doclet produces HTML something like this:

                  <dl>
                  <dt><b>See Also:</b>
                  <dd><a href="../../java/lang/String#equals\
                               (java.lang.Object)"><code>equals</code></a>
                  </dl>

              The above looks something like this in a browser, where the label is the visible link text:

                   See Also:
                        equals

              Specifying  a  Name  -  This  package.class#member name can be either fully qualified, such as
              java.lang.String#toUpperCase(), or not, such as String#toUpperCase()  or  #toUpperCase().   If
              less than fully-qualified, the Javadoc tool uses the normal Java compiler search order to find
              it, further described below in Search order for @see.  The name can contain whitespace  within
              parentheses, such as between method arguments.

              Of  course  the  advantage  to providing shorter, "partially-qualified" names is that they are
              less to type and less clutter in the source code.  The following  table  shows  the  different
              forms  of  the  name, where Class can be a class or interface, Type can be a class, interface,
              array, or primitive, and method can be a method or constructor.


              +-----------------------------------------------------------+
              |       Typical forms for @see package.class#member         |
              +-----------------------------------------------------------+
              |Referencing a member of the current class                  |
              |@see  #field                                               |
              |@see  #method(Type, Type,...)                              |
              |@see  #method(Type argname, Type argname,...)              |
              |Referencing another class in the current or imported       |
              |packages                                                   |
              |@see  Class#field                                          |
              |@see  Class#method(Type, Type,...)                         |
              |@see  Class#method(Type argname, Type argname,...)         |
              |@see  Class                                                |
              |Referencing another package (fully qualified)              |
              |@see  package.Class#field                                  |
              |@see  package.Class#method(Type, Type,...)                 |
              |@see  package.Class#method(Type argname, Type argname,...) |
              |@see  package.Class                                        |
              |@see  package                                              |
              +-----------------------------------------------------------+
              The following notes apply to the above table:


               The first set of forms (with no class or package) will cause the Javadoc tool to search only
                through the current class's hierarchy.  It will find a member of the current class or inter-face, interface,
                face, one of its superclasses or superinterfaces, or one of its enclosing classes or  inter-faces interfaces
                faces (search steps 1-3).  It will not search the rest of the current package or other pack-ages packages
                ages (search steps 4-5).

               If any method or constructor is entered as a name with no parentheses, such as getValue, and
                if  no field with the same name exists, the Javadoc tool will correctly create a link to it,
                but will print a warning message reminding you to add the  parentheses  and  arguments.   If
                this  method  is  overloaded,  the  Javadoc  tool  links to the first method that its search
                encounters, which is unspecified.

               Nested classes must be specified as outer.inner, not only inner, for all forms.

               As stated, the hash character (#), rather than a dot (.), separates a member from its class.
                This  enables the Javadoc tool to resolve ambiguities, since the dot also separates classes,
                nested classes, packages, and subpackages.  However, the Javadoc tool is  generally  lenient
                and  will  properly  parse  a  dot if you know there is no ambiguity, though it will print a
                warning.

              Search Order for @see: The Javadoc tool will process an @see tag that appears in a source file
              (.java),  package  file  (package.html),  or overview file (overview.html).  In the latter two
              files, you must fully qualify the name you supply with @see.  In a source file, you can  spec-ify specify
              ify a name that is fully qualified or partially qualified.

              When  the  Javadoc tool encounters an @see tag in a .java file that is not fully qualified, it
              searches for the specified name in the same order as  the  Java  compiler  would  (except  the
              Javadoc  tool  will not detect certain namespace ambiguities, since it assumes the source code
              is free of these errors).  This search order is formally defined in Chapter 6, "Names" of  the
              Java  Language  Specification, Second Edition. The Javadoc tool searches for that name through
              all related and imported classes and packages.  In particular, it searches in this order:


              1.  The current class or interface
              2.  Any enclosing classes and interfaces, searching closest first
              3.  Any superclasses and superinterfaces, searching closest first
              4.  The current package
              5.  Any imported packages, classes and interfaces, searching in the order of the import state-ment statement
                  ment

              The  Javadoc  tool continues to search recursively through steps 1-3 for each class it encoun-ters encounters
              ters until it finds a match.  That is, after it searches through the  current  class  and  its
              enclosing  class  E,  it  searches  through E's superclasses before E's enclosing classes.  In
              steps 4 and 5, the Javadoc tool does not search classes or interfaces within a package in  any
              specified  order (that order depends on the particular compiler).  In step 5, the Javadoc tool
              will look in java.lang,sincethatisautomatically imported by all programs.

              The Javadoc tool won't necessarily look in subclasses, nor will it look in other packages even
              if their documentation is being generated in the same run.  For example, if the @see tag is in
              java.awt.event.KeyEvent class and refers to a name in the java.awt package, javadoc  will  not
              look in that package unless that class imports it.

              How a Name is Displayed - If label is omitted, then package.class.member will appear.  In gen-eral, general,
              eral, it will be suitably shortened relative to the current class  and  package.   By  "short-ened", "shortened",
              ened", we mean the Javadoc tool will display only the minimum name necessary.  For example, if
              the String.toUpperCase() method contains references to a member of the same  class  and  to  a
              member of a different class, the class name will be displayed only in the latter case:


              Type       Example                       Displays As
              of
              Ref-erence Reference
              erence







              @see tag   @see                          toLowerCase()
              refers     String#toLowerCase()          (omits the class name)
              to
              member
              of
              the
              same
              class

              @see       @see                          Character.toLowerCase(char)
              tag        Character#toLowerCase(char)   (includes the class name)
              refers
              to
              member
              of a
              differ-ent different
              ent
              class

              Examples  of  @see: The comment to the right shows how the name would be displayed if the @see
              tag is in a class in another package, such as java.applet.Applet:



              Example                                  See also:

              @see java.lang.String                    // String
              @see java.lang.String The String class   // The String class
              @see String                              // String
              @see String#equals(Object)               // String.equals(Object)
              @see String#equals                       // String.equals\
                                                             (java.lang.Object)
              @see java.lang.Object#wait(long)         // java.lang.Object.\
                                                             wait(long)
              @see Character#MAX_RADIX                 // Character.MAX_RADIX
              @see <a href="spec.html">Java Spec</a>   // Java Spec
              @see "The Java Programming Language"     // "The Java Programming \
                                                             Language"

       You can extend @see to link to classes not being documented
              by using the -link option.

       @since since-text
              Adds a "Since" heading with the specified since-text to the generated documentation.  The text
              has  no  special  internal  structure.  This tag means that this change or feature has existed
              since the software release specified by the since-text.  For example:

              @since 1.4

       For source code in the Java platform, this tag indicated the version of the Java platform API  speci-fication specification
       fication (not necessarily when it was added to the reference implementation).

       @serial field-description|include|exclude
              Used in the doc comment for a default serializable field.

              An  optional  field-description augments the doc comment for the field.  The combined descrip-tion description
              tion must explain the meaning of the field and list the acceptable  values.   If  needed,  the
              description can span multiple lines.  The standard doclet adds this information to the serial-ized serialized
              ized form page.

              The include and exclude arguments identify whether a class or package should  be  included  or
              excluded from the serialized form page. They work as follows:


               A public or protected class that implements
                Serializable is included unless the class (or its package) is marked @serial exclude.

               A private or package-private class that implements
                Serializable is excluded unless that class (or its package) is marked @serial include.

              Examples:  The  javax.swing  package  is  marked @serial exclude (in package.html). The public
              class java.sercurity.BasicPermission is marked @serial  exclude.   The  package-private  class
              java.util.PropertyPermissionCollection is marked @serial include.

              The tag @serial at a class level overrides @serial at a package level.

              For  more  information  about  how  to use these tags, along with an example, see "Documenting
              Serializable Fields and Data for a Class," Section 1.6 of the Java Object Serialization Speci-fication. Specification.
              fication.  Also see the "Serialization FAQ," which covers the questions, "Why do I see javadoc
              warnings stating that I am missing @serial tags? for  private  fields  if  I  am  not  running
              javadoc with the -private switch?"


       @serialField field-name  field-type  field-description
              Documents an ObjectStreamField component of a Serializable class's serialPersistentFields mem-ber. member.
              ber.  One @serialField tag should be used for each ObjectStreamField component.

       @serialData data-description
              The data-description documents the types and order of data in the serialized  form.   Specifi-cally, Specifically,
              cally,  this  data  includes  the optional data written by the writeObject method and all data
              (including base classes) written by the Externalizable.writeExternal method.

              The @serialData tag can be used in the doc comment for the writeObject,  readObject,  writeEx-ternal, writeExternal,
              ternal, and readExternal methods.

