Mac Developer Library Developer
Search

 

This manual page is for Mac OS X version 10.9

If you are running a different version of Mac OS X, view the documentation locally:

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.



RSAUTL(1)                                          OpenSSL                                         RSAUTL(1)



NAME
       rsautl - RSA utility

SYNOPSIS
       openssl rsautl [-in file] [-out file] [-inkey file] [-pubin] [-certin] [-sign] [-verify] [-encrypt]
       [-decrypt] [-pkcs] [-ssl] [-raw] [-hexdump] [-asn1parse]

DESCRIPTION
       The rsautl command can be used to sign, verify, encrypt and decrypt data using the RSA algorithm.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -in filename
           This specifies the input filename to read data from or standard input if this option is not
           specified.

       -out filename
           specifies the output filename to write to or standard output by default.

       -inkey file
           the input key file, by default it should be an RSA private key.

       -pubin
           the input file is an RSA public key.

       -certin
           the input is a certificate containing an RSA public key.

       -sign
           sign the input data and output the signed result. This requires and RSA private key.

       -verify
           verify the input data and output the recovered data.

       -encrypt
           encrypt the input data using an RSA public key.

       -decrypt
           decrypt the input data using an RSA private key.

       -pkcs, -oaep, -ssl, -raw
           the padding to use: PKCS#1 v1.5 (the default), PKCS#1 OAEP, special padding used in SSL v2
           backwards compatible handshakes, or no padding, respectively.  For signatures, only -pkcs and
           -raw can be used.

       -hexdump
           hex dump the output data.

       -asn1parse
           asn1parse the output data, this is useful when combined with the -verify option.

NOTES
       rsautl because it uses the RSA algorithm directly can only be used to sign or verify small pieces of
       data.

EXAMPLES
       Sign some data using a private key:

        openssl rsautl -sign -in file -inkey key.pem -out sig

       Recover the signed data

        openssl rsautl -verify -in sig -inkey key.pem

       Examine the raw signed data:

        openssl rsautl -verify -in file -inkey key.pem -raw -hexdump

        0000 - 00 01 ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0010 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0020 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0030 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0040 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0050 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0060 - ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff-ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff   ................
        0070 - ff ff ff ff 00 68 65 6c-6c 6f 20 77 6f 72 6c 64   .....hello world

       The PKCS#1 block formatting is evident from this. If this was done using encrypt and decrypt the
       block would have been of type 2 (the second byte) and random padding data visible instead of the 0xff
       bytes.

       It is possible to analyse the signature of certificates using this utility in conjunction with
       asn1parse. Consider the self signed example in certs/pca-cert.pem . Running asn1parse as follows
       yields:

        openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem

           0:d=0  hl=4 l= 742 cons: SEQUENCE
           4:d=1  hl=4 l= 591 cons:  SEQUENCE
           8:d=2  hl=2 l=   3 cons:   cont [ 0 ]
          10:d=3  hl=2 l=   1 prim:    INTEGER           :02
          13:d=2  hl=2 l=   1 prim:   INTEGER           :00
          16:d=2  hl=2 l=  13 cons:   SEQUENCE
          18:d=3  hl=2 l=   9 prim:    OBJECT            :md5WithRSAEncryption
          29:d=3  hl=2 l=   0 prim:    NULL
          31:d=2  hl=2 l=  92 cons:   SEQUENCE
          33:d=3  hl=2 l=  11 cons:    SET
          35:d=4  hl=2 l=   9 cons:     SEQUENCE
          37:d=5  hl=2 l=   3 prim:      OBJECT            :countryName
          42:d=5  hl=2 l=   2 prim:      PRINTABLESTRING   :AU
         ....
         599:d=1  hl=2 l=  13 cons:  SEQUENCE
         601:d=2  hl=2 l=   9 prim:   OBJECT            :md5WithRSAEncryption
         612:d=2  hl=2 l=   0 prim:   NULL
         614:d=1  hl=3 l= 129 prim:  BIT STRING

       The final BIT STRING contains the actual signature. It can be extracted with:

        openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem -out sig -noout -strparse 614

       The certificate public key can be extracted with:

        openssl x509 -in test/testx509.pem -pubkey -noout >pubkey.pem

       The signature can be analysed with:

        openssl rsautl -in sig -verify -asn1parse -inkey pubkey.pem -pubin

           0:d=0  hl=2 l=  32 cons: SEQUENCE
           2:d=1  hl=2 l=  12 cons:  SEQUENCE
           4:d=2  hl=2 l=   8 prim:   OBJECT            :md5
          14:d=2  hl=2 l=   0 prim:   NULL
          16:d=1  hl=2 l=  16 prim:  OCTET STRING
             0000 - f3 46 9e aa 1a 4a 73 c9-37 ea 93 00 48 25 08 b5   .F...Js.7...H%..

       This is the parsed version of an ASN1 DigestInfo structure. It can be seen that the digest used was
       md5. The actual part of the certificate that was signed can be extracted with:

        openssl asn1parse -in pca-cert.pem -out tbs -noout -strparse 4

       and its digest computed with:

        openssl md5 -c tbs
        MD5(tbs)= f3:46:9e:aa:1a:4a:73:c9:37:ea:93:00:48:25:08:b5

       which it can be seen agrees with the recovered value above.

SEE ALSO
       dgst(1), rsa(1), genrsa(1)



50                                               2013-03-05                                        RSAUTL(1)

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation to the OpenSSL project by sending email to openssl-bugs@openssl.org.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API to Apple through Bug Reporter and to the OpenSSL project by sending email to openssl-bugs@openssl.org.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.

Feedback