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rsync(1)                                                                                            rsync(1)

       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

       rsync  is  a  program  that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and
       uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers when the destination file is
       being updated.

       The  rsync  remote-update  protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of
       files across the network connection, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm  described  in  the
       technical report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

       Rsync  copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it does not sup-port support
       port copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system: using a  remote-shell  program  as
       the  transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
       transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single colon (:) separator after
       a  host  specification.   Contacting  an rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination
       path contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR when an  rsync://  URL  is
       specified  (see  also  the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an
       exception to this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files are listed in
       an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote host, the copy occurs locally
       (see also the --list-only option).

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell (as  well  as
       some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync
       uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a different remote  shell  by
       default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can  also  specify  any remote shell you like, either by using the -e command line option, or by
       setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination, one of  which
       may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This  would  transfer  all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory to the directory
       src on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update remoteupdate
       update  protocol  is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the tech report for

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on  the  machine  foo  into  the
       /data/tmp/bar  directory  on  the  local  machine. The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which
       ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in  the
       transfer.   Additionally,  compression will be used to reduce the size of data portions of the trans-fer. transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional directory  level
       at  the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this
       directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of  the  con-taining containing
       taining  directory  are  transferred to the containing directory on the destination.  In other words,
       each of the following commands copies the files in the same  way,  including  their  setting  of  the
       attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy the contents of the
       default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination don't have a ':'  in
       the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon by leaving
       off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host involves using quoted spaces in the  SRC.
       Some examples:

              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  would  copy  file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.  Each additional arg must include
       the same "modname/" prefix as the first one, and must be preceded by a single space.  All other  spa-ces spaces
       ces are assumed to be a part of the filenames.

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest

       This  would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.  This word-splitting is done by the
       remote shell, so if it doesn't work it means that the remote shell isn't configured to split its args
       based  on whitespace (a very rare setting, but not unknown).  If you need to transfer a filename that
       contains whitespace, you'll need to either escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell  will
       understand, or use wildcards in place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest
              rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This  latter  example  assumes  that  your shell passes through unmatched wildcards.  If it complains
       about "no match", put the name in quotes.

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.   In  this  case  you  will
       directly  connect  to  a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires
       the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN  RSYNC  DAEMON  TO  ACCEPT
       CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you  either  use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname from the
              path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths on the dae-mon daemon
              mon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified files on the remote daemon
              is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,  you  will  receive  a  password
       prompt  when  you  connect.  You  can  avoid  the password prompt by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PASSWORD to the password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This may be  use-ful useful
       ful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all users. On those systems using
       --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a
       hostname:port pair pointing to your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
       proxy connections to port 873.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such  as  named  modules)  without
       actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is already required to
       allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote shell and then spawn-ing spawning
       ing  a  single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote
       user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon
       is  started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change
       the uid used by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer,  consider  using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection  uses  nearly  the  same
       command-line  syntax  as  a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
       explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND option.   (Setting
       the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If  you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix in front of
       the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires  user-based  authentication).
       This  means  that  you  must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying the remote-shell, as in
       this example that uses the short version of the --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in  to  the  "mod-ule". "module".

       In  order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already running (or
       it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on
       a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming socket
       connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and  it  con-tains contains
       tains the full details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If  you're  using  one  of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to manually
       start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail folders, I  use  a
       cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do CVS opera-tions operations
       tions on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol  isn't  very  effi-cient. efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here  is  a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed description
       below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
            --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories when preserving times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=TIME          set I/O timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -E, --extended-attributes   copy extended attributes, resource forks
            --cache                 disable fcntl(F_NOCACHE)
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line  options  have  two  variants,  one
       short  and one long.  These are shown below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long vari-ant. variant.
       ant.  The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be used instead.

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For backward-com-patibility backward-compatibility
              patibility with older versions of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of  information  you  are  given  during  the  transfer.   By
              default,  rsync  works  silently.  A  single -v will give you information about what files are
              being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags will give  you  information  on
              what  files are being skipped and slightly more information at the end. More than two -v flags
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred  files  that  are  output  are  done  using  a  default
              --out-format  of "%n%L", which tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,
              where it points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not mention when a file  gets
              its attributes changed.  If you ask for an itemized list of changed attributes (either --item-ize-changes --itemize-changes
              ize-changes or adding "%i" to the --out-format setting), the output (on the client)  increases
              to  mention  all  items  that  are  changed  in any way.  See the --out-format option for more

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given  during  the  transfer,  notably
              suppressing  information  messages  from  the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client at  the  start  of  a  daemon
              transfer.  This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of
              modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request (due to  a  limitation
              in  the  rsync  protocol), so omit this option if you want to request the list of modules from
              the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same  modifica-tion modification
              tion  time-stamp.   This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already the same size and  have  the  same
              modification  time-stamp.  With  the --size-only option, files will not be transferred if they
              have the same size, regardless of timestamp. This is useful when starting to use  rsync  after
              using another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they differ by no
              more than the modify-window value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may  find
              it  useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.  In particular, when transferring
              to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem (which represents times with a  2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
              This  forces  the sender to checksum every regular file using a 128-bit MD4 checksum.  It does
              this during the initial file-system scan as it builds the list of  all  available  files.  The
              receiver then checksums its version of each file (if it exists and it has the same size as its
              sender-side counterpart) in order to decide which files need to be updated: files with  either
              a  changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.  Since this whole-file check-summing checksumming
              summing of all files on both sides of the connection  occurs  in  addition  to  the  automatic
              checksum verifications that occur during a file's transfer, this option can be quite slow.

              Note  that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was correctly reconstructed on the
              receiving side by checking its whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer ver-ification verification
              ification  has nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be
              updated?" check.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want  recursion  and  want  to
              preserve  almost  everything  (with  -H  being a notable omission).  The only exception to the
              above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files is  expensive.
              You must separately specify -H.

              You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the option name with "no-".  Not all
              options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,
              --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option name  after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For  example:  if  you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead of con-verting converting
              verting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option would  end  up
              being  turned  on,  the  opposite  of  -a  --no-r.   Note  also  that  the side-effects of the
              --files-from option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of several options and
              slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified on the command line are sent
              to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This  is  particularly  useful
              when you want to send several different directories at the same time. For example, if you used
              this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote machine -- the  full  path
              name  is  preserved.   To limit the amount of path information that is sent, you have a couple
              options:  (1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a
              dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be followed
              by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  (2) For older rsync  versions,  you  would
              need to use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd" command doesn't
              remain in effect for future commands.)  If you're pulling files, use this idiom (which doesn't
              work with an rsync daemon):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This  option affects the default behavior of the --relative option.  When it is specified, the
              attributes of the implied directories from the source names are not included in the  transfer.
              This  means  that the corresponding path elements on the destination system are left unchanged
              if they exist, and any missing implied directories are created with default attributes.   This
              even  allows these implied path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to a
              directory on one side of the transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told  rsync  to  transfer  the  file
              "path/foo/file",  the  directories  "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.
              If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the receiving rsync would ordi-narily ordinarily
              narily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory, and receive the file into the new direc-tory. directory.
              tory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the  existing
              path  elements, which means that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to
              accomplish this link preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect
              symlinks to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              In  a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,  if  the transfer of "path/foo/file" is requested and
              "path/foo" is a symlink on the sending side, running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would  cause
              rsync  to  transform  "path/foo"  on  the  receiving  side into an identical symlink, and then
              attempt to transfer "