       @throws class-name  description
              The  @throws  and  @exception  tags are synonyms.  Adds a "Throws" subheading to the generated
              documentation, with the class-name and description text.  The class-name is the  name  of  the
              exception that may be thrown by the method.  If this class is not fully specified, the Javadoc
              tool uses the search order to look up this class.  Multiple @throws tags can beused in a given
              doc comment for the same or different exceptions.

       To  ensure  that all checked exceptions are documented, if a @throws tag does not exist for an excep-tion exception
       tion inthe throws clause, the Javadoc tool automatically adds that exception to the HTML output (with
       no description) as if it were documented with @throws tag.

       The  @throws  documentation is copied from an overridden method to a subclass only when the exception
       is explicitly declared in the overridden method. The same is true for copying from an interfacemethod
       to an implementing method.  You can use {@inheritDoc} to force@throws to inherit documentation.

       For more details, see Writing @throws tags.

       {@value package.class#field}
              When {@value} is used (without any argument) in the doc command of a static field, it displays
              the value of that constant:

            /**
            * The value of this constant is {@value}.
            */
            public static final String SCRIPT_START = "<script>"

       When used with argument package.class#field in any doc comment, it displays the value of  the  speci-fied specified
       fied constant:

            /**
            * Evaluates the script starting with {@value #SCRIPT_START}.
            */
            public String evalScript(String script) {
            }

       The argument package.class#field takes a form identical to that of the @see argument, except that the
       member must be a static field.

       These values of these constants are also displayed on the Constant Field Values page.

       @version version-text
              Adds a "Version" subheading with the specified version-text to the  generated  docs  when  the
              -version  option is used.  The text has no special internal structure.  A doc comment may con-tain contain
              tain at most one @version tag.  Version normally refers to the version of the  software  (such
              as the Java 2 SDK) that contains this class or member.

   Where Tags Can Be Used
       The  following sections describe where the tags can be used.  Notice that these four tags can be used
       in all doc comments: @see, @link, @since, @deprecated.

   Overview Documentation Tags
       Overview tags are tags that can appear in the documentation comment  for  the  overview  page,  which
       resides  in  the source file typically named (overview.html).  Like any other documentation comments,
       these tags must appear after the description.

       NOTE: The {@link} tag has a bug in overview documents in version 1.2.  Text appears properly but  has
       no link. The {@docRoot} tag does not currently work in overview documents.



              +--------------+
              |Overview Tags |
              +--------------+
              |@see          |
              |@since        |
              |@author       |
              |@version      |
              |{@link}       |
              |{@linkplain}  |
              |{@docRoot}    |
              +--------------+
   Package Documentation Tags
       Package  tags  are  tags that can appear in the documentation comment for a package (which resides in
       the source file named package.html). The @serial tag can only  be  used  here  with  the  include  or
       exclude argument.



              +-------------+
              |Package Tags |
              +-------------+
              |@see         |
              |@since       |
              |@deprecated  |
              |@serial      |
              |@author      |
              |{@link}      |
              |{@linkplain} |
              |{@docRoot}   |
              +-------------+
   Class and Interface Documentation Tags
       The  following  are  tags  that can appear in the documentation comment for a class or interface. The
       @serial tag can only be used here with the include or exclude argument.



              +---------------------+
              |Class/Interface Tags |
              +---------------------+
              |@see                 |
              |@since               |
              |@deprecated          |
              |@serial              |
              |@author              |
              |@version             |
              |{@link}              |
              |{@linkplain}         |
              |{@docRoot}           |
              +---------------------+
       An example of a class comment:

              /**
              * A class representing a window on the screen.
              * For example:
              * <pre>
              *    Window win = new Window(parent);
              *    win.show();
              * </pre>
              *
              * @author  Sami Shaio
              * @version 1.8, 06/24/04
              * @see     java.awt.BaseWindow
              * @see     java.awt.Button
              */
              class Window extends BaseWindow {
              }

   Field Documentation Tags
       The following are the tags that can appear in the documentation comment for a field.



              +-------------+
              | Field Tags  |
              +-------------+
              |@see         |
              |@since       |
              |@deprecated  |
              |@serial      |
              |@serialField |
              |{@link}      |
              |{@linkplain} |
              |{@docRoot}   |
              |{@value}     |
              +-------------+
       An example of a field comment:

              /**
              * The X-coordinate of the component.
              *
              * @see #getLocation()
              */
              int x = 1263732;

   Constructor and Method Documentation Tags
       The following are the tags that can appear in the documentation comment for a constructor or  method,
       except for {@inheritDoc}, which cannot appear in a constructor.



              +------------------------+
              |Method/Constructor Tags |
              +------------------------+
              |@see                    |
              |@since                  |
              |@deprecated             |
              |@param                  |
              |@return                 |
              |@throws and @exception  |
              |@serialData             |
              |{@link}                 |
              |{@linkplain}            |
              |{@inheritDoc}           |
              |{@docRoot}              |
              +------------------------+
       An example of a method doc comment:

              /**
              * Returns the character at the specified index. An index
              * ranges from <code>0</code> to <code>length() - 1</code>.
              *
              * @param     index  the index of the desired character.
              * @return    the desired character.
              * @exception StringIndexOutOfRangeException
              *              if the index is not in the range <code>0</code>
              *              to <code>length()-1</code>.
              * @see       java.lang.Character#charValue()
              */
              public char charAt(int index) {
              }

OPTIONS
       The  Javadoc  tool  uses doclets to determine its output.  The Javadoc tool uses the default standard
       doclet unless a custom doclet is specified with the -doclet option.  The Javadoc tool provides a  set
       of  command-line  options  that can be used with any doclet.  These options are described below under
       the sub-heading Javadoc Options.  The standard doclet provides  an  additional  set  of  command-line
       options that are described below, under the sub-heading Options Provided by the Standard Doclet.  All
       option names are case-insensitive, though their arguments can be case-sensitive.

       The options are:



              -1.1                     -help               -package
              -author                  -helpfile           -private
              -bootclasspath           -J                  -protected
              -bottom                  -keywords           -public
              -charset                 -link               -quiet
              -classpath               -linkoffline        -serialwarn
              -d                       -linksource         -source
              -docencoding             -locale             -sourcepath
              -doclet                  -nodeprecated       -splitindex
              -docletpath              -nodeprecatedlist   -stylesheetfile
              -doctitle                -nohelp             -subpackages
              -encoding                -noindex            -tag
              -exclude                 -nonavbar           -taglet
              -excludedocfilessubdir   -noqualifier        -tagletpath
              -extdirs                 -nosince            -title
              -footer                  -notimestamp        -use
              -group                   -notree             -verbose
              -header                  -overview            windowtitle
              -version

   Javadoc Options
       -overview path/filename
              Specifies that javadoc should retrieve the  text  for  the  overview  documentation  from  the
              "source"  file  specified  by  path/filename  and place it on the Overview page (overview-sum-mary.html). (overview-summary.html).
              mary.html).  The path/filename is relative to the -sourcepath.

              While you can use any name you want for filename and place it anywhere you want  for  path,  a
              typical  thing to do is to name it overview.html and place it in the source tree at the direc-tory directory
              tory that contains the topmost package directories.  In this location, no path is needed  when
              documenting  packages,  since -sourcepath will point to this file.  For example, if the source
              tree for the java.lang package is /src/classes/java/lang/, then you could place  the  overview
              file at /src/classes/overview.html.  See Real World Example.

              For information about the file specified by path/filename, see overview comment file.

              Notice  that  the  overview  page is created only if you pass into javadoc two or more package
              names.  For further explanation, see HTML Frames.

              The title on the overview page is set by -doctitle .

       -public
              Shows only public classes and members.

       -protected
              Shows only protected and public classes and members.  This is the default.

       -package
              Shows only package, protected, and public classes and members.

       -private
              Shows all classes and members.

       -help  Displays the online help, which lists these javadoc and doclet command line options.

       -doclet class
              Specifies the class file that starts the doclet used in generating the documentation.  Use the
              fully-qualified name.  This doclet defines the content and formats the output.  If the -doclet
              option is not used, javadoc uses the standard doclet for generating the default  HTML  format.
              This class must contain the start(Root) method.  The path to this starting class is defined by
              the -docletpath option.

              For example, to call the MIF doclet, use:

              -doclet com.sun.tools.doclets.mif.MIFDoclet

       -docletpath classpathlist
              Specifies the path to the doclet class file (specified with the -doclet option)  and  any  jar
              files  it  depends  on.   If the starting class file is in a jar file, then this specifies the
              path to that jar file, as shown in the example below.  You can specify an absolute path  or  a
              path  relative  to  the current directory.  If classpath contains multiple paths or jar files,
              they should be separated with a colon (:) on Windows.  This option is  not  necessary  if  the
              doclet is already in the search path.

