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PERLPORT(1)                           Perl Programmers Reference Guide                           PERLPORT(1)



NAME
       perlport - Writing portable Perl

DESCRIPTION
       Perl runs on numerous operating systems.  While most of them share much in common, they also have
       their own unique features.

       This document is meant to help you to find out what constitutes portable Perl code.  That way once
       you make a decision to write portably, you know where the lines are drawn, and you can stay within
       them.

       There is a tradeoff between taking full advantage of one particular type of computer and taking
       advantage of a full range of them.  Naturally, as you broaden your range and become more diverse, the
       common factors drop, and you are left with an increasingly smaller area of common ground in which you
       can operate to accomplish a particular task.  Thus, when you begin attacking a problem, it is
       important to consider under which part of the tradeoff curve you want to operate.  Specifically, you
       must decide whether it is important that the task that you are coding have the full generality of
       being portable, or whether to just get the job done right now.  This is the hardest choice to be
       made.  The rest is easy, because Perl provides many choices, whichever way you want to approach your
       problem.

       Looking at it another way, writing portable code is usually about willfully limiting your available
       choices.  Naturally, it takes discipline and sacrifice to do that.  The product of portability and
       convenience may be a constant.  You have been warned.

       Be aware of two important points:

       Not all Perl programs have to be portable
           There is no reason you should not use Perl as a language to glue Unix tools together, or to
           prototype a Macintosh application, or to manage the Windows registry.  If it makes no sense to
           aim for portability for one reason or another in a given program, then don't bother.

       Nearly all of Perl already is portable
           Don't be fooled into thinking that it is hard to create portable Perl code.  It isn't.  Perl
           tries its level-best to bridge the gaps between what's available on different platforms, and all
           the means available to use those features.  Thus almost all Perl code runs on any machine without
           modification.  But there are some significant issues in writing portable code, and this document
           is entirely about those issues.

       Here's the general rule: When you approach a task commonly done using a whole range of platforms,
       think about writing portable code.  That way, you don't sacrifice much by way of the implementation
       choices you can avail yourself of, and at the same time you can give your users lots of platform
       choices.  On the other hand, when you have to take advantage of some unique feature of a particular
       platform, as is often the case with systems programming (whether for Unix, Windows, VMS, etc.),
       consider writing platform-specific code.

       When the code will run on only two or three operating systems, you may need to consider only the
       differences of those particular systems.  The important thing is to decide where the code will run
       and to be deliberate in your decision.

       The material below is separated into three main sections: main issues of portability ("ISSUES"),
       platform-specific issues ("PLATFORMS"), and built-in perl functions that behave differently on
       various ports ("FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS").

       This information should not be considered complete; it includes possibly transient information about
       idiosyncrasies of some of the ports, almost all of which are in a state of constant evolution.  Thus,
       this material should be considered a perpetual work in progress ("<IMG SRC="yellow_sign.gif"
       ALT="Under Construction">").

ISSUES
   Newlines
       In most operating systems, lines in files are terminated by newlines.  Just what is used as a newline
       may vary from OS to OS.  Unix traditionally uses "\012", one type of DOSish I/O uses "\015\012", and
       Mac OS uses "\015".

       Perl uses "\n" to represent the "logical" newline, where what is logical may depend on the platform
       in use.  In MacPerl, "\n" always means "\015".  In DOSish perls, "\n" usually means "\012", but when
       accessing a file in "text" mode, perl uses the ":crlf" layer that translates it to (or from)
       "\015\012", depending on whether you're reading or writing. Unix does the same thing on ttys in
       canonical mode.  "\015\012" is commonly referred to as CRLF.

       To trim trailing newlines from text lines use chomp().  With default settings that function looks for
       a trailing "\n" character and thus trims in a portable way.

       When dealing with binary files (or text files in binary mode) be sure to explicitly set $/ to the
       appropriate value for your file format before using chomp().

       Because of the "text" mode translation, DOSish perls have limitations in using "seek" and "tell" on a
       file accessed in "text" mode.  Stick to "seek"-ing to locations you got from "tell" (and no others),
       and you are usually free to use "seek" and "tell" even in "text" mode.  Using "seek" or "tell" or
       other file operations may be non-portable.  If you use "binmode" on a file, however, you can usually
       "seek" and "tell" with arbitrary values in safety.

       A common misconception in socket programming is that "\n" eq "\012" everywhere.  When using protocols
       such as common Internet protocols, "\012" and "\015" are called for specifically, and the values of
       the logical "\n" and "\r" (carriage return) are not reliable.

           print SOCKET "Hi there, client!\r\n";      # WRONG
           print SOCKET "Hi there, client!\015\012";  # RIGHT

       However, using "\015\012" (or "\cM\cJ", or "\x0D\x0A") can be tedious and unsightly, as well as
       confusing to those maintaining the code.  As such, the Socket module supplies the Right Thing for
       those who want it.

           use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
           print SOCKET "Hi there, client!$CRLF"      # RIGHT

       When reading from a socket, remember that the default input record separator $/ is "\n", but robust
       socket code will recognize as either "\012" or "\015\012" as end of line:

           while (<SOCKET>) {
               # ...
           }

       Because both CRLF and LF end in LF, the input record separator can be set to LF and any CR stripped
       later.  Better to write:

           use Socket qw(:DEFAULT :crlf);
           local($/) = LF;      # not needed if $/ is already \012

           while (<SOCKET>) {
               s/$CR?$LF/\n/;   # not sure if socket uses LF or CRLF, OK
           #   s/\015?\012/\n/; # same thing
           }

       This example is preferred over the previous one--even for Unix platforms--because now any "\015"'s
       ("\cM"'s) are stripped out (and there was much rejoicing).

       Similarly, functions that return text data--such as a function that fetches a web page--should
       sometimes translate newlines before returning the data, if they've not yet been translated to the
       local newline representation.  A single line of code will often suffice:

           $data =~ s/\015?\012/\n/g;
           return $data;

       Some of this may be confusing.  Here's a handy reference to the ASCII CR and LF characters.  You can
       print it out and stick it in your wallet.

           LF  eq  \012  eq  \x0A  eq  \cJ  eq  chr(10)  eq  ASCII 10
           CR  eq  \015  eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq  chr(13)  eq  ASCII 13

                    | Unix | DOS  | Mac  |
               ---------------------------\n --------------------------\n
               \n   |  LF  |  LF  |  CR  |
               \r   |  CR  |  CR  |  LF  |
               \n * |  LF  | CRLF |  CR  |
               \r * |  CR  |  CR  |  LF  |
               ---------------------------* --------------------------*
               * text-mode STDIO

       The Unix column assumes that you are not accessing a serial line (like a tty) in canonical mode.  If
       you are, then CR on input becomes "\n", and "\n" on output becomes CRLF.

       These are just the most common definitions of "\n" and "\r" in Perl.  There may well be others.  For
       example, on an EBCDIC implementation such as z/OS (OS/390) or OS/400 (using the ILE, the PASE is
       ASCII-based) the above material is similar to "Unix" but the code numbers change:

           LF  eq  \025  eq  \x15  eq  \cU  eq  chr(21)  eq  CP-1047 21
           LF  eq  \045  eq  \x25  eq           chr(37)  eq  CP-0037 37
           CR  eq  \015  eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq  chr(13)  eq  CP-1047 13
           CR  eq  \015  eq  \x0D  eq  \cM  eq  chr(13)  eq  CP-0037 13

                    | z/OS | OS/400 |
               ----------------------\n ---------------------\n
               \n   |  LF  |  LF    |
               \r   |  CR  |  CR    |
               \n * |  LF  |  LF    |
               \r * |  CR  |  CR    |
               ----------------------* ---------------------*
               * text-mode STDIO

   Numbers endianness and Width
       Different CPUs store integers and floating point numbers in different orders (called endianness) and
       widths (32-bit and 64-bit being the most common today).  This affects your programs when they attempt
       to transfer numbers in binary format from one CPU architecture to another, usually either "live" via
       network connection, or by storing the numbers to secondary storage such as a disk file or tape.

       Conflicting storage orders make utter mess out of the numbers.  If a little-endian host (Intel, VAX)
       stores 0x12345678 (305419896 in decimal), a big-endian host (Motorola, Sparc, PA) reads it as
       0x78563412 (2018915346 in decimal).  Alpha and MIPS can be either: Digital/Compaq used/uses them in
       little-endian mode; SGI/Cray uses them in big-endian mode.  To avoid this problem in network (socket)
       connections use the "pack" and "unpack" formats "n" and "N", the "network" orders.  These are
       guaranteed to be portable.

       As of perl 5.9.2, you can also use the ">" and "<" modifiers to force big- or little-endian byte-
       order.  This is useful if you want to store signed integers or 64-bit integers, for example.

       You can explore the endianness of your platform by unpacking a data structure packed in native format
       such as:

           print unpack("h*", pack("s2", 1, 2)), "\n";
           # '10002000' on e.g. Intel x86 or Alpha 21064 in little-endian mode
           # '00100020' on e.g. Motorola 68040

       If you need to distinguish between endian architectures you could use either of the variables set
       like so:

           $is_big_endian   = unpack("h*", pack("s", 1)) =~ /01/;
           $is_little_endian = unpack("h*", pack("s", 1)) =~ /^1/;

       Differing widths can cause truncation even between platforms of equal endianness.  The platform of
       shorter width loses the upper parts of the number.  There is no good solution for this problem except
       to avoid transferring or storing raw binary numbers.

