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OD(1)                     BSD General Commands Manual                    OD(1)

NAME
     od -- octal, decimal, hex, ASCII dump

SYNOPSIS
     od [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOosvXx] [-A base] [-j skip] [-N length] [-t type] [[+]offset[.][Bb]] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The od utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or standard input if no files are speci-fied, specified,
     fied, in a user specified format.

     The options are as follows:

     -A base     Specify the input address base.  base may be one of d, o, x or n, which specify decimal,
                 octal, hexadecimal addresses or no address, respectively.

     -a          Output named characters.  Equivalent to -t a.

     -B, -o      Output octal shorts.  Equivalent to -t o2.

     -b          Output octal bytes.  Equivalent to -t o1.

     -c          Output C-style escaped characters.  Equivalent to -t c.

     -D          Output unsigned decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t u4.

     -e, -F      Output double-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent to -t fD.

     -f          Output single-precision floating point numbers.  Equivalent to -t fF.

     -H, -X      Output hexadecimal ints.  Equivalent to -t x4.

     -h, -x      Output hexadecimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t x2.

     -I, -L, -l  Output signed decimal longs.  Equivalent to -t dL.

     -i          Output signed decimal ints.  Equivalent to -t dI.

     -j skip     Skip skip bytes of the combined input before dumping.  The number may be followed by one of
                 b, k or m which specify the units of the number as blocks (512 bytes), kilobytes and
                 megabytes, respectively.

     -N length   Dump at most length bytes of input.

     -O          Output octal ints.  Equivalent to -t o4.

     -s          Output signed decimal shorts.  Equivalent to -t d2.

     -t type     Specify the output format.  type is a string containing one or more of the following kinds
                 of type specifiers:

                 a       Named characters (ASCII).  Control characters are displayed using the following
                         names:

                         000 NUL 001 SOH 002 STX 003 ETX 004 EOT 005 ENQ
                         006 ACK 007 BEL 008 BS  009 HT  00a NL  00b VT
                         00c FF  00d CR  00e SO  00f SI  010 DLE 011 DC1
                         012 DC2 013 DC3 014 DC4 015 NAK 016 SYN 017 ETB
                         018 CAN 019 EM  01a SUB 01b ESC 01c FS  01d GS
                         01e RS  01f US  020 SP  0ff DEL

                 c       Characters in the default character set.  Non-printing characters are represented
                         as 3-digit octal character codes, except the following characters, which are repre-sented represented
                         sented as C escapes:

                         NUL              \0
                         alert            \a
                         backspace        \b
                         newline          \n
                         carriage-return  \r
                         tab              \t
                         vertical tab     \v

                         Multi-byte characters are displayed in the area corresponding to the first byte of
                         the character. The remaining bytes are shown as `**'.

                 [d|o|u|x][C|S|I|L|n]
                         Signed decimal (d), octal (o), unsigned decimal (u) or hexadecimal (x).  Followed
                         by an optional size specifier, which may be either C (char), S (short), I (int), L
                         (long), or a byte count as a decimal integer.

                 f[F|D|L|n]
                         Floating-point number.  Followed by an optional size specifier, which may be either
                         F (float), D (double) or L (long double).

     -v          Write all input data, instead of replacing lines of duplicate values with a `*'.

     Multiple options that specify output format may be used; the output will contain one line for each for-mat. format.
     mat.

     If no output format is specified, -t oS is assumed.

ENVIRONMENT
     The LANG, LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE environment variables affect the execution of od as described in
     environ(7).

DIAGNOSTICS
     The od utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

COMPATIBILITY
     The traditional -s option to extract string constants is not supported; consider using strings(1)
     instead.

SEE ALSO
     hexdump(1), strings(1)

STANDARDS
     The od utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'').

HISTORY
     An od command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD                              July 11, 2004                             BSD

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