              Example  of path to jar file that contains the startig doclet class file. Notice the jar file-name filename
              name is included.

              -docletpath /home/user/mifdoclet/lib/mifdoclet.jar

              Example of path to starting doclet class file. Notice the class filename is omitted.

              -docletpath /home/user/mifdoclet/classes/com/sun/tools/doclets/mif/


       -1.1   This feature has been removed from Javadoc 1.4. There is no replacement for it.   This  option
              created  documentation  with  the  appearance  and functionality of documentation generated by
              Javadoc 1.1 (including never supporting nested classes). If you need this option, use  Javadoc
              1.2 or 1.3 instead.

       -sourcepath sourcepathlist
              Specifies  the  search  paths  for  finding source files (.java) when passing package names or
              -subpackages into the javadoc command.  The sourcepathlist can contain multiple paths by sepa-rating separating
              rating them with a colon (:). The Javadoc tool will search in all subdirectories of the speci-fied specified
              fied paths.  Note that this option is not only used to located the source  files  being  docu-mented, documented,
              mented,  but  also  to  find source files that are not being documented but whose comments are
              inherited by the source files being documented.

              Note that you can use the -sourcepath option only when passing package names into the  javadoc
              command  -  it  will not locate .java files passed into the javadoc command.  (To locate .java
              files, cd to that directory or include the path ahead of each file, as  shown  at  Documenting
              One  or  More  Classes.)   If  -sourcepath is omitted, javadoc uses the class path to find the
              source files (see -classpath).  Therefore, the default -sourcepath is the value of class path.
              If  -classpath is omitted and you are passing package names into javadoc, it looks in the cur-rent current
              rent directory (and subdirectories) for the source files.

              Set sourcepathlist to the root directory of the source tree for the package you are  document-ing. documenting.
              ing.   For  example,  suppose you want to document a package called com.mypackage whose source
              files are located at:

                     /home/user/src/com/mypackage/*.java

              In this case, you would specify the source path to /home/user/src, the directory that contains
              com/mypackage, and then supply the package name com.mypackage:

                     example% javadoc -sourcepath /home/user/src/ com.mypackage

              This  is easy to remember by noticing that if you concatenate the value of the source path and
              the package name together and change the dot to a slash "/", you end up with the full path  to
              the package:

                     /home/user/src/com/mypackage
              To point to two source paths:

                     example% javadoc -sourcepath /home/user/src/:/home/user2/src com.mypackage


       -classpath classpathlist
              Specifies  the paths where javadoc looks for referenced classes (.class files) - these are the
              documented classes plus any classes referenced by those classes.  The classpathlist  can  con-tain contain
              tain  multiple paths by separating them with a colon (:).  The Javadoc tool will search in all
              subdirectories of the specified paths.  Follow the instructions in  class  path  documentation
              for specifying classpathlist.

              If  -sourcepath  is omitted, the Javadoc tool uses -classpath to find the source files as well
              as class files (for backward compatibility).  Therefore, if you want to search for source  and
              class files in separate paths, use both -sourcepath and -classpath.

              For example, if you want to document com.mypackage, whose source files reside in the directory
              /home/user/src/com/mypackage, and if this package relies on a library in  /home/user/lib,  you
              would specify:

                     example% javadoc -classpath /home/user/lib -sourcepath \
                                    /home/user/src com.mypackage

              As  with  other  tools,  if you do not specify -classpath, the Javadoc tool uses the CLASSPATH
              environment variable, if it is set.  If both are  not  set,  the  Javadoc  tool  searches  for
              classes from the current directory.

              For an in-depth description of how the Javadoc tool uses -classpath to find user classes as it
              relates to extension classes and bootstrap classes, see How Classes Are Found.

       -bootclasspath classpathlist
              Specifies the paths where the boot classes reside.  These  are  nominally  the  Java  platform
              classes.   The  bootclasspath  is part of the search path the Javadoc tool will use to look up
              source and class files.  See How Classes Are Found for more details.  Separate directories  in
              classpathlist with colons (:).

       -extdirs dirlist
              Specifies  the directories where extension classes reside.  These are any classes that use the
              Java Extension mechanism.  The extdirs is part of the search path the Javadoc tool will use to
              look  up  source and class files.  See -classpath (above) for more details.  Separate directo-ries directories
              ries in dirlist with colons (:).

       -verbose
              Provides more detailed messages while javadoc is running.  Without the  verbose  option,  mes-sages messages
              sages  appear  for  loading  the  source  files, generating the documentation (one message per
              source file), and sorting.  The verbose option causes  the  printing  of  additional  messages
              specifying the number of milliseconds to parse each java source file.

       -quiet Shuts  off  non-error  and  non-warning messages, leaving only the warnings and errors appear,
              making them easier to view. Also suppresses the version string.

       -locale language_country_variant
              Important: The -locale option must be placed ahead (to the left) of any  options  provided  by
              the  standard  doclet  or  any  other  doclet.  Otherwise,  the navigation bars will appear in
              English.  This is the only command-line option that is order-dependent.

              Specifies the locale that javadoc uses when generating documentation.   The  argument  is  the
              name  of  the  locale, as described in java.util.Locale documentation, such as en_US (English,
              United States) or en_US_WIN (Windows variant).

              Specifying a locale causes javadoc to choose the resource files of that  locale  for  messages
              (strings in the navigation bar, headings for lists and tables, help file contents, comments in
              stylesheet.css, and so forth).  It also specifies the sorting order for lists sorted alphabet-ically, alphabetically,
              ically,  and  the  sentence separator to determine the end of the first sentence.  It does not
              determine the locale of the doc comment text specified in the source files of  the  documented
              classes.

       -encoding name
              Specifies  the  source  file encoding name, such as EUCJIS/SJIS.  If this option is not speci-fied, specified,
              fied, the platform default converter is used.

       -Jflag Passes flag directly to the runtime system java that runs javadoc.  Notice there  must  be  no
              space  between  the  J  and the flag.  For example, if you need to ensure that the system sets
              aside 32 megabytes of memory in which to process the generated documentation, then  you  would
              call the -Xmx option of java as follows:

              example% javadoc -J-Xmx32m -J-Xms32m com.mypackage

              To tell what version of javadoc you are using, call the -version option of java:

              example% javadoc -J-version
              java version "1.2"
              Classic VM (build JDK-1.2-V, green threads, sunwjit)

              (The version number of the standard doclet appears in its output stream.)

   Options Provided by the Standard Doclet
       -d directory
              Specifies  the  destination  directory where javadoc saves the generated HTML files.  (The "d"
              means "destination.")  Omitting this option causes the files to be saved to the current direc-tory. directory.
              tory.   The  value directory can be absolute or relative to the current working directory.  As
              of 1.4, the destination directory is automatically created when javadoc is run.

              For example, the following generates the documentation for the com.mypackage package and saves
              the results in the /home/user/doc/ directory:

              example% javadoc -d /home/user/doc com.mypackage

       -use   Includes  one "Use" page for each documented class and package.  The page describes what pack-ages, packages,
              ages, classes, methods, constructors, and fields use any API of the given  class  or  package.
              Given  class  C,  things that use class C would include subclasses of C, fields declared as C,
              methods that return C, and methods and constructors with parameters of type C.

              For example, look at what might appear on the "Use" page for String.  The getName() method  in
              the  java.awt.Font  class returns type String.  Therefore, getName() uses String, and you will
              find that method on the "Use" page for String.

              Note that this documents only uses of the API, not  the  implementation.   If  a  method  uses
              String  in  its  implementation  but does not take a string as an argument or return a string,
              that is not considered a "use" of String.

              You can access the generated "Use" page by first going to the class or package, then  clicking
              on the "Use" link in the navigation bar.

       -version
              Includes  the  @version text in the generated docs.  This text is omitted by default.  To tell
              what version of the Javadoc tool you are using, use the -J-version option.

       -author
              Includes the @author text in the generated docs.

       -splitindex
              Splits the index file into multiple files, alphabetically, one file per letter,  plus  a  file
              for any index entries that start with non-alphabetical characters.