       One can circumnavigate both these problems in two ways.  Either transfer and store numbers always in
       text format, instead of raw binary, or else consider using modules like Data::Dumper (included in the
       standard distribution as of Perl 5.005) and Storable (included as of perl 5.8).  Keeping all data as
       text significantly simplifies matters.

       The v-strings are portable only up to v2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF), that's how far EBCDIC, or more
       precisely UTF-EBCDIC will go.

   Files and Filesystems
       Most platforms these days structure files in a hierarchical fashion.  So, it is reasonably safe to
       assume that all platforms support the notion of a "path" to uniquely identify a file on the system.
       How that path is really written, though, differs considerably.

       Although similar, file path specifications differ between Unix, Windows, Mac OS, OS/2, VMS, VOS,
       RISC OS, and probably others.  Unix, for example, is one of the few OSes that has the elegant idea of
       a single root directory.

       DOS, OS/2, VMS, VOS, and Windows can work similarly to Unix with "/" as path separator, or in their
       own idiosyncratic ways (such as having several root directories and various "unrooted" device files
       such NIL: and LPT:).

       Mac OS 9 and earlier used ":" as a path separator instead of "/".

       The filesystem may support neither hard links ("link") nor symbolic links ("symlink", "readlink",
       "lstat").

       The filesystem may support neither access timestamp nor change timestamp (meaning that about the only
       portable timestamp is the modification timestamp), or one second granularity of any timestamps (e.g.
       the FAT filesystem limits the time granularity to two seconds).

       The "inode change timestamp" (the "-C" filetest) may really be the "creation timestamp" (which it is
       not in Unix).

       VOS perl can emulate Unix filenames with "/" as path separator.  The native pathname characters
       greater-than, less-than, number-sign, and percent-sign are always accepted.

       RISC OS perl can emulate Unix filenames with "/" as path separator, or go native and use "." for path
       separator and ":" to signal filesystems and disk names.

       Don't assume Unix filesystem access semantics: that read, write, and execute are all the permissions
       there are, and even if they exist, that their semantics (for example what do r, w, and x mean on a
       directory) are the Unix ones.  The various Unix/POSIX compatibility layers usually try to make
       interfaces like chmod() work, but sometimes there simply is no good mapping.

       If all this is intimidating, have no (well, maybe only a little) fear.  There are modules that can
       help.  The File::Spec modules provide methods to do the Right Thing on whatever platform happens to
       be running the program.

           use File::Spec::Functions;
           chdir(updir());        # go up one directory
           my $file = catfile(curdir(), 'temp', 'file.txt');
           # on Unix and Win32, './temp/file.txt'
           # on Mac OS Classic, ':temp:file.txt'
           # on VMS, '[.temp]file.txt'

       File::Spec is available in the standard distribution as of version 5.004_05.  File::Spec::Functions
       is only in File::Spec 0.7 and later, and some versions of perl come with version 0.6.  If File::Spec
       is not updated to 0.7 or later, you must use the object-oriented interface from File::Spec (or
       upgrade File::Spec).

       In general, production code should not have file paths hardcoded.  Making them user-supplied or read
       from a configuration file is better, keeping in mind that file path syntax varies on different
       machines.

       This is especially noticeable in scripts like Makefiles and test suites, which often assume "/" as a
       path separator for subdirectories.

       Also of use is File::Basename from the standard distribution, which splits a pathname into pieces
       (base filename, full path to directory, and file suffix).

       Even when on a single platform (if you can call Unix a single platform), remember not to count on the
       existence or the contents of particular system-specific files or directories, like /etc/passwd,
       /etc/sendmail.conf, /etc/resolv.conf, or even /tmp/.  For example, /etc/passwd may exist but not
       contain the encrypted passwords, because the system is using some form of enhanced security.  Or it
       may not contain all the accounts, because the system is using NIS.  If code does need to rely on such
       a file, include a description of the file and its format in the code's documentation, then make it
       easy for the user to override the default location of the file.

       Don't assume a text file will end with a newline.  They should, but people forget.

       Do not have two files or directories of the same name with different case, like test.pl and Test.pl,
       as many platforms have case-insensitive (or at least case-forgiving) filenames.  Also, try not to
       have non-word characters (except for ".") in the names, and keep them to the 8.3 convention, for
       maximum portability, onerous a burden though this may appear.

       Likewise, when using the AutoSplit module, try to keep your functions to 8.3 naming and case-insensitive caseinsensitive
       insensitive conventions; or, at the least, make it so the resulting files have a unique (case-insensitively) (caseinsensitively)
       insensitively) first 8 characters.

       Whitespace in filenames is tolerated on most systems, but not all, and even on systems where it might
       be tolerated, some utilities might become confused by such whitespace.

       Many systems (DOS, VMS ODS-2) cannot have more than one "." in their filenames.

       Don't assume ">" won't be the first character of a filename.  Always use "<" explicitly to open a
       file for reading, or even better, use the three-arg version of open, unless you want the user to be
       able to specify a pipe open.

           open my $fh, '<', $existing_file) or die $!;

       If filenames might use strange characters, it is safest to open it with "sysopen" instead of "open".
       "open" is magic and can translate characters like ">", "<", and "|", which may be the wrong thing to
       do.  (Sometimes, though, it's the right thing.)  Three-arg open can also help protect against this
       translation in cases where it is undesirable.

       Don't use ":" as a part of a filename since many systems use that for their own semantics (Mac OS
       Classic for separating pathname components, many networking schemes and utilities for separating the
       nodename and the pathname, and so on).  For the same reasons, avoid "@", ";" and "|".

       Don't assume that in pathnames you can collapse two leading slashes "//" into one: some networking
       and clustering filesystems have special semantics for that.  Let the operating system to sort it out.

       The portable filename characters as defined by ANSI C are

        a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r t u v w x y z
        A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R T U V W X Y Z
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
        . _ -

       and the "-" shouldn't be the first character.  If you want to be hypercorrect, stay case-insensitive
       and within the 8.3 naming convention (all the files and directories have to be unique within one
       directory if their names are lowercased and truncated to eight characters before the ".", if any, and
       to three characters after the ".", if any).  (And do not use "."s in directory names.)

   System Interaction
       Not all platforms provide a command line.  These are usually platforms that rely primarily on a
       Graphical User Interface (GUI) for user interaction.  A program requiring a command line interface
       might not work everywhere.  This is probably for the user of the program to deal with, so don't stay
       up late worrying about it.

       Some platforms can't delete or rename files held open by the system, this limitation may also apply
       to changing filesystem metainformation like file permissions or owners.  Remember to "close" files
       when you are done with them.  Don't "unlink" or "rename" an open file.  Don't "tie" or "open" a file
       already tied or opened; "untie" or "close" it first.

       Don't open the same file more than once at a time for writing, as some operating systems put
       mandatory locks on such files.

       Don't assume that write/modify permission on a directory gives the right to add or delete
       files/directories in that directory.  That is filesystem specific: in some filesystems you need
       write/modify permission also (or even just) in the file/directory itself.  In some filesystems (AFS,
       DFS) the permission to add/delete directory entries is a completely separate permission.

       Don't assume that a single "unlink" completely gets rid of the file: some filesystems (most notably
       the ones in VMS) have versioned filesystems, and unlink() removes only the most recent one (it
       doesn't remove all the versions because by default the native tools on those platforms remove just
       the most recent version, too).  The portable idiom to remove all the versions of a file is

           1 while unlink "file";

       This will terminate if the file is undeleteable for some reason (protected, not there, and so on).

       Don't count on a specific environment variable existing in %ENV.  Don't count on %ENV entries being
       case-sensitive, or even case-preserving.  Don't try to clear %ENV by saying "%ENV = ();", or, if you
       really have to, make it conditional on "$^O ne 'VMS'" since in VMS the %ENV table is much more than a
       per-process key-value string table.

       On VMS, some entries in the %ENV hash are dynamically created when their key is used on a read if
       they did not previously exist.  The values for $ENV{HOME}, $ENV{TERM}, $ENV{HOME}, and $ENV{USER},
       are known to be dynamically generated.  The specific names that are dynamically generated may vary
       with the version of the C library on VMS, and more may exist than is documented.

       On VMS by default, changes to the %ENV hash are persistent after the process exits.  This can cause
       unintended issues.

       Don't count on signals or %SIG for anything.

       Don't count on filename globbing.  Use "opendir", "readdir", and "closedir" instead.

       Don't count on per-program environment variables, or per-program current directories.

       Don't count on specific values of $!, neither numeric nor especially the strings values. Users may
       switch their locales causing error messages to be translated into their languages.  If you can trust
       a POSIXish environment, you can portably use the symbols defined by the Errno module, like ENOENT.
       And don't trust on the values of $!  at all except immediately after a failed system call.

   Command names versus file pathnames
       Don't assume that the name used to invoke a command or program with "system" or "exec" can also be
       used to test for the existence of the file that holds the executable code for that command or
       program.  First, many systems have "internal" commands that are built-in to the shell or OS and while
       these commands can be invoked, there is no corresponding file.  Second, some operating systems (e.g.,
       Cygwin, DJGPP, OS/2, and VOS) have required suffixes for executable files; these suffixes are
       generally permitted on the command name but are not required.  Thus, a command like "perl" might
       exist in a file named "perl", "perl.exe", or "perl.pm", depending on the operating system.  The
       variable "_exe" in the Config module holds the executable suffix, if any.  Third, the VMS port
       carefully sets up $^X and $Config{perlpath} so that no further processing is required.  This is just
       as well, because the matching regular expression used below would then have to deal with a possible
       trailing version number in the VMS file name.