       -windowtitle title
              Specifies  the  title  to be placed in the HTML <title> tag.  This appears in the window title
              and in any browser bookmarks (favorite places) that someone creates for this page.  This title
              should not contain any HTML tags, as the browser cannot properly interpret them.  Any internal
              quotation marks within title might have to  be  escaped.   If  -windowtitle  is  omitted,  the
              Javadoc tool uses the value of -doctitle for this option.

              example% javadoc -windowtitle "Java 2 Platform" com.mypackage

       -doctitle title
              Specifies  the  title  to  be  placed near the top of the overview summary file.  The title is
              placed as a centered, level-one heading directly beneath the upper navigation bar.  The  title
              may  contain HTML tags and white space, though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes.  Any
              internal quotation marks within title may have to be escaped.

              example% javadoc -doctitle "Java<sup><font size=
                                    TM</font></sup>" com.mypackage

       -title title
              This option no longer exists.  It existed only in Beta versions of Javadoc 1.2.  It  has  been
              renamed  to  -doctitle.  This option was renamed to make it clear that it defines the document
              title rather than the window title.

       -header header
              Specifies the header text to be placed at the top of each output file.  The header  is  placed
              to  the  right  of  the  upper  navigation bar.  header may contain HTML tags and white space,
              though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes.  Any internal quotation marks within  header
              may have to be escaped.

       -footer footer
              Specifies  the  footer  text  to  be  placed at the bottom of each output file.  The footer is
              placed to the right of the lower navigation bar.  footer  may  contain  HTML  tags  and  white
              space,  though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes.  Any internal quotation marks within
              footer may have to be escaped.

       -bottom text
              Specifies the text to be placed at the bottom of each output file.  The text is placed at  the
              bottom  of  the  page,  below  the lower navigation bar.  text may contain HTML tags and white
              space, though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes.  Any internal quotation marks  within
              text may have to be escaped.

       -link extdocURL
              Creates  links to existing javadoc-generated documentation of external referenced classes.  It
              takes one argument.

              extdocURL is the absolute or relative URL of the directory containing  the  external  javadoc-generated javadocgenerated
              generated  documentation  you want to link to. Examples are shown below. The package-list file
              must be found in this directory (otherwise, use -linkoffline).  The  Javadoc  tool  reads  the
              package  names  from  the package-list file and then links to those packages at that URL. When
              the Javadoc tool is run, the extdocURL value is copied literally into the <A HREF> links  that
              are created. Therefore, extdocURL must be the URL to the directory, not to a file.

              You  can  use  an absolute link for extdocURL to enable your docs to link to a document on any
              website, or can use a relative link to link only to a  relative  location.  If  relative,  the
              value  you  pass in should be the relative path from the destination directory (specified with
              -d ) to the directory containing the packages being linked to.

              When specifying an absolute link you normally use an http: link.  However, if you want to link
              to  a  file system that has no web server, you can use a file: link - however, do this only if
              everyone wanting to access the generated documentation shares the same file system.

              You can specify multiple -link options in a given javadoc run to link to multiple documents.

              Choosing between -linkoffline and -link - One or the other option is appropriate when  linking
              to an API document that is external to the current javadoc run.

              Use  -link: when using a relative path to the external API document, or when using an absolute
              URL to the external API document, if you shell does not allow a program to open  a  connection
              to that URL for reading.

              Use -linkoffline : when using an absolute URL to the external API document, if your shell does
              not allow a program to open a connection to that URL for reading.  This can occur if  you  are
              behind a firewall and the document you want to link to is on the other side.

              Example  using  absolute  links  to  the  external  docs  -  Let's say you want to link to the
              java.lang,     java.io     and      other      Java      2      Platform      packages      at
              http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api.   The following command generates documentation for the
              package com.mypackage with links to the Java 2 Platform packages. The generated  documentation
              will  contain  links to the Object class, for example in the class trees. (Other options, such
              as -sourcepath and -d , are not shown.)

                     % javadoc -link http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api com.mypackage

              Example using relative links to the external docs - Let's say you have two packages whose docs
              are  generated  in different runs of the Javadoc tool, and those docs are separated by a rela-tive relative
              tive path.  In this example, the packages are com.apipackage, and API, and com.spipackage,  an
              SPI  (Service  Provide  Interface).  YOu want the documentation to reside in docs/api/com/api-package docs/api/com/apipackage
              package and docs/spi/com/spipackage. Assuming the API package documentation is already  gener-ated, generated,
              ated, and that docs is the current directory, you would document the SPI package with links to
              the API documentation by running:

                     % javadoc -d ./spi -link ../api com.spipackage

              Notice the -link argument is relative to the destination directory (docs/spi).

              Details - The -link option enables you to link to classes referenced to by your code  but  not
              documented  in  the  current javadoc run.  For these links to go to valid pages, you must know
              where those HTML pages are located, and specify that location with extdocURL .   This  allows,
              for   instance,   third   party   documentation   to   link   to   java.*   documentation   on
              http://java.sun.com.

              Omit the -link option for javadoc to create links only to API within the documentation  it  is
              generating  in  the  current run.  (Without the -link option, the Javadoc tool does not create
              links to documentation for external references, because it does not know if or where that doc-umentation documentation
              umentation exists.

              This option can create links in several places in the generated documentation.

              Another  use  is for cross-links between sets of packages: Execute javadoc on one set of pack-ages, packages,
              ages, then run javadoc again on another set of packages, creating links both ways between both
              sets.   A  third use is as a "hack" to update docs: Execute javadoc on a full set of packages,
              then run javadoc again on only the smaller set of changed packages, so that the updated  files
              can be inserted back into the original set.

              Bug Fix for Referenced Classes - In 1.4 the following bug has been fixed:

                     Link bug in 1.2 and 1.3 - When @see or {@link}
                     references an excluded class and -link is used,
                     an <A HREF> hyperlink is created only if the class is referenced
                     with in an import statement or in a declaration. References
                     in the body of methods, alone are inadequate. A workaround
                     was to include an explicit (not wildcard) import
                     statement for the referenced class.

              An  @see or {@link} reference with -link is now enough to load the referenced class and enable
              a link to it. You can remove any import statements you had added as workarounds, which we  had
              suggested you comment as follows:

                     import java.lang.SecurityManager; // workaround to force @see/@link\
                                           hyperlink

              Package List - The -link option requires that a file named package-list, which is generated by
              the Javadoc tool, exist at the URL you specify with -link.  The package-list file is a  simple
              text  file  that lists the names of packages documented at that location.  In an earlier exam-ple, example,
              ple, the Javadoc tool looks for a file named package-list at the given URL, reads in the pack-age package
              age names and then links to those packages at that URL.

              For example, the package list for the Java Platform v1.4 API is located at

                     http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/1.2/docs/\
                                    api/package-list

              and starts out as follows:

                     java.applet
                     java.awt
                     java.awt.color
                     java.awt.datatransfer
                     java.awt.dnd
                     java.awt.event
                     java.awt.font
                     etc.

              When  javadoc  is  run  without the -link option, when it encounters a name that belongs to an
              external referenced class, it prints the name with no link.  However, when the -link option is
              used,  the Javadoc tool searches the package-list file at the specified extdocURL location for
              that package name.  If it finds the package name, it prefixes the name with extdocURL .

              In order for there to be no broken links, all of the documentation for the external references
              must exist at the specified URLs. The Javadoc tool does not check that these pages exist, only
              that the package-list exists.

              Multiple Links: - You can supply multiple-link options to link to any number of external  gen-erated generated
              erated  documents.  Javadoc 1.2 has a known bug that prevents you from supplying more than one
              -link command.  This was fixed in 1.2.2.

              Specify a different link option for each external document to link to:

                     example% javadoc -link extdocURL1 -link extdocURL2 ... \
                        -link extdocURLn com.mypackage

              where extdocURL1, extdocURL2,  ...  extdocURLn point respectively to  the  roots  of  external
              documents, each of which contains a file named package-list.

              Cross-links  -  Note that "bootstrapping" may be required when cross-linking two or more docu-ments documents
              ments that have not been previously generated.  In other words, if package-list does not exist
              for  either  document,  when  you run the Javadoc tool on the first document, the package-list
              does not yet exist for the second document.  Therefore, to create the external links, you must
              rree-generate the first document after generating the second document.

              In this case, the purpose of first generating a document is to create its package-list (or you
              can create it by hand if you are certain of the package names).  Then generate the second doc-ument document
              ument with its external links. The Javadoc tool prints a warning if a needed external package-list packagelist
              list file does not exist.

       -linkoffline extdocURL  packagelistLoc
              This option is a varition of -link; they both create links to javadoc-generated  documentation
              for  external  referenced  classes.  Use the -linkoffline option when linking to a document on
              the web when the Javadoc tool itself is "offline" - that is, it  cannot  access  the  document
              through a web connection.

              More specifically, use -linkoffline is the external document's package-list file is not acces-sible accessible
              sible or does not exist at the extdocURL location but does  exist  at  a  different  location,
              which  can  be specified by packageListLoc (typically local). Thus, is extdocURL is accessible
              only on the World Wide Web, -linkoffline removes the constraint that the Javadoc tool  have  a
              web connection when generating the documentation. Examples are given below.

              The  -linkoffline  option takes two arguments - the first for the string to be embedded in the
              <a href> links, the second telling it where to find package-list:


                      extdocURL is the absolute or relative URL of the directory  containing  the  external
                       javadoc-generated  documentation  you want to link to.  If relative, the value should
                       be the relative path from the destination directory (specified with -d ) to the  root
                       of the packages being linked to.  For more details see extdocURL in the -link option.

                      packagelistLoc is the path or URL to the directory containing the  package-list  file
                       for the external documentation.  This can be a URL (http: or file:) or file path, and
                       can be absolute or relative.  If relative, make it relative to the current  directory
                       from where javadoc was run. Do not include the package-list filename.

              You  can  specify  multiple  -linkoffline options in a given javadoc run.  (Prior to 1.2.2, it
              could be specified only once.)

              Example using absolute links to the external docs  -  Let's  say  you  want  to  link  to  the
              java.lang,      java.io      and      other      Java      2      Platform     packages     at
              http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api, but your shell does not have web access. You could open
              the package-list file in a browser at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api/package-list, save
              it to a local directory, and point to this local copy with the second argument, packagelistLoc
              .   In  this example, the package list file has been saved to the current directory "." .  The
              following command generates documentation for the package com.mypackage with links to the Java
              2  Platform  packages. The generated documentation will contain links to the Object class, for
              example, in the class trees. (Other necessary options, such as -sourcepath, are not shown.)

                     % javadoc -linkoffline http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4/docs/api . com.mypackage

              Example using relative links to the external docs - It's not very common to  use  -linkoffline
              with  relative  paths,  for the simple reason that -link usually suffices. When using -linkof-fline, -linkoffline,
              fline, the package-list file is generally local, and when using relative links, the  file  you
              are  linking to is also generally local. So it is usually unnecessary to give a different path
              for the two arguments to -linkoffline .  When the two arguments are  identical,  you  can  use
              -link .  See the -link relative example.

              Manually  Creating  A  package-list  File - If a package-list file does not yet exist, but you
              know what package names your document will link to, you can create your own copy of this  file
              by  hand  and  specify  its  path with packagelistLoc .  An example would be the previous case
              where the package list for com.spipackage did not exist when com.apipackage was  first  gener-ated. generated.
              ated.  This  technique  is  useful  when  you need to generate documentation that links to new
              external documentation whose package names you know, but which is not yet published.  This  is
              also  a  way  of  creating  package-list files for packages generated with Javadoc 1.0 or 1.1,
              where package-list files were not generated.  Likewise, two companies can share  their  unpub-lished unpublished
              lished  package-list files, enabling them to release their cross-linked documentation simulta-neously. simultaneously.
              neously.

              Linking to Multiple Documents - You can include -linkoffline once for each generated  document
              you want to refer to (each option is shown on a separate line for clarity):

                     example% javadoc  -linkoffline docURL1 packagelistURL1 \
                                       -linkoffline docURL2 packagelistURL2 \
                                       ...

              Updating  Docs  - Another use for the -linkoffline option is useful if your project has dozens
              or hundreds of packages; if you have already run javadoc on the entire tree;  and  now,  in  a
              separate  run,  you want to quickly make some small changes and re-run javadoc on just a small
              portion of the source tree.  This is somewhat of a hack in that it works properly only if your
              changes are only to doc comments and not to signatures.  If you were to add, remove, or change
              any signatures from the source code, then broken links could show up  in  the  index,  package
              tree, inherited member lists, use page, or other places.

              First, you create a new destination directory (call it update) for this new small run. Set the
              first argument of -linkoffline to the current directory "." and set the second argument to the
              relative path to the original docs (call it html), where it can find package-list:

                     example% javadoc -d update -linkoffline . html com.mypackage

              When  javadoc  is  done, copy these generated files (not the overview or index) in update over
              the original files in

       -linksource
              Creates an HTML version of each source file (with line numbers) and adds links  to  them  from
              the standard HTML documentation. This option exposes all private implementation details in the
              included source files, including private classes, private fields, and the  bodies  of  private
              methods, regardless of the -public, -package, -protected and -private options. Unless you also
              use the -private option, not all private classes or interfaces will necessarily be  accessible
              via links.

       -group groupheading  packagepattern:packagepattern:...
              Separates packages on the overview page into whatever groups you specify, one group per table.
              You specify each group with a different -group option.  The groups appear on the page  in  the
              order  specified  on  the command line; packages are alphabetized within a group.  For a given
              -group option, the packages matching the list of packagepattern expressions appear in a  table
              with the heading groupheading.

               groupheading can be any text, and can include white space.  This text is placed in the table
                heading for the group.

               packagepattern can be any package name, or can be the start of any package name followed  by
                an  asterisk  (*).   The asterisk is a wildcard meaning "match any characters".  This is the
                only wildcard allowed.  Multiple patterns can be included in a group by separating them with
                colons (:).

              NOTE:  If  using  an  asterisk  in  a pattern or pattern list, the pattern list must be inside
              quotes, such as "java.lang*:java.util".

              If you do not supply any -group option, all packages are placed in one group with the  heading
              "Packages".   If  the all groups do not include all documented packages, any leftover packages
              appear in a separate group with the heading "Other Packages".

              For example, the following option separates the four documented packages into core, extension,
              and  other packages.  Notice the trailing "dot" does not appear in "java.lang*"; including the
              dot, such as "java.lang.*", would omit the java.lang package:

                     example% javadoc -group "Core Packages" "java.lang*:java.util" \
                         -group "Extension Packages" "javax.*" \
                         java.lang java.lang.reflect java.util javax.servlet java.new

              This results in the groupings:

                     Core Packages
                       java.lang
                       java.lang.reflect
                       java.util
                     Extension Packages
                       javax.servlet
                     Other Packages
                       java.new

       -nodeprecated
              Prevents the generation of any deprecated API at all in the  documentation.   This  does  what
              -nodeprecatedlist  does,  plus  it does not generate any deprecated API throughout the rest of
              the documentation.  This is useful when writing code and you don't want to  be  distracted  by
              the deprecated code.

       -nodeprecatedlist
              Prevents  the  generation  of  the  file  containing  the list of deprecated APIs (deprecated-list.html) (deprecatedlist.html)
              list.html) and the link in the navigation bar to that page.  (However,  javadoc  continues  to
              generate  the  deprecated  API  throughout  the rest of the document.)  This is useful if your
              source code contains no deprecated API, and you want to make the navigation bar cleaner.

       -nosince
              Omits from the generated docs the "Since" sections associated with the @since tags.

       -notree
              Omits the class/interface hierarchy from the generated docs.  The  hierarchy  is  produced  by
              default.

       -noindex
              Omits the index from the generated docs.  The index is produced by default.

       -nohelp
              Omits the HELP link in the navigation bars at the top and bottom of each page of output.

       -nonavbar
              Prevents  the  generation of the navigation bar, header and footer, otherwise found at the top
              and bottom of the generated pages.  Has no effect  on  the  "bottom"  option.   The  -nonavbar
              option  is useful when you are interested only in the content and have no need for navigation,
              such as converting the files to PostScript or PDF for print only.

       -helpfile path/filename
              Specifies the path of an alternate help file path/filename that the HELP link in the  top  and
              bottom  navigation bars link to. Without this option, the Javadoc tool automatically creates a
              help file help-doc.html that is hard-coded in the Javadoc tool.  This option  enables  you  to
              override  this  default.  The filename can be any name and is not restricted to help-doc.html;
              the Javadoc tool will adjust the links in the navigation bar accordingly.  For example:

                     example% javadoc -helpfile /home/doc/myhelp.html java.awt

       -stylesheetfile path/filename
              Specifies the path of an alternate HTML stylesheet file.  Without  this  option,  the  Javadoc
              tool  automatically  creates  a  stylesheet  file,  stylesheet.css,  that is hard-coded in the
              Javadoc tool.  This option enables you to override this default.  The filename can be any name
              and is not restricted to stylesheet.css.  For example:

                     example% javadoc -stylesheetfile \
                                 /home/user/mystylesheet.css com.mypackage

       -serialwarn
              Generates  compile-time  warnings  for  missing  @serial tags.  By default, Javadoc 1.2.2 (and
              later versions) generates no serial warnings.  (This is a  reversal  from  earlier  versions.)
              Use this option to display the serial warnings, which helps to properly document default seri-alizable serializable
              alizable fields and writeExternal methods.