       To convert $^X to a file pathname, taking account of the requirements of the various operating system
       possibilities, say:

        use Config;
        my $thisperl = $^X;
        if ($^O ne 'VMS')
           {$thisperl .= $Config{_exe} unless $thisperl =~ m/$Config{_exe}$/i;}

       To convert $Config{perlpath} to a file pathname, say:

        use Config;
        my $thisperl = $Config{perlpath};
        if ($^O ne 'VMS')
           {$thisperl .= $Config{_exe} unless $thisperl =~ m/$Config{_exe}$/i;}

   Networking
       Don't assume that you can reach the public Internet.

       Don't assume that there is only one way to get through firewalls to the public Internet.

       Don't assume that you can reach outside world through any other port than 80, or some web proxy.  ftp
       is blocked by many firewalls.

       Don't assume that you can send email by connecting to the local SMTP port.

       Don't assume that you can reach yourself or any node by the name 'localhost'.  The same goes for
       '127.0.0.1'.  You will have to try both.

       Don't assume that the host has only one network card, or that it can't bind to many virtual IP
       addresses.

       Don't assume a particular network device name.

       Don't assume a particular set of ioctl()s will work.

       Don't assume that you can ping hosts and get replies.

       Don't assume that any particular port (service) will respond.

       Don't assume that Sys::Hostname (or any other API or command) returns either a fully qualified
       hostname or a non-qualified hostname: it all depends on how the system had been configured.  Also
       remember that for things such as DHCP and NAT, the hostname you get back might not be very useful.

       All the above "don't":s may look daunting, and they are, but the key is to degrade gracefully if one
       cannot reach the particular network service one wants.  Croaking or hanging do not look very
       professional.

   Interprocess Communication (IPC)
       In general, don't directly access the system in code meant to be portable.  That means, no "system",
       "exec", "fork", "pipe", "``", "qx//", "open" with a "|", nor any of the other things that makes being
       a perl hacker worth being.

       Commands that launch external processes are generally supported on most platforms (though many of
       them do not support any type of forking).  The problem with using them arises from what you invoke
       them on.  External tools are often named differently on different platforms, may not be available in
       the same location, might accept different arguments, can behave differently, and often present their
       results in a platform-dependent way.  Thus, you should seldom depend on them to produce consistent
       results. (Then again, if you're calling netstat -a, you probably don't expect it to run on both Unix
       and CP/M.)

       One especially common bit of Perl code is opening a pipe to sendmail:

           open(MAIL, '|/usr/lib/sendmail -t')
               or die "cannot fork sendmail: $!";

       This is fine for systems programming when sendmail is known to be available.  But it is not fine for
       many non-Unix systems, and even some Unix systems that may not have sendmail installed.  If a
       portable solution is needed, see the various distributions on CPAN that deal with it.  Mail::Mailer
       and Mail::Send in the MailTools distribution are commonly used, and provide several mailing methods,
       including mail, sendmail, and direct SMTP (via Net::SMTP) if a mail transfer agent is not available.
       Mail::Sendmail is a standalone module that provides simple, platform-independent mailing.

       The Unix System V IPC ("msg*(), sem*(), shm*()") is not available even on all Unix platforms.

       Do not use either the bare result of "pack("N", 10, 20, 30, 40)" or bare v-strings (such as
       "v10.20.30.40") to represent IPv4 addresses: both forms just pack the four bytes into network order.
       That this would be equal to the C language "in_addr" struct (which is what the socket code internally
       uses) is not guaranteed.  To be portable use the routines of the Socket extension, such as
       "inet_aton()", "inet_ntoa()", and "sockaddr_in()".

       The rule of thumb for portable code is: Do it all in portable Perl, or use a module (that may
       internally implement it with platform-specific code, but expose a common interface).

   External Subroutines (XS)
       XS code can usually be made to work with any platform, but dependent libraries, header files, etc.,
       might not be readily available or portable, or the XS code itself might be platform-specific, just as
       Perl code might be.  If the libraries and headers are portable, then it is normally reasonable to
       make sure the XS code is portable, too.

       A different type of portability issue arises when writing XS code: availability of a C compiler on
       the end-user's system.  C brings with it its own portability issues, and writing XS code will expose
       you to some of those.  Writing purely in Perl is an easier way to achieve portability.

   Standard Modules
       In general, the standard modules work across platforms.  Notable exceptions are the CPAN module
       (which currently makes connections to external programs that may not be available), platform-specific
       modules (like ExtUtils::MM_VMS), and DBM modules.

       There is no one DBM module available on all platforms.  SDBM_File and the others are generally
       available on all Unix and DOSish ports, but not in MacPerl, where only NBDM_File and DB_File are
       available.

       The good news is that at least some DBM module should be available, and AnyDBM_File will use
       whichever module it can find.  Of course, then the code needs to be fairly strict, dropping to the
       greatest common factor (e.g., not exceeding 1K for each record), so that it will work with any DBM
       module.  See AnyDBM_File for more details.

   Time and Date
       The system's notion of time of day and calendar date is controlled in widely different ways.  Don't
       assume the timezone is stored in $ENV{TZ}, and even if it is, don't assume that you can control the
       timezone through that variable.  Don't assume anything about the three-letter timezone abbreviations
       (for example that MST would be the Mountain Standard Time, it's been known to stand for Moscow
       Standard Time).  If you need to use timezones, express them in some unambiguous format like the exact
       number of minutes offset from UTC, or the POSIX timezone format.

       Don't assume that the epoch starts at 00:00:00, January 1, 1970, because that is OS- and
       implementation-specific.  It is better to store a date in an unambiguous representation.  The ISO
       8601 standard defines YYYY-MM-DD as the date format, or YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS (that's a literal "T"
       separating the date from the time).  Please do use the ISO 8601 instead of making us guess what date
       02/03/04 might be.  ISO 8601 even sorts nicely as-is.  A text representation (like "1987-12-18") can
       be easily converted into an OS-specific value using a module like Date::Parse.  An array of values,
       such as those returned by "localtime", can be converted to an OS-specific representation using
       Time::Local.

       When calculating specific times, such as for tests in time or date modules, it may be appropriate to
       calculate an offset for the epoch.

           require Time::Local;
           my $offset = Time::Local::timegm(0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 70);

       The value for $offset in Unix will be 0, but in Mac OS Classic will be some large number.  $offset
       can then be added to a Unix time value to get what should be the proper value on any system.

   Character sets and character encoding
       Assume very little about character sets.

       Assume nothing about numerical values ("ord", "chr") of characters.  Do not use explicit code point
       ranges (like \xHH-\xHH); use for example symbolic character classes like "[:print:]".

       Do not assume that the alphabetic characters are encoded contiguously (in the numeric sense).  There
       may be gaps.

       Do not assume anything about the ordering of the characters.  The lowercase letters may come before
       or after the uppercase letters; the lowercase and uppercase may be interlaced so that both "a" and
       "A" come before "b"; the accented and other international characters may be interlaced so that ae
       comes before "b".

   Internationalisation
       If you may assume POSIX (a rather large assumption), you may read more about the POSIX locale system
       from perllocale.  The locale system at least attempts to make things a little bit more portable, or
       at least more convenient and native-friendly for non-English users.  The system affects character
       sets and encoding, and date and time formatting--amongst other things.

       If you really want to be international, you should consider Unicode.  See perluniintro and
       perlunicode for more information.

       If you want to use non-ASCII bytes (outside the bytes 0x00..0x7f) in the "source code" of your code,
       to be portable you have to be explicit about what bytes they are.  Someone might for example be using
       your code under a UTF-8 locale, in which case random native bytes might be illegal ("Malformed UTF-8
       ...")  This means that for example embedding ISO 8859-1 bytes beyond 0x7f into your strings might
       cause trouble later.  If the bytes are native 8-bit bytes, you can use the "bytes" pragma.  If the
       bytes are in a string (regular expression being a curious string), you can often also use the "\xHH"
       notation instead of embedding the bytes as-is.  (If you want to write your code in UTF-8, you can use
       the "utf8".) The "bytes" and "utf8" pragmata are available since Perl 5.6.0.

   System Resources
       If your code is destined for systems with severely constrained (or missing!) virtual memory systems
       then you want to be especially mindful of avoiding wasteful constructs such as:

           my @lines = <$very_large_file>;            # bad

           while (<$fh>) {$file .= $_}                # sometimes bad
           my $file = join('', <$fh>);                # better

       The last two constructs may appear unintuitive to most people.  The first repeatedly grows a string,
       whereas the second allocates a large chunk of memory in one go.  On some systems, the second is more
       efficient that the first.

   Security
       Most multi-user platforms provide basic levels of security, usually implemented at the filesystem
       level.  Some, however, unfortunately do not.  Thus the notion of user id, or "home" directory, or
       even the state of being logged-in, may be unrecognizable on many platforms.  If you write programs
       that are security-conscious, it is usually best to know what type of system you will be running under
       so that you can write code explicitly for that platform (or class of platforms).

       Don't assume the Unix filesystem access semantics: the operating system or the filesystem may be
       using some ACL systems, which are richer languages than the usual rwx.  Even if the rwx exist, their
       semantics might be different.

       (From security viewpoint testing for permissions before attempting to do something is silly anyway:
       if one tries this, there is potential for race conditions. Someone or something might change the
       permissions between the permissions check and the actual operation.  Just try the operation.)

       Don't assume the Unix user and group semantics: especially, don't expect the $< and $> (or the $( and
       $)) to work for switching identities (or memberships).

       Don't assume set-uid and set-gid semantics. (And even if you do, think twice: set-uid and set-gid are
       a known can of security worms.)