       -charset name
              Specifies the HTML character set for this document.  For example:

                     % javadoc -charset "iso-8859-1" mypackage

              would insert the following line in the head of every generated page:

              <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-885 9-1">

              This META tag is described in the HTML standard (4197265 and 4137321).

       -docencoding name
              Specifies the encoding of the generated HTML files.

       -keywords
              Adds HTML meta keyword tags to the generated file for each class. These tags can help the page
              be  found  by  search  engines  that  look for meta tags. (Most search engines that search the
              entire Internet do not look at meta tags, because pages can misuse them;  but  search  engines
              offered  by companies that confine their search to their own website can benefit by looking at
              meta tags.)

              The meta tags include the fully qualified name of the class and theunqualified  names  of  the
              fields  and  methods.   Constructors  arenot  included because they are identical to the class
              name. For example, the class String starts with these keywords:

                   <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="java.lang.String class">
                   <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER">
                   <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="length()">
                   <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="charAt()">

       -tag tagname:Xaoptcmf:
              Enables javadoc to interpret a simple, one-argument custom standalone tag @tagname in doc com-ments. comments.
              ments.  So  the  Javadoc  tool  can "spell-check" tag names, it is important to include a -tag
              option for every custom tag that is present in the source code, disabling (with X) those  that
              are not being output in the current run.

              The colon (:) is always the separator. To use a colon, see Use of Colon in Tag Name .

              The  -tag  option  outputs the tag's heading taghead in bold, followed on the next line by the
              text from its single argument, as shown in the example below. Like any  standalone  tag,  this
              argument's  text can contain inline tags, which are also interpreted. The output is similar to
              standard one-argument tags, such as @return and @author.

              Placement of tags - The Xaoptcmf part of the argument determines where in the source code  the
              tag  is  allowed  to  be placed, and whether the tag can be disabled (using X). You can supply
              either a, to allow the tag in all places, or any combination of the other letters:

                     X (disable tag)
                     a (all)
                     o (overview)
                     p (packages)
                     t (types, that is classes and interfaces)
                     c (constructors)
                     m (methods)
                     f (fields)

              Examples of single tags - An example of a tag option for a tag that can be  used  anywhere  in
              the source code is:

                     -tag todo:a:"To Do:"

              If you wanted @todo to be used only with constructors, methods and fields, you would use:

                     -tag todo:cmf:"To Do:"

              Notice  the last colon (:) above is not a parameter separator, but is part of the heading text
              (as shown below). You would use either tag option for source code that contains the tag @todo,
              such as:

                     @todo The documentation for this method needs work.

              This line would produce output something like:

                     To Do:
                                       The documentation for this method needs work.


              Use of Colon in Tag Name -A NameA
              A colon can be used in a tag name if it
              is escaped with a backslash. For this comment:

                   /**
                   * @ejb:bean
                   */

              use this tag option:

                   -tag ejb\:bean:a:"EJB"

              Spell-checking tag names (Disabling tags) - Some developers put custom tags in the source code
              that they don't always want to output. In these cases, it is important to list all  tags  that
              are  present  in  the source code, enabling the ones you want to output and disabling the ones
              you don't want to output. The presence of X disables the tag, while its  absence  enables  the
              tag. This gives the Javadoc tool enough information to know if a tag it encounters is unknown,
              probably the results of a typo or a misspelling. It prints a warning in these cases.

              You can add X to the placement values already present, so that when you  want  to  enable  the
              tag,  you can simply delete the X. For example, if @todo is a tag that you want to suppress on
              output, you would use:

                     -tag todo:Xcmf:"To Do:"

              or, if you'd rather keep it simple:

                     -tag todo:X

              The syntax -tag todo:X works even if @todo is defined by a taglet.

              Order of tags - The order of the -tag (and -taglet ) options determine the order the tags  are
              output.  You  can  mix  the  custom  tags  with the standard tags to intersperse them. The tag
              options for standard tags are placeholders only for determining the order --  they  take  only
              the  standard  tag's  name.  (Subheadings for standard tags cannot be altered.) This is illus-trated illustrated
              trated in the following example.

              If -tag is missing, then the position of -taglet  determines  its  order.  If  they  are  both
              present,  then  whichever appears last on the command line determines its order. (This happens
              because the tags and taglets are processed in the order that they appear on the command  line.
              For  example,  if -taglet and -tag both have the name "todo", the one that appears last on the
              command line will determine its order.

              Example of a complete set of tags - This example inserts "To Do" after "Parameters" and before
              "Throws"  in  the output. By using "X", it also specifies that @example is a tag that might be
              encountered in the source code that should not be output during this run. Notice that  if  you
              use  @argfile,  you  can put the tags on separate lines in an argument file like this (no line
              continuation characters needed):

                     -tag param
                     -tag return
                     -tag todo:a:"To Do:"
                     -tag throws
                     -tag see
                     -tag example:X

              When javadoc parses the doc comments, any tag encountered that is neither a standard  tag  nor
              passed in with -tag or -taglet is considered unknown, and a warning is thrown.

              The  standard tags are initially stored internally in a list in their default order.  Whenever
              -tag options are used, those tags get appended to this list -- standard tags  are  moved  from
              their default position.  Therefore, if a -tag option is omitted for a standard tag, it remains
              in its default position.

              Avoiding Conflicts - If you want to slice out your own namespace, you can use a  dot-separated
              naming  convention similar to that used for packages: com.mycompany.todo. Sun will continue to
              create standard tags whose names do not contain dots. Any tag you  create  will  override  the
              behavior  of  a  tag  by  the same name defined by Sun. In other words, if you create a tag or
              taglet @todo, it will always have the same behavior you define, even if Sun  later  creates  a
              standard tag of the same name.

              You  can  also  create  more  complex  standalone tags, or custom inline tags with the -taglet
              option.

       -taglet class
              Specifies the class file that starts the taglet used in generating the documentation for  that
              tag.  Use  the  fully-qualified  name  for class.  This taglet also defines the number of text
              arguments that the custom tag has. The taglet accepts those  arguments,  processes  them,  and
              generates the output. For extensive documentation with example taglets, see Taglet Overview.

              Taglets  are  useful for standalone or inline tags.  They can have any number of arguments and
              implement custom behavior, such as making text bold, formatting bullets, writing out the  text
              to a file, or starting other processes.

              Use the -tagletpath option to specify the path to the taglet.  Here is an example that inserts
              the "To Do" taglet after "Parameters" and ahead of "Throws" in the generated pages:

                     -taglet com.sun.tools.doclets.ToDoTaglet
                     -tagletpath /home/taglets
                     -tag return
                     -tag param
                     -tag todo
                     -tag throws
                     -tag see

              Alternatively, you can use the -taglet option in place of its -tag option,  but  that  may  be
              harder to read.

       -tagletpath tagletpathlist
              Specifies  the  search  paths  for finding taglet class files (.class). The tagletpathlist can
              contain multiple paths by separating them with a colon (:). The Javadoc tool  will  search  in
              all subdirectories of the specified paths.

       -subpackages package1:package2:...
              Generates  documentation  from source files in the specified packages and recursively in their
              subpackages. This option is useful when adding new subpackages to the source code, as they are
              automatically  included.  Each package is any top-level package (java) or fully qualified sub-package subpackage
              package javax.swing), and does not need to contain source files.  Wildcards are not needed  or
              allowed.  Use -sourcepath to specify where to find the packages. For example:

                     % javadoc -d docs -sourcepath /home/user/src \
                                       -subackages java:javax.swing

              This  command generates documentation for packages name "java" and "javax.swing" and all their
              subpackages.

              There is also an option to exclude subpackages as it traverses the subpackages.

       -exclude packagename1:packagename2:...
              Unconditionally excludes the specified packages and their subpackages from the list formed  by
              -subpackages  if  they  would  otherwise  be  included  by some previous or later -subpackages
              option. For example:

                     % javadoc -sourcepath /home/user/src -sourcepath java\
                                       -exclude java.net:java.lang

              would include java.io, java.util, and java.math (among others),  but  would  exclude  packages
              rooted  at  java.net  and  java.lang.   Notice  this  excludes  java.lang.ref, a subpackage of
              java.lang).

       -breakiterator
              Uses the internationalized sentence boundary of java.text.BreakIterator to determine  the  end
              of  the first sentence for English (all other locales already use BreakIterator ), rather than
              an English language, locale-specific algorithm. By first sentence, we mean the first  sentence
              in the main desription of a package, class or member.  This sentence is copied to the package,
              class or member summary, and to the alphabetic index.