   Style
       For those times when it is necessary to have platform-specific code, consider keeping the platform-specific platformspecific
       specific code in one place, making porting to other platforms easier.  Use the Config module and the
       special variable $^O to differentiate platforms, as described in "PLATFORMS".

       Be careful in the tests you supply with your module or programs.  Module code may be fully portable,
       but its tests might not be.  This often happens when tests spawn off other processes or call external
       programs to aid in the testing, or when (as noted above) the tests assume certain things about the
       filesystem and paths.  Be careful not to depend on a specific output style for errors, such as when
       checking $! after a failed system call.  Using $! for anything else than displaying it as output is
       doubtful (though see the Errno module for testing reasonably portably for error value). Some
       platforms expect a certain output format, and Perl on those platforms may have been adjusted
       accordingly.  Most specifically, don't anchor a regex when testing an error value.

CPAN Testers
       Modules uploaded to CPAN are tested by a variety of volunteers on different platforms.  These CPAN
       testers are notified by mail of each new upload, and reply to the list with PASS, FAIL, NA (not
       applicable to this platform), or UNKNOWN (unknown), along with any relevant notations.

       The purpose of the testing is twofold: one, to help developers fix any problems in their code that
       crop up because of lack of testing on other platforms; two, to provide users with information about
       whether a given module works on a given platform.

       Also see:

          Mailing list: cpan-testers-discuss@perl.org

          Testing results: <http://www.cpantesters.org/>

PLATFORMS
       As of version 5.002, Perl is built with a $^O variable that indicates the operating system it was
       built on.  This was implemented to help speed up code that would otherwise have to "use Config" and
       use the value of $Config{osname}.  Of course, to get more detailed information about the system,
       looking into %Config is certainly recommended.

       %Config cannot always be trusted, however, because it was built at compile time.  If perl was built
       in one place, then transferred elsewhere, some values may be wrong.  The values may even have been
       edited after the fact.

   Unix
       Perl works on a bewildering variety of Unix and Unix-like platforms (see e.g. most of the files in
       the hints/ directory in the source code kit).  On most of these systems, the value of $^O (hence
       $Config{'osname'}, too) is determined either by lowercasing and stripping punctuation from the first
       field of the string returned by typing "uname -a" (or a similar command) at the shell prompt or by
       testing the file system for the presence of uniquely named files such as a kernel or header file.
       Here, for example, are a few of the more popular Unix flavors:

           uname         $^O        $Config{'archname'}
           --------------------------------------------AIX -------------------------------------------AIX
           AIX           aix        aix
           BSD/OS        bsdos      i386-bsdos
           Darwin        darwin     darwin
           dgux          dgux       AViiON-dgux
           DYNIX/ptx     dynixptx   i386-dynixptx
           FreeBSD       freebsd    freebsd-i386
           Haiku         haiku      BePC-haiku
           Linux         linux      arm-linux
           Linux         linux      i386-linux
           Linux         linux      i586-linux
           Linux         linux      ppc-linux
           HP-UX         hpux       PA-RISC1.1
           IRIX          irix       irix
           Mac OS X      darwin     darwin
           NeXT 3        next       next-fat
           NeXT 4        next       OPENSTEP-Mach
           openbsd       openbsd    i386-openbsd
           OSF1          dec_osf    alpha-dec_osf
           reliantunix-n svr4       RM400-svr4
           SCO_SV        sco_sv     i386-sco_sv
           SINIX-N       svr4       RM400-svr4
           sn4609        unicos     CRAY_C90-unicos
           sn6521        unicosmk   t3e-unicosmk
           sn9617        unicos     CRAY_J90-unicos
           SunOS         solaris    sun4-solaris
           SunOS         solaris    i86pc-solaris
           SunOS4        sunos      sun4-sunos

       Because the value of $Config{archname} may depend on the hardware architecture, it can vary more than
       the value of $^O.

   DOS and Derivatives
       Perl has long been ported to Intel-style microcomputers running under systems like PC-DOS, MS-DOS,
       OS/2, and most Windows platforms you can bring yourself to mention (except for Windows CE, if you
       count that).  Users familiar with COMMAND.COM or CMD.EXE style shells should be aware that each of
       these file specifications may have subtle differences:

           my $filespec0 = "c:/foo/bar/file.txt";
           my $filespec1 = "c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt";
           my $filespec2 = 'c:\foo\bar\file.txt';
           my $filespec3 = 'c:\\foo\\bar\\file.txt';

       System calls accept either "/" or "\" as the path separator.  However, many command-line utilities of
       DOS vintage treat "/" as the option prefix, so may get confused by filenames containing "/".  Aside
       from calling any external programs, "/" will work just fine, and probably better, as it is more
       consistent with popular usage, and avoids the problem of remembering what to backwhack and what not
       to.

       The DOS FAT filesystem can accommodate only "8.3" style filenames.  Under the "case-insensitive, but
       case-preserving" HPFS (OS/2) and NTFS (NT) filesystems you may have to be careful about case returned
       with functions like "readdir" or used with functions like "open" or "opendir".

       DOS also treats several filenames as special, such as AUX, PRN, NUL, CON, COM1, LPT1, LPT2, etc.
       Unfortunately, sometimes these filenames won't even work if you include an explicit directory prefix.
       It is best to avoid such filenames, if you want your code to be portable to DOS and its derivatives.
       It's hard to know what these all are, unfortunately.

       Users of these operating systems may also wish to make use of scripts such as pl2bat.bat or pl2cmd to
       put wrappers around your scripts.

       Newline ("\n") is translated as "\015\012" by STDIO when reading from and writing to files (see
       "Newlines").  "binmode(FILEHANDLE)" will keep "\n" translated as "\012" for that filehandle.  Since
       it is a no-op on other systems, "binmode" should be used for cross-platform code that deals with
       binary data.  That's assuming you realize in advance that your data is in binary.  General-purpose
       programs should often assume nothing about their data.

       The $^O variable and the $Config{archname} values for various DOSish perls are as follows:

            OS            $^O      $Config{archname}   ID    Version
            --------------------------------------------------------MS-DOS -------------------------------------------------------MS-DOS
            MS-DOS        dos        ?
            PC-DOS        dos        ?
            OS/2          os2        ?
            Windows 3.1   ?          ?                 0      3 01
            Windows 95    MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       1      4 00
            Windows 98    MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       1      4 10
            Windows ME    MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       1      ?
            Windows NT    MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      4 xx
            Windows NT    MSWin32    MSWin32-ALPHA     2      4 xx
            Windows NT    MSWin32    MSWin32-ppc       2      4 xx
            Windows 2000  MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      5 00
            Windows XP    MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      5 01
            Windows 2003  MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      5 02
            Windows Vista MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      6 00
            Windows 7     MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      6 01
            Windows 7     MSWin32    MSWin32-x64       2      6 01
            Windows 2008  MSWin32    MSWin32-x86       2      6 01
            Windows 2008  MSWin32    MSWin32-x64       2      6 01
            Windows CE    MSWin32    ?                 3
            Cygwin        cygwin     cygwin

       The various MSWin32 Perl's can distinguish the OS they are running on via the value of the fifth
       element of the list returned from Win32::GetOSVersion().  For example:

           if ($^O eq 'MSWin32') {
               my @os_version_info = Win32::GetOSVersion();
               print +('3.1','95','NT')[$os_version_info[4]],"\n";
           }

       There are also Win32::IsWinNT() and Win32::IsWin95(), try "perldoc Win32", and as of libwin32 0.19
       (not part of the core Perl distribution) Win32::GetOSName().  The very portable POSIX::uname() will
       work too:

           c:\> perl -MPOSIX -we "print join '|', uname"
           Windows NT|moonru|5.0|Build 2195 (Service Pack 2)|x86

       Also see:

          The djgpp environment for DOS, <http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/> and perldos.

          The EMX environment for DOS, OS/2, etc. emx@iaehv.nl, <ftp://hobbes.nmsu.edu/pub/os2/dev/emx/>
           Also perlos2.

          Build instructions for Win32 in perlwin32, or under the Cygnus environment in perlcygwin.

          The "Win32::*" modules in Win32.

          The ActiveState Pages, <http://www.activestate.com/>

          The Cygwin environment for Win32; README.cygwin (installed as perlcygwin),
           <http://www.cygwin.com/>

          The U/WIN environment for Win32, <http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/uwin/>

          Build instructions for OS/2, perlos2

   VMS
       Perl on VMS is discussed in perlvms in the perl distribution.

       The official name of VMS as of this writing is OpenVMS.

       Perl on VMS can accept either VMS- or Unix-style file specifications as in either of the following:

           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" SYS$LOGIN:LOGIN.COM
           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" /sys$login/login.com

       but not a mixture of both as in:

           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" sys$login:/login.com
           Can't open sys$login:/login.com: file specification syntax error

       Interacting with Perl from the Digital Command Language (DCL) shell often requires a different set of
       quotation marks than Unix shells do.  For example:

           $ perl -e "print ""Hello, world.\n"""
           Hello, world.

       There are several ways to wrap your perl scripts in DCL .COM files, if you are so inclined.  For
       example:

           $ write sys$output "Hello from DCL!"
           $ if p1 .eqs. ""
           $ then perl -x 'f$environment("PROCEDURE")
           $ else perl -x - 'p1 'p2 'p3 'p4 'p5 'p6 'p7 'p8
           $ deck/dollars="__END__"
           #!/usr/bin/perl

           print "Hello from Perl!\n";

           __END__
           $ endif

       Do take care with "$ ASSIGN/nolog/user SYS$COMMAND: SYS$INPUT" if your perl-in-DCL script expects to
       do things like "$read = <STDIN>;".

       The VMS operating system has two filesystems, known as ODS-2 and ODS-5.

       For ODS-2, filenames are in the format "name.extension;version".  The maximum length for filenames is
       39 characters, and the maximum length for extensions is also 39 characters.  Version is a number from
       1 to 32767.  Valid characters are "/[A-Z0-9$_-]/".

       The ODS-2 filesystem is case-insensitive and does not preserve case.  Perl simulates this by
       converting all filenames to lowercase internally.

       For ODS-5, filenames may have almost any character in them and can include Unicode characters.
       Characters that could be misinterpreted by the DCL shell or file parsing utilities need to be
       prefixed with the "^" character, or replaced with hexadecimal characters prefixed with the "^"
       character.  Such prefixing is only needed with the pathnames are in VMS format in applications.
       Programs that can accept the Unix format of pathnames do not need the escape characters.  The maximum
       length for filenames is 255 characters.  The ODS-5 file system can handle both a case preserved and a
       case sensitive mode.

       ODS-5 is only available on the OpenVMS for 64 bit platforms.

       Support for the extended file specifications is being done as optional settings to preserve backward
       compatibility with Perl scripts that assume the previous VMS limitations.

       In general routines on VMS that get a Unix format file specification should return it in a Unix
       format, and when they get a VMS format specification they should return a VMS format unless they are
       documented to do a conversion.

       For routines that generate return a file specification, VMS allows setting if the C library which
       Perl is built on if it will be returned in VMS format or in Unix format.

       With the ODS-2 file system, there is not much difference in syntax of filenames without paths for VMS
       or Unix.  With the extended character set available with ODS-5 there can be a significant difference.

       Because of this, existing Perl scripts written for VMS were sometimes treating VMS and Unix filenames
       interchangeably.  Without the extended character set enabled, this behavior will mostly be maintained
       for backwards compatibility.

       When extended characters are enabled with ODS-5, the handling of Unix formatted file specifications
       is to that of a Unix system.

       VMS file specifications without extensions have a trailing dot.  An equivalent Unix file
       specification should not show the trailing dot.

       The result of all of this, is that for VMS, for portable scripts, you can not depend on Perl to
       present the filenames in lowercase, to be case sensitive, and that the filenames could be returned in
       either Unix or VMS format.

       And if a routine returns a file specification, unless it is intended to convert it, it should return
       it in the same format as it found it.

       "readdir" by default has traditionally returned lowercased filenames.  When the ODS-5 support is
       enabled, it will return the exact case of the filename on the disk.

       Files without extensions have a trailing period on them, so doing a "readdir" in the default mode
       with a file named A.;5 will return a. when VMS is (though that file could be opened with "open(FH,
       'A')").

       With support for extended file specifications and if "opendir" was given a Unix format directory, a
       file named A.;5 will return a and optionally in the exact case on the disk.  When "opendir" is given
       a VMS format directory, then "readdir" should return a., and again with the optionally the exact
       case.

       RMS had an eight level limit on directory depths from any rooted logical (allowing 16 levels overall)
       prior to VMS 7.2, and even with versions of VMS on VAX up through 7.3.  Hence
       "PERL_ROOT:[LIB.2.3.4.5.6.7.8]" is a valid directory specification but
       "PERL_ROOT:[LIB.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9]" is not.  Makefile.PL authors might have to take this into account,
       but at least they can refer to the former as "/PERL_ROOT/lib/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/".

       Pumpkings and module integrators can easily see whether files with too many directory levels have
       snuck into the core by running the following in the top-level source directory:

        $ perl -ne "$_=~s/\s+.*//; print if scalar(split /\//) > 8;" < MANIFEST

       The VMS::Filespec module, which gets installed as part of the build process on VMS, is a pure Perl
       module that can easily be installed on non-VMS platforms and can be helpful for conversions to and
       from RMS native formats.  It is also now the only way that you should check to see if VMS is in a
       case sensitive mode.

       What "\n" represents depends on the type of file opened.  It usually represents "\012" but it could
       also be "\015", "\012", "\015\012", "\000", "\040", or nothing depending on the file organization and
       record format.  The VMS::Stdio module provides access to the special fopen() requirements of files
       with unusual attributes on VMS.

       TCP/IP stacks are optional on VMS, so socket routines might not be implemented.  UDP sockets may not
       be supported.

       The TCP/IP library support for all current versions of VMS is dynamically loaded if present, so even
       if the routines are configured, they may return a status indicating that they are not implemented.

       The value of $^O on OpenVMS is "VMS".  To determine the architecture that you are running on without
       resorting to loading all of %Config you can examine the content of the @INC array like so:

           if (grep(/VMS_AXP/, @INC)) {
               print "I'm on Alpha!\n";

           } elsif (grep(/VMS_VAX/, @INC)) {
               print "I'm on VAX!\n";

           } elsif (grep(/VMS_IA64/, @INC)) {
               print "I'm on IA64!\n";

           } else {
               print "I'm not so sure about where $^O is...\n";
           }

       In general, the significant differences should only be if Perl is running on VMS_VAX or one of the 64
       bit OpenVMS platforms.

       On VMS, perl determines the UTC offset from the "SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL" logical name.  Although
       the VMS epoch began at 17-NOV-1858 00:00:00.00, calls to "localtime" are adjusted to count offsets
       from 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00.00, just like Unix.

       Also see:

          README.vms (installed as README_vms), perlvms

          vmsperl list, vmsperl-subscribe@perl.org

          vmsperl on the web, <http://www.sidhe.org/vmsperl/index.html>

   VOS
       Perl on VOS (also known as OpenVOS) is discussed in README.vos in the perl distribution (installed as
       perlvos).  Perl on VOS can accept either VOS- or Unix-style file specifications as in either of the
       following:

           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" >system>notices
           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" /system/notices

       or even a mixture of both as in:

           $ perl -ne "print if /perl_setup/i" >system/notices

       Even though VOS allows the slash character to appear in object names, because the VOS port of Perl
       interprets it as a pathname delimiting character, VOS files, directories, or links whose names
       contain a slash character cannot be processed.  Such files must be renamed before they can be
       processed by Perl.

       Older releases of VOS (prior to OpenVOS Release 17.0) limit file names to 32 or fewer characters,
       prohibit file names from starting with a "-" character, and prohibit file names from containing any
       character matching "tr/ !#%&'()*;<=>?//".

       Newer releases of VOS (OpenVOS Release 17.0 or later) support a feature known as extended names.  On
       these releases, file names can contain up to 255 characters, are prohibited from starting with a "-"
       character, and the set of prohibited characters is reduced to any character matching "tr/#%*<>?//".
       There are restrictions involving spaces and apostrophes:  these characters must not begin or end a
       name, nor can they immediately precede or follow a period.  Additionally, a space must not
       immediately precede another space or hyphen.  Specifically, the following character combinations are
       prohibited:  space-space, space-hyphen, period-space, space-period, period-apostrophe, apostrophe-period, apostropheperiod,
       period, leading or trailing space, and leading or trailing apostrophe.  Although an extended file
       name is limited to 255 characters, a path name is still limited to 256 characters.

       The value of $^O on VOS is "VOS".  To determine the architecture that you are running on without
       resorting to loading all of %Config you can examine the content of the @INC array like so:

           if ($^O =~ /VOS/) {
               print "I'm on a Stratus box!\n";
           } else {
               print "I'm not on a Stratus box!\n";
               die;
           }

       Also see:

          README.vos (installed as perlvos)

          The VOS mailing list.

           There is no specific mailing list for Perl on VOS.  You can post comments to the comp.sys.stratus
           newsgroup, or use the contact information located in the distribution files on the Stratus
           Anonymous FTP site.

          VOS Perl on the web at <http://ftp.stratus.com/pub/vos/posix/posix.html>

   EBCDIC Platforms
       Recent versions of Perl have been ported to platforms such as OS/400 on AS/400 minicomputers as well
       as OS/390, VM/ESA, and BS2000 for S/390 Mainframes.  Such computers use EBCDIC character sets
       internally (usually Character Code Set ID 0037 for OS/400 and either 1047 or POSIX-BC for S/390
       systems).  On the mainframe perl currently works under the "Unix system services for OS/390"
       (formerly known as OpenEdition), VM/ESA OpenEdition, or the BS200 POSIX-BC system (BS2000 is
       supported in perl 5.6 and greater).  See perlos390 for details.  Note that for OS/400 there is also a
       port of Perl 5.8.1/5.9.0 or later to the PASE which is ASCII-based (as opposed to ILE which is
       EBCDIC-based), see perlos400.

       As of R2.5 of USS for OS/390 and Version 2.3 of VM/ESA these Unix sub-systems do not support the "#!"
       shebang trick for script invocation.  Hence, on OS/390 and VM/ESA perl scripts can be executed with a
       header similar to the following simple script:

           : # use perl
               eval 'exec /usr/local/bin/perl -S $0 ${1+"$@"}'
                   if 0;
           #!/usr/local/bin/perl     # just a comment really

           print "Hello from perl!\n";

       OS/390 will support the "#!" shebang trick in release 2.8 and beyond.  Calls to "system" and
       backticks can use POSIX shell syntax on all S/390 systems.

       On the AS/400, if PERL5 is in your library list, you may need to wrap your perl scripts in a CL
       procedure to invoke them like so:

           BEGIN
             CALL PGM(PERL5/PERL) PARM('/QOpenSys/hello.pl')
           ENDPGM

       This will invoke the perl script hello.pl in the root of the QOpenSys file system.  On the AS/400
       calls to "system" or backticks must use CL syntax.