              From JDK 1.2 forward, the BreakIterator class is already used to determine the end of sentence
              for  all  languages but English. Therefore, the -breakiterator option has no effect except for
              English from 1.2 forward. English had its own default algorithm:

                    English default sentence break algorithm - Stops at a period followed by a space  or  a
                     HTML block tag, such as <P>.

                    Breakiterator  sentence  break algorithm - Stops at a period, question mark or exclama-tion exclamation
                     tion mark followed by a space if the next word starts with a capital  letter.  This  is
                     meant to handle most abbreviations (such as "The serial no. is valid", but won't handle
                     "Mr. Smith"). Won't stop at HTML tags or sentences that begin with numbers or  symbols.
                     Stops at the last period in "../filename", even if embedded in an HTML tag.

              NOTE:  We  have  removed  from 1.5.0 the breakiterator warning messages that were in 1.4.x and
              have left the default sentence-break algorithm unchanged. That is, the  -breakiterator  option
              is  not  the  default  in 1.5.0, nor do we expect it to become the default. This is a reversal
              from our former intention that the default would change in the "next major  release"  (1.5.0).
              This  means  if you have not modified your source code to eliminate the breakiterator warnings
              in 1.4.x, then you don't have to do anything, and the warnings go away  starting  with  1.5.0.
              The reason for this reversal is because any benefit to having breakiterator become the default
              would be outweighed by the incompatible source change it would require. We  regret  any  extra
              work and confusion this has caused.

       -docfilessubdirs
              Enables  deep copying of "doc-files" directories.  In other words, subdirectories and all con-tents contents
              tents are recursively copied to the destination.  For example, the  directory  doc-files/exam-ple/images doc-files/example/images
              ple/images  and all its contents would now be copied.  There is also an option to exclude sub-directories. subdirectories.
              directories.

       -excludedocfilessubdirs name1:name2:...
              Excludes any "doc-files" subdirectories with the given names. This  prevents  the  copying  of
              SCCS and other source-code-control subdirectories.

       -noqualifier all | packagename1:packagename2:...
              Omits  qualifying  package name from ahead of class names in output. The argument to -noquali-fier -noqualifier
              fier is either "all" (all package qualifiers are omitted) or a colon-separate  list  of  pack-ages, packages,
              ages,  with  wildcards,  to  be removed as qualifiers. The package name is removed from places
              where class or interface names appear.

              The following example omits all package qualifiers:

                     -noqualifier all

              The following example omits "java.lang" and "java.io" package qualifiers:

                     -noqualifier java.lang:java.io

              The following example omits package qualifiers starting with "java", and "com.sun" subpackages
              (but not "javax"):

                     -noqualifier java.*:com.sun.*

              Where  a  package  qualifier  would  appear  due to the above behavior, the following behavior
              (present in 1.3) also takes effect to further omit qualifiers: On  the  page  for  class  p.C,
              remove the package qualifier for classes belonging to package p.  This rule is present whether
              or not -noqualifier is used.

       -notimestamp
              Suppresses the timestamp, which is hidden in an HTML comment in the generated  HTML  near  the
              top  of  each page.  Useful when you want to run javadoc on two source bases and diff them, as
              it prevents timestamps from causing a diff (which would otherwise be a diff  on  every  page).
              The timestamp includes the javadoc version number,and currently looks like this:

                    <!-- Generated by javadoc (build 1.5.0-internal)
                    on Tue Jun 22 09:57:24 PDT 2004 -->

       -nocomment
              Suppress the entire comment body, including the description and all tags, generating only dec-larations. declarations.
              larations. This option enables re-using source files originally intended for a different  pur-pose, purpose,
              pose, to produce a skeleton perhaps for a new project.

   Command Line Argument Files
       To  shorten  or  simplify the javadoc command line, you can specify one or more files that themselves
       contain arguments to the javadoc command (except -J options).  This enables  you  to  create  javadoc
       commands of any length on any operating system.

       An  argument file can include Javadoc options, source filenames and package names in any combination,
       or just arguments to Javadoc options. The arguments within a file can be space-separated or  newline-separated. newlineseparated.
       separated.  Filenames within an argument file are relative to the current directory, not the location
       of the argument file. Wildcards (*) are not allowed in these lists (such as for  specifying  *.java).
       Use of the '@' character to recursively interpret files is not supported. The -J options are not sup-ported supported
       ported because they are passed to the launcher, which does not support argument files.

       When executing javadoc, pass in the path and name of each argument file with the '@' leading  charac-ter. character.
       ter. When javadoc encounters an argument beginning with the character '@', it expands the contents of
       that file in the argument list.

       Example - Single Arg File

       You could use a single argument file named "argfile" to hold all Javadoc arguments:

              % javadoc @argfile

       This argument file could contain the contents of both files shown in the next example.

       Example - Two Arg Files

       You can create two argument files - one for the Javadoc options and the other for the  package  names
       or source filenames: (Notice the following lists have no line-continuation characters.)

       Create a file named "options" containing:

              -d docs-filelist
              -use
              -splitindex
              -windowtitle 'Java 2 Platform v1.3 API Specification'
              -doctitle 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> 2\
                                Platform v1.4 API Specification'
              -header '<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br><font size="-1">v1.4</font>'
              -bottom 'Copyright 1993-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.'
              -group "Core Packages" "java.*"
              -overview /java/pubs/ws/1.3/src/share/classes/overview-core.html
              -sourcepath /java/pubs/ws/1.3/src/share/classes

       Create a file named "packages" containing:

              com.mypackage1
              com.mypackage2
              com.mypackage3

       You would then run javadoc with:

              % javadoc @options @packages

       Example - Arg Files with Paths

       The  argument  files  can  have paths, but any filenames inside the files are relative to the current
       working directory (not path1 or path2):

              % javadoc @path1/options @path2/packages

       Examples - Option Arguments

       Here's an example of saving just an argument to a javadoc option in an argument file.  We'll use  the
       -bottom option, since it can have a lengthy argument. You could create a file named "bottom" contain-ing containing
       ing its text argument:

       Submit a bug or feature</a><br><br>Java is a trademark or registered trademark of  Sun  Microsystems,
       Inc.  in  the  US  and other countries.<br>Copyright 1993-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio
       Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A.  All Rights Reserved.</font>'

       The run the Javadoc tool with:

              % javadoc -bottom @bottom @packages

       Or you could include the -bottom option at the start of the argument file, and then just run it as:

              % javadoc @bottom @packages


       RUNNING

   Running Javadoc
       Version Numbers -The NumbersThe

       The version number of javadoc can be determined using javadoc-J-version.  The version number  of  the
       standard doclet appears in its output stream. It can be turned off with -quiet .

       Public programmatic interface -To interfaceTo

       To  invoke  the  Javadoc tool from within programs written in the Java language. This interface is in
       om.sun.tools.javadoc.Main (and javadoc is re-entrant). For
        more details, see Standard Doclet.

SIMPLE EXAMPLES
       You can run javadoc on entire packages or individual source files.  Each package name  has  a  corre-sponding corresponding
       sponding   directory   name.    In   the   following  examples,  the  source  files  are  located  at
       /home/src/java/awt/*java.  The destination directory is /home/html.

   Documenting One or More Packages
       To document a package, the source files (*.java) for that package must be located in a directory hav-ing having
       ing  the same name as the package.  If a package name is made up of several identifiers (separated by
       dots, such as java.awt.color), each subsequent identifier must correspond to  a  deeper  subdirectory
       (such  as java/awt/color).  You may split the source files for a single package among two such direc-tory directory
       tory trees located at different places, as long as -sourcepath points to  them  both  -  for  example
       src1/java/awt/color and src2/java/awt/color.

       You  can  run  javadoc  either by changing directories (with cd) or by using -sourcepath option.  The
       examples below illustrate both alternatives.

        Case 1 - Run recursively starting from one or more packages -  This  example  uses  -sourcepath  so
         javadoc  can  be  run  from  any directory. It traverses the subpackages of java excluding packages
         rooted at java.net and java.lang.  Notice this excludes java.lang.ref, a subpackage of  java.lang).

              % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src\
                                -subpackages java -exclude java.net:java.lang

       To  also  traverse down other package trees, append their names to the -subpackages argument, such as
       java:javax:org.xml.sax.

        Case 2 - Run on explicit packages after changing to the 'root' source directory  -  Change  to  the
         parent  directory of the fully qualified package.  Then run javadoc, supplying names of one or more
         packages you want to document:

              example% cd /home/src/
              example% javadoc -d /home/html java.awt java.awt.event

        Case 3 - Run from any directory on explicit packages in a single directory tree - In this case,  it
         does  not  matter what the current directory is.  Run javadoc supplying -sourcepath with the parent
         directory of the top-level package, and supplying names of one or more packages you want  to  docu-ment: document:
         ment:

              example% javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src \
                         java.awt java.awt.event

        Case 4 - Run from any directory on explicit packages in multiple directory trees - This is the same
         as case 3, but for packages in separate directory trees.  Run javadoc  supplying  -sourcepath  with
         the path to each tree's root (colon-separated) and supply names of one or more packages you want to
         document. All source files for a given package do not need to be located under a single root direc-tory directory
         tory - they just need to be found somewhere along the sourcepath.

              % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath\
                                /home/src1:/home/src2 java.awt java.awt.event

       Result:  All  cases  generate  HTML-formatted  documentation for the public and protected classes and
       interfaces in packages java.awt and java.awt.event and save the HTML files in the specified  destina-tion destination
       tion  directory  (/home/html).   Because  two  or more packages are being generated, the document has
       three frames: for the list of packages, the list of classes, and the main page.

   Documenting One or More Classes
       The second way to run the Javadoc tool is by passing in one or more source files  (.java).   You  can
       run  javadoc either of the following two ways: by changing directories (with cd) or by fully specify-ing specifying
       ing the path to the .java files.  Relative paths are relative to the current directory.   The  -sour-cepath -sourcepath
       cepath  option  is ignored when passing in source files.  You can use command line wildcards, such as
       asterisk (*), to specify groups of classes.

        Case 1 - Changing to the source directory - Change to the directory holding the .java files.   Then
         run javadoc, supplying names of one or more source files you want to document.

              example% cd /home/src/java/awt
              example% javadoc -d /home/html Button.java Canvas.java \
                             Graphics*.java

         This  example  generates  HTML-formatted  documentation for the classes Button, Canvas, and classes
         beginning with Graphics.  Because source files rather than package names were passed  in  as  argu-ments arguments
         ments to javadoc, the document has two frames - for the list of classes and the main page.

        Case  2 - Changing to the package root directory - This is useful for documenting individual source
         files from different subpackages off the same root.  Change to the package root directory, and sup-ply supply
         ply the source files with paths from the root.

              example% cd /home/src/
              example% javadoc -d /home/html java/awt/Button.java \
                               java/applet/Applet.java

         This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the classes Button and Applet.

        Case  3  - From any directory - In this case, it doesn't matter what the current directory is.  Run
         javadoc, supplying the absolute path (or path relative to the current directory) to the .java files
         you want to document:

              example% javadoc -d /home/html /home/src/java/awt/Button.java \
                             /home/src/java/awt/Graphics*.java

         This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the class Button and classes beginning with
         Graphics.

   Documenting Both Packages and Classes
       You can document entire packages and individual classes at the same time.  Here is  an  example  that
       mixes  the  two  previous examples.  You can use -sourcepath for the path to the packages but not for
       the path to the individual classes:

              example% javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src java.awt \
                             /home/src/java/applet/Applet.java

       This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the package java.awt and class  Applet.   The
       Javadoc  tool  determines  the  package  name for Applet from the package declaration, if any, in the
       Applet.java source file.)

   Real World Example
       The Javadoc tool has many useful options, some of which are more commonly used than others.  Here  is
       effectively  the  command  you need to run the Javadoc tool on the Java platform API. We use 180MB of
       memory to generate the documentation for the 1500 (approx.) public and protected classes in the  Java
       2 Platform, Standard Edition, v1.2.

       The same example is shown twice - first as executed on the command line, then as execued from a make-file. makefile.
       file. It uses absolute paths in the option arguments, which enables the same javadoc  command  to  be
       run from any directory.

   Command Line Example
       This  command  line  example is over 900 characters, which is too long from some shells, such as DOS.
       You can use a command line argument file (or write a shell script) to workaround this limitation.

              example% javadoc -sourcepath /jdk/src/share/classes \
              -overview /java/jdk/src/share/classes/overview.html \
              -d /jdk/build/api -use -splitIndex -windowtitle 'Java 2 Platform v1.2 API Specification' \
              -doctitle 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> 2 Platform v1.2 API Specification ' \
              -header '<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br><font size="-1">v1.2</font>' \
              -bottom '<font size="-1"><a href="http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi"> \
                                          Submit a bug or feature</a><br><br>Java is a trademark or registered \
                                          trademark of Sun Microsystems,Inc. in the US and other countries.<br> \
                                          Copyright 1993-1999 Sun Microsystems, Inc. \
                                          901 San Antonio Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A. \
                                          All Rights Reserved.</font>' \
              -group "Core Packages" "java.*:com.sun.java.*:org.omg.*" -group "Extension Packages" "javax.*" \
              -J-Xmx180m @packages

       where packages is the name of a file  containing  the  packages  to  process,  such  as  java.applet,
       java.lang.  None of the options should contain any newline characters between the single quotes. (For
       example, if you copy and paste this example, delete the newline characters from the -bottom  option.)
       See the other notes listed below.

   Makefile Example
       This  is  an example of a GNU makefile. For an example of a Windows makefile, see creating a makefile
       for Windows.

              example% javadoc -sourcepath /jdk/src/share/classes /* Sets path for
                                                                  source files  */
              -overview $ (SRCDIR)/overview.html /* Sets path for overview text */
              -d /jdk/build/api           /* Sets destination directory */
              -use                        /* Adds "Use" files      */
              -splitIndex                 /* Splits index A-Z      */
              -windowtitle $(WINDOWTITLE) /* Adds a window title   */
              -doctitle $(DOCTITLE)       /* Adds a doc title      */
              -header $(HEADER)           /* Adds running header text       */
              -bottom $(BOTTOM)           /* Adds text at bottom            */
              -group $(GROUPCORE)         /* 1st subhead on overview page */
              -group $(GROUPEXT)          /* 2nd subhead on overview page  */
              -J-Xmx180m                           /* Sets memory to 180MB     */
              java.lang java.lang.reflect          /* Sets packages to document  */
              java.util java.io java.net           java.applet

              WINDOWTITLE = 'Java Platform 1.2 Final API Specification'
              DOCTITLE = 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> Platform 1.2 \
                               Final API Specification'
              HEADER = '<b>Java Platform 1.2</b><br><font size="-1">Final</font>'
              BOTTOM = '<font size="-1"><a href="http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/\
                            bugreport.cgi">Submit a bug or feature</a><br><br>Java \
                            is a trademark or registered trademark of Sun \
                            Microsystems, Inc. in the US and other countries.<br>\
                            Copyright 1993-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San \
                            Antonio Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A.\
                            </font>'
              GROUPCORE = '"Core Packages" "java.*:com.sun.java.*:org.omg.*"
              GROUPEXT  = '"Extension Packages" "javax.*"'
              SRCDIR = '/java/jdk/1.2/src/share/classes'

              Single quotes are used to surround makefile arguments.

   Notes
        If you omit the -windowtitle option, the Javadoc tool copies the doc title to the window title. The
         -windowtitle  text  is  basically the same as the -doctitle but without HTML tags, to prevent those
         tags from appearing as raw text in the window title).

        If you omit the -footer option, as done here, the Javadoc  tool  copies  the  header  text  to  the
         footer.

       Other important options you might wan to use but
         not needed in this example are -classpath and -link.


TROUBLESHOOTING
   General Troubleshooting
        Javadoc FAQ - Commonly-encountered bugs and troubleshooting tips can be found on the Javadoc FAQ

        Bugs and Limitations - You can also see some bugs listed at Important Bug Fixes and Changes.

        Version number - See version numbers.

        Documents only legal classes - When documenting a package, javadoc only reads files whose names are
         composed of legal class names. You can prevent javadoc from parsing a file by including, for  exam-ple, example,
         ple, a hyphen "-" in its filename.

   Errors and Warnings
       Error  and  warning messages contain the filename and line number to the declaration line rather than
       to the particular line in the doc comment:

        "error: cannot read: Class1.java" the Javadoc tool is trying to load the class Class1.java  in  the
         current directory. The class name is shown with its path (absolute or relative), which in this case
         is the same as ./Class1.java.

ENVIRONMENT
       CLASSPATH           Environment variable that provides the path which javadoc uses to find user class
                           files.   This environment variable is overridden by the -classpath option.  Sepa-rate Separate
                           rate your directories with a colon, for example:

                      .:/home/classes:/usr/local/java/classes

SEE ALSO
       javac(1), java(1), jdb(1), javah(1), javap(1)

       See (or search java.sun.com) for the following:

       The Javadoc Home Page @
         http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/javadoc/index.html

       How to Write Doc Comments for Javadoc@
         http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html

       Setting the Class Path

       How Javac and Javadoc Find Classes



                                                10 March 2001                                     javadoc(1)

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