       On these platforms, bear in mind that the EBCDIC character set may have an effect on what happens
       with some perl functions (such as "chr", "pack", "print", "printf", "ord", "sort", "sprintf",
       "unpack"), as well as bit-fiddling with ASCII constants using operators like "^", "&" and "|", not to
       mention dealing with socket interfaces to ASCII computers (see "Newlines").

       Fortunately, most web servers for the mainframe will correctly translate the "\n" in the following
       statement to its ASCII equivalent ("\r" is the same under both Unix and OS/390 & VM/ESA):

           print "Content-type: text/html\r\n\r\n";

       The values of $^O on some of these platforms includes:

           uname         $^O        $Config{'archname'}
           --------------------------------------------OS/390 -------------------------------------------OS/390
           OS/390        os390      os390
           OS400         os400      os400
           POSIX-BC      posix-bc   BS2000-posix-bc
           VM/ESA        vmesa      vmesa

       Some simple tricks for determining if you are running on an EBCDIC platform could include any of the
       following (perhaps all):

           if ("\t" eq "\005")   { print "EBCDIC may be spoken here!\n"; }

           if (ord('A') == 193) { print "EBCDIC may be spoken here!\n"; }

           if (chr(169) eq 'z') { print "EBCDIC may be spoken here!\n"; }

       One thing you may not want to rely on is the EBCDIC encoding of punctuation characters since these
       may differ from code page to code page (and once your module or script is rumoured to work with
       EBCDIC, folks will want it to work with all EBCDIC character sets).

       Also see:

          perlos390, README.os39_, perlbs2___, README.vmesa, perlebcdic.

          The perl-mvs@perl.org list is for discussion of porting issues as well as general usage issues
           for all EBCDIC Perls.  Send a message body of "subscribe perl-mvs" to majordomo@perl.org.

          AS/400 Perl information at <http://as400.rochester.ibm.com/> as well as on CPAN in the ports/
           directory.

   Acorn RISC OS
       Because Acorns use ASCII with newlines ("\n") in text files as "\012" like Unix, and because Unix
       filename emulation is turned on by default, most simple scripts will probably work "out of the box".
       The native filesystem is modular, and individual filesystems are free to be case-sensitive or
       insensitive, and are usually case-preserving.  Some native filesystems have name length limits, which
       file and directory names are silently truncated to fit.  Scripts should be aware that the standard
       filesystem currently has a name length limit of 10 characters, with up to 77 items in a directory,
       but other filesystems may not impose such limitations.

       Native filenames are of the form

           Filesystem#Special_Field::DiskName.$.Directory.Directory.File

       where

           Special_Field is not usually present, but may contain . and $ .
           Filesystem =~ m|[A-Za-z0-9_]|
           DsicName   =~ m|[A-Za-z0-9_/]|
           $ represents the root directory
           . is the path separator
           @ is the current directory (per filesystem but machine global)
           ^ is the parent directory
           Directory and File =~ m|[^\0- "\.\$\%\&:\@\\^\|\177]+|

       The default filename translation is roughly "tr|/.|./|;"

       Note that ""ADFS::HardDisk.$.File" ne 'ADFS::HardDisk.$.File'" and that the second stage of "$"
       interpolation in regular expressions will fall foul of the $. if scripts are not careful.

       Logical paths specified by system variables containing comma-separated search lists are also allowed;
       hence "System:Modules" is a valid filename, and the filesystem will prefix "Modules" with each
       section of "System$Path" until a name is made that points to an object on disk.  Writing to a new
       file "System:Modules" would be allowed only if "System$Path" contains a single item list.  The
       filesystem will also expand system variables in filenames if enclosed in angle brackets, so
       "<System$Dir>.Modules" would look for the file "$ENV{'System$Dir'} . 'Modules'".  The obvious
       implication of this is that fully qualified filenames can start with "<>" and should be protected
       when "open" is used for input.

       Because "." was in use as a directory separator and filenames could not be assumed to be unique after
       10 characters, Acorn implemented the C compiler to strip the trailing ".c" ".h" ".s" and ".o" suffix
       from filenames specified in source code and store the respective files in subdirectories named after
       the suffix.  Hence files are translated:

           foo.h           h.foo
           C:foo.h         C:h.foo        (logical path variable)
           sys/os.h        sys.h.os       (C compiler groks Unix-speak)
           10charname.c    c.10charname
           10charname.o    o.10charname
           11charname_.c   c.11charname   (assuming filesystem truncates at 10)

       The Unix emulation library's translation of filenames to native assumes that this sort of translation
       is required, and it allows a user-defined list of known suffixes that it will transpose in this
       fashion.  This may seem transparent, but consider that with these rules foo/bar/baz.h and
       foo/bar/h/baz both map to foo.bar.h.baz, and that "readdir" and "glob" cannot and do not attempt to
       emulate the reverse mapping.  Other "."'s in filenames are translated to "/".

       As implied above, the environment accessed through %ENV is global, and the convention is that program
       specific environment variables are of the form "Program$Name".  Each filesystem maintains a current
       directory, and the current filesystem's current directory is the global current directory.
       Consequently, sociable programs don't change the current directory but rely on full pathnames, and
       programs (and Makefiles) cannot assume that they can spawn a child process which can change the
       current directory without affecting its parent (and everyone else for that matter).

       Because native operating system filehandles are global and are currently allocated down from 255,
       with 0 being a reserved value, the Unix emulation library emulates Unix filehandles.  Consequently,
       you can't rely on passing "STDIN", "STDOUT", or "STDERR" to your children.

       The desire of users to express filenames of the form "<Foo$Dir>.Bar" on the command line unquoted
       causes problems, too: "``" command output capture has to perform a guessing game.  It assumes that a
       string "<[^<>]+\$[^<>]>" is a reference to an environment variable, whereas anything else involving
       "<" or ">" is redirection, and generally manages to be 99% right.  Of course, the problem remains
       that scripts cannot rely on any Unix tools being available, or that any tools found have Unix-like
       command line arguments.

       Extensions and XS are, in theory, buildable by anyone using free tools.  In practice, many don't, as
       users of the Acorn platform are used to binary distributions.  MakeMaker does run, but no available
       make currently copes with MakeMaker's makefiles; even if and when this should be fixed, the lack of a
       Unix-like shell will cause problems with makefile rules, especially lines of the form "cd sdbm &&
       make all", and anything using quoting.

       "RISC OS" is the proper name for the operating system, but the value in $^O is "riscos" (because we
       don't like shouting).

   Other perls
       Perl has been ported to many platforms that do not fit into any of the categories listed above.
       Some, such as AmigaOS, BeOS, HP MPE/iX, QNX, Plan 9, and VOS, have been well-integrated into the
       standard Perl source code kit.  You may need to see the ports/ directory on CPAN for information, and
       possibly binaries, for the likes of: aos, Atari ST, lynxos, riscos, Novell Netware, Tandem Guardian,
       etc.  (Yes, we know that some of these OSes may fall under the Unix category, but we are not a
       standards body.)

       Some approximate operating system names and their $^O values in the "OTHER" category include:

           OS            $^O        $Config{'archname'}
           ------------------------------------------Amiga -----------------------------------------Amiga
           Amiga DOS     amigaos    m68k-amigos
           BeOS          beos
           MPE/iX        mpeix      PA-RISC1.1

       See also:

          Amiga, README.amiga (installed as perlamiga).

          Be OS, README.beos

          HP 300 MPE/iX, README.mpeix and Mark Bixby's web page <http://www.bixby.org/mark/porting.html>

          A free perl5-based PERL.NLM for Novell Netware is available in precompiled binary and source code
           form from <http://www.novell.com/> as well as from CPAN.

          Plan 9, README.plan9

FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
       Listed below are functions that are either completely unimplemented or else have been implemented
       differently on various platforms.  Following each description will be, in parentheses, a list of
       platforms that the description applies to.

       The list may well be incomplete, or even wrong in some places.  When in doubt, consult the platform-specific platformspecific
       specific README files in the Perl source distribution, and any other documentation resources
       accompanying a given port.

       Be aware, moreover, that even among Unix-ish systems there are variations.

       For many functions, you can also query %Config, exported by default from the Config module.  For
       example, to check whether the platform has the "lstat" call, check $Config{d_lstat}.  See Config for
       a full description of available variables.

   Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions
       -X      "-w" only inspects the read-only file attribute (FILE_ATTRIBUTE_READONLY), which determines
               whether the directory can be deleted, not whether it can be written to. Directories always
               have read and write access unless denied by discretionary access control lists (DACLs).
               (Win32)

               "-r", "-w", "-x", and "-o" tell whether the file is accessible, which may not reflect UIC-based UICbased
               based file protections.  (VMS)

               "-s" by name on an open file will return the space reserved on disk, rather than the current
               extent.  "-s" on an open filehandle returns the current size.  (RISC OS)

               "-R", "-W", "-X", "-O" are indistinguishable from "-r", "-w", "-x", "-o". (Win32, VMS,
               RISC OS)

               "-g", "-k", "-l", "-u", "-A" are not particularly meaningful.  (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

               "-p" is not particularly meaningful. (VMS, RISC OS)

               "-d" is true if passed a device spec without an explicit directory.  (VMS)

               "-x" (or "-X") determine if a file ends in one of the executable suffixes.  "-S" is
               meaningless.  (Win32)

               "-x" (or "-X") determine if a file has an executable file type.  (RISC OS)

       alarm   Emulated using timers that must be explicitly polled whenever Perl wants to dispatch "safe
               signals" and therefore cannot interrupt blocking system calls.  (Win32)

       atan2   Due to issues with various CPUs, math libraries, compilers, and standards, results for
               "atan2()" may vary depending on any combination of the above.  Perl attempts to conform to
               the Open Group/IEEE standards for the results returned from "atan2()", but cannot force the
               issue if the system Perl is run on does not allow it.  (Tru64, HP-UX 10.20)

               The current version of the standards for "atan2()" is available at
               <http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/atan2.html>.

       binmode Meaningless.  (RISC OS)

               Reopens file and restores pointer; if function fails, underlying filehandle may be closed, or
               pointer may be in a different position.  (VMS)

               The value returned by "tell" may be affected after the call, and the filehandle may be
               flushed. (Win32)

       chmod   Only good for changing "owner" read-write access, "group", and "other" bits are meaningless.
               (Win32)

               Only good for changing "owner" and "other" read-write access. (RISC OS)

               Access permissions are mapped onto VOS access-control list changes. (VOS)

               The actual permissions set depend on the value of the "CYGWIN" in the SYSTEM environment
               settings.  (Cygwin)

       chown   Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9, RISC OS)

               Does nothing, but won't fail. (Win32)

               A little funky, because VOS's notion of ownership is a little funky (VOS).

       chroot  Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, Plan 9, RISC OS, VOS, VM/ESA)

       crypt   May not be available if library or source was not provided when building perl. (Win32)

       dbmclose
               Not implemented. (VMS, Plan 9, VOS)

       dbmopen Not implemented. (VMS, Plan 9, VOS)

       dump    Not useful. (RISC OS)

               Not supported. (Cygwin, Win32)

               Invokes VMS debugger. (VMS)

       exec    Implemented via Spawn. (VM/ESA)

               Does not automatically flush output handles on some platforms.  (SunOS, Solaris, HP-UX)

               Not supported. (Symbian OS)

       exit    Emulates Unix exit() (which considers "exit 1" to indicate an error) by mapping the 1 to
               SS$_ABORT (44).  This behavior may be overridden with the pragma "use vmsish 'exit'".  As
               with the CRTL's exit() function, "exit 0" is also mapped to an exit status of SS$_NORMAL (1);
               this mapping cannot be overridden.  Any other argument to exit() is used directly as Perl's
               exit status.  On VMS, unless the future POSIX_EXIT mode is enabled, the exit code should
               always be a valid VMS exit code and not a generic number.  When the POSIX_EXIT mode is
               enabled, a generic number will be encoded in a method compatible with the C library
               _POSIX_EXIT macro so that it can be decoded by other programs, particularly ones written in
               C, like the GNV package.  (VMS)

               "exit()" resets file pointers, which is a problem when called from a child process (created
               by "fork()") in "BEGIN".  A workaround is to use "POSIX::_exit".  (Solaris)

                   exit unless $Config{archname} =~ /\bsolaris\b/;
                   require POSIX and POSIX::_exit(0);

       fcntl   Not implemented. (Win32)

               Some functions available based on the version of VMS. (VMS)

       flock   Not implemented (VMS, RISC OS, VOS).

       fork    Not implemented. (AmigaOS, RISC OS, VM/ESA, VMS)

               Emulated using multiple interpreters.  See perlfork.  (Win32)

               Does not automatically flush output handles on some platforms.  (SunOS, Solaris, HP-UX)

       getlogin
               Not implemented. (RISC OS)

       getpgrp Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

       getppid Not implemented. (Win32, RISC OS)

       getpriority
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS, VM/ESA)

       getpwnam
               Not implemented. (Win32)

               Not useful. (RISC OS)

       getgrnam
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

       getnetbyname
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       getpwuid
               Not implemented. (Win32)

               Not useful. (RISC OS)

       getgrgid
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

       getnetbyaddr
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       getprotobynumber
       getservbyport
       getpwent
               Not implemented. (Win32, VM/ESA)

       getgrent
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, VM/ESA)

       gethostbyname
               "gethostbyname('localhost')" does not work everywhere: you may have to use
               "gethostbyname('127.0.0.1')". (Irix 5)

       gethostent
               Not implemented. (Win32)

       getnetent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       getprotoent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       getservent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       sethostent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9, RISC OS)

       setnetent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9, RISC OS)

       setprotoent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9, RISC OS)

       setservent
               Not implemented. (Plan 9, Win32, RISC OS)

       endpwent
               Not implemented. (MPE/iX, VM/ESA, Win32)

       endgrent
               Not implemented. (MPE/iX, RISC OS, VM/ESA, VMS, Win32)

       endhostent
               Not implemented. (Win32)

       endnetent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       endprotoent
               Not implemented. (Win32, Plan 9)

       endservent
               Not implemented. (Plan 9, Win32)

       getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME
               Not implemented. (Plan 9)

       glob    This operator is implemented via the File::Glob extension on most platforms.  See File::Glob
               for portability information.

       gmtime  In theory, gmtime() is reliable from -2**63 to 2**63-1.  However, because work arounds in the
               implementation use floating point numbers, it will become inaccurate as the time gets larger.
               This is a bug and will be fixed in the future.

               On VOS, time values are 32-bit quantities.

       ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR
               Not implemented. (VMS)

               Available only for socket handles, and it does what the ioctlsocket() call in the Winsock API
               does. (Win32)

               Available only for socket handles. (RISC OS)

       kill    Not implemented, hence not useful for taint checking. (RISC OS)

               "kill()" doesn't have the semantics of "raise()", i.e. it doesn't send a signal to the
               identified process like it does on Unix platforms.  Instead "kill($sig, $pid)" terminates the
               process identified by $pid, and makes it exit immediately with exit status $sig.  As in Unix,
               if $sig is 0 and the specified process exists, it returns true without actually terminating
               it. (Win32)

               "kill(-9, $pid)" will terminate the process specified by $pid and recursively all child
               processes owned by it.  This is different from the Unix semantics, where the signal will be
               delivered to all processes in the same process group as the process specified by $pid.
               (Win32)

               Is not supported for process identification number of 0 or negative numbers. (VMS)

       link    Not implemented. (MPE/iX, RISC OS, VOS)

               Link count not updated because hard links are not quite that hard (They are sort of half-way
               between hard and soft links). (AmigaOS)

               Hard links are implemented on Win32 under NTFS only. They are natively supported on Windows
               2000 and later.  On Windows NT they are implemented using the Windows POSIX subsystem support
               and the Perl process will need Administrator or Backup Operator privileges to create hard
               links.

               Available on 64 bit OpenVMS 8.2 and later.  (VMS)

       localtime
               localtime() has the same range as "gmtime", but because time zone rules change its accuracy
               for historical and future times may degrade but usually by no more than an hour.

       lstat   Not implemented. (RISC OS)

               Return values (especially for device and inode) may be bogus. (Win32)

       msgctl
       msgget
       msgsnd
       msgrcv  Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, Plan 9, RISC OS, VOS)

       open    open to "|-" and "-|" are unsupported. (Win32, RISC OS)

               Opening a process does not automatically flush output handles on some platforms.  (SunOS,
               Solaris, HP-UX)

       readlink
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

       rename  Can't move directories between directories on different logical volumes. (Win32)

       rewinddir
               Will not cause readdir() to re-read the directory stream.  The entries already read before
               the rewinddir() call will just be returned again from a cache buffer. (Win32)

       select  Only implemented on sockets. (Win32, VMS)

               Only reliable on sockets. (RISC OS)

               Note that the "select FILEHANDLE" form is generally portable.

       semctl
       semget
       semop   Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS)

       setgrent
               Not implemented. (MPE/iX, VMS, Win32, RISC OS)

       setpgrp Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS)

       setpriority
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS)

       setpwent
               Not implemented. (MPE/iX, Win32, RISC OS)

       setsockopt
               Not implemented. (Plan 9)

       shmctl
       shmget
       shmread
       shmwrite
               Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS)

       sockatmark
               A relatively recent addition to socket functions, may not be implemented even in Unix
               platforms.

       socketpair
               Not implemented. (RISC OS, VM/ESA)

               Available on OpenVOS Release 17.0 or later. (VOS)

               Available on 64 bit OpenVMS 8.2 and later.  (VMS)

       stat    Platforms that do not have rdev, blksize, or blocks will return these as '', so numeric
               comparison or manipulation of these fields may cause 'not numeric' warnings.

               ctime not supported on UFS (Mac OS X).

               ctime is creation time instead of inode change time  (Win32).

               device and inode are not meaningful.  (Win32)

               device and inode are not necessarily reliable.  (VMS)

               mtime, atime and ctime all return the last modification time.  Device and inode are not
               necessarily reliable.  (RISC OS)

               dev, rdev, blksize, and blocks are not available.  inode is not meaningful and will differ
               between stat calls on the same file.  (os2)

               some versions of cygwin when doing a stat("foo") and if not finding it may then attempt to
               stat("foo.exe") (Cygwin)

               On Win32 stat() needs to open the file to determine the link count and update attributes that
               may have been changed through hard links.  Setting ${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT} to a true value
               speeds up stat() by not performing this operation. (Win32)

       symlink Not implemented. (Win32, RISC OS)

               Implemented on 64 bit VMS 8.3.  VMS requires the symbolic link to be in Unix syntax if it is
               intended to resolve to a valid path.

       syscall Not implemented. (Win32, VMS, RISC OS, VOS, VM/ESA)

       sysopen The traditional "0", "1", and "2" MODEs are implemented with different numeric values on some
               systems.  The flags exported by "Fcntl" (O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, O_RDWR) should work everywhere
               though.  (Mac OS, OS/390, VM/ESA)

       system  As an optimization, may not call the command shell specified in $ENV{PERL5SHELL}.  "system(1,
               @args)" spawns an external process and immediately returns its process designator, without
               waiting for it to terminate.  Return value may be used subsequently in "wait" or "waitpid".
               Failure to spawn() a subprocess is indicated by setting $? to "255 << 8".  $? is set in a way
               compatible with Unix (i.e. the exitstatus of the subprocess is obtained by "$? >> 8", as
               described in the documentation).  (Win32)

               There is no shell to process metacharacters, and the native standard is to pass a command
               line terminated by "\n" "\r" or "\0" to the spawned program.  Redirection such as "> foo" is
               performed (if at all) by the run time library of the spawned program.  "system" list will
               call the Unix emulation library's "exec" emulation, which attempts to provide emulation of
               the stdin, stdout, stderr in force in the parent, providing the child program uses a
               compatible version of the emulation library.  scalar will call the native command line direct
               and no such emulation of a child Unix program will exists.  Mileage will vary.  (RISC OS)

               Does not automatically flush output handles on some platforms.  (SunOS, Solaris, HP-UX)

               The return value is POSIX-like (shifted up by 8 bits), which only allows room for a made-up
               value derived from the severity bits of the native 32-bit condition code (unless overridden
               by "use vmsish 'status'").  If the native condition code is one that has a POSIX value
               encoded, the POSIX value will be decoded to extract the expected exit value.  For more
               details see "$?" in perlvms. (VMS)

       times   "cumulative" times will be bogus.  On anything other than Windows NT or Windows 2000,
               "system" time will be bogus, and "user" time is actually the time returned by the clock()
               function in the C runtime library. (Win32)

               Not useful. (RISC OS)

       truncate
               Not implemented. (Older versions of VMS)

               Truncation to same-or-shorter lengths only. (VOS)

               If a FILEHANDLE is supplied, it must be writable and opened in append mode (i.e., use
               "open(FH, '>>filename')" or "sysopen(FH,...,O_APPEND|O_RDWR)".  If a filename is supplied, it
               should not be held open elsewhere. (Win32)

       umask   Returns undef where unavailable, as of version 5.005.

               "umask" works but the correct permissions are set only when the file is finally closed.
               (AmigaOS)

       utime   Only the modification time is updated. (BeOS, VMS, RISC OS)

               May not behave as expected.  Behavior depends on the C runtime library's implementation of
               utime(), and the filesystem being used.  The FAT filesystem typically does not support an
               "access time" field, and it may limit timestamps to a granularity of two seconds. (Win32)

       wait
       waitpid Can only be applied to process handles returned for processes spawned using "system(1, ...)"
               or pseudo processes created with "fork()". (Win32)

               Not useful. (RISC OS)

Supported Platforms
       The following platforms are known to build Perl 5.12 (as of April 2010, its release date) from the
       standard source code distribution available at <http://www.cpan.org/src>

       Linux (x86, ARM, IA64)
       HP-UX
       AIX
       Win32
           Windows 2000
           Windows XP
           Windows Server 2003
           Windows Vista
           Windows Server 2008
           Windows 7
       Cygwin
       Solaris (x86, SPARC)
       OpenVMS
           Alpha (7.2 and later)
           I64 (8.2 and later)
       Symbian
       NetBSD
       FreeBSD
       Debian GNU/kFreeBSD
       Haiku
       Irix (6.5. What else?)
       OpenBSD
       Dragonfly BSD
       QNX Neutrino RTOS (6.5.0)
       MirOS BSD
           Caveats:

           time_t issues that may or may not be fixed
       Symbian (Series 60 v3, 3.2 and 5 - what else?)
       Stratus VOS / OpenVOS
       AIX

EOL Platforms (Perl 5.14)
       The following platforms were supported by a previous version of Perl but have been officially removed
       from Perl's source code as of 5.12:

       Atari MiNT
       Apollo Domain/OS
       Apple Mac OS 8/9
       Tenon Machten

       The following platforms were supported up to 5.10.  They may still have worked in 5.12, but
       supporting code has been removed for 5.14:

       Windows 95
       Windows 98
       Windows ME
       Windows NT4

Supported Platforms (Perl 5.8)
       As of July 2002 (the Perl release 5.8.0), the following platforms were able to build Perl from the
       standard source code distribution available at <http://www.cpan.org/src/>

               AIX
               BeOS
               BSD/OS          (BSDi)
               Cygwin
               DG/UX
               DOS DJGPP       1)
               DYNIX/ptx
               EPOC R5
               FreeBSD
               HI-UXMPP        (Hitachi) (5.8.0 worked but we didn't know it)
               HP-UX
               IRIX
               Linux
               Mac OS Classic
               Mac OS X        (Darwin)
               MPE/iX
               NetBSD
               NetWare
               NonStop-UX
               ReliantUNIX     (formerly SINIX)
               OpenBSD
               OpenVMS         (formerly VMS)
               Open UNIX       (Unixware) (since Perl 5.8.1/5.9.0)
               OS/2
               OS/400          (using the PASE) (since Perl 5.8.1/5.9.0)
               PowerUX
               POSIX-BC        (formerly BS2000)
               QNX
               Solaris
               SunOS 4
               SUPER-UX        (NEC)
               Tru64 UNIX      (formerly DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX)
               UNICOS
               UNICOS/mk
               UTS
               VOS
               Win95/98/ME/2K/XP 2)
               WinCE
               z/OS            (formerly OS/390)
               VM/ESA

               1) in DOS mode either the DOS or OS/2 ports can be used
               2) compilers: Borland, MinGW (GCC), VC6

       The following platforms worked with the previous releases (5.6 and 5.7), but we did not manage either
       to fix or to test these in time for the 5.8.0 release.  There is a very good chance that many of
       these will work fine with the 5.8.0.

               BSD/OS
               DomainOS
               Hurd
               LynxOS
               MachTen
               PowerMAX
               SCO SV
               SVR4
               Unixware
               Windows 3.1

       Known to be broken for 5.8.0 (but 5.6.1 and 5.7.2 can be used):

               AmigaOS

       The following platforms have been known to build Perl from source in the past (5.005_03 and earlier),
       but we haven't been able to verify their status for the current release, either because the
       hardware/software platforms are rare or because we don't have an active champion on these
       platforms--or both.  They used to work, though, so go ahead and try compiling them, and let
       perlbug@perl.org of any trouble.

               3b1
               A/UX
               ConvexOS
               CX/UX
               DC/OSx
               DDE SMES
               DOS EMX
               Dynix
               EP/IX
               ESIX
               FPS
               GENIX
               Greenhills
               ISC
               MachTen 68k
               MPC
               NEWS-OS
               NextSTEP
               OpenSTEP
               Opus
               Plan 9
               RISC/os
               SCO ODT/OSR
               Stellar
               SVR2
               TI1500
               TitanOS
               Ultrix
               Unisys Dynix

       The following platforms have their own source code distributions and binaries available via
       <http://www.cpan.org/ports/>

                                       Perl release

               OS/400 (ILE)            5.005_02
               Tandem Guardian         5.004

       The following platforms have only binaries available via <http://www.cpan.org/ports/index.html> :

                                       Perl release

               Acorn RISCOS            5.005_02
               AOS                     5.002
               LynxOS                  5.004_02

       Although we do suggest that you always build your own Perl from the source code, both for maximal
       configurability and for security, in case you are in a hurry you can check
       <http://www.cpan.org/ports/index.html> for binary distributions.

SEE ALSO
       perlaix, perlamiga, perlbeos, perlbs2000, perlce, perlcygwin, perldgux, perldos, perlepoc,
       perlebcdic, perlfreebsd, perlhurd, perlhpux, perlirix, perlmacos, perlmacosx, perlmpeix, perlnetware,
       perlos2, perlos390, perlos400, perlplan9, perlqnx, perlsolaris, perltru64, perlunicode, perlvmesa,
       perlvms, perlvos, perlwin32, and Win32.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Abigail <abigail@foad.org>, Charles Bailey <bailey@newman.upenn.edu>, Graham Barr <gbarr@pobox.com>,
       Tom Christiansen <tchrist@perl.com>, Nicholas Clark <nick@ccl4.org>, Thomas Dorner
       <Thomas.Dorner@start.de>, Andy Dougherty <doughera@lafayette.edu>, Dominic Dunlop
       <domo@computer.org>, Neale Ferguson <neale@vma.tabnsw.com.au>, David J. Fiander <davidf@mks.com>,
       Paul Green <Paul.Green@stratus.com>, M.J.T. Guy <mjtg@cam.ac.uk>, Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>,
       Luther Huffman <lutherh@stratcom.com>, Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net>, Andreas J. Koenig
       <a.koenig@mind.de>, Markus Laker <mlaker@contax.co.uk>, Andrew M. Langmead <aml@world.std.com>, Larry
       Moore <ljmoore@freespace.net>, Paul Moore <Paul.Moore@uk.origin-it.com>, Chris Nandor
       <pudge@pobox.com>, Matthias Neeracher <neeracher@mac.com>, Philip Newton <pne@cpan.org>, Gary Ng
       <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Tom Phoenix <rootbeer@teleport.com>, Andre Pirard <A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be>,
       Peter Prymmer <pvhp@forte.com>, Hugo van der Sanden <hv@crypt0.demon.co.uk>, Gurusamy Sarathy
       <gsar@activestate.com>, Paul J. Schinder <schinder@pobox.com>, Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>,
       Dan Sugalski <dan@sidhe.org>, Nathan Torkington <gnat@frii.com>, John Malmberg <wb8tyw@qsl.net>



perl v5.16.2                                     2012-10-25                                      PERLPORT(1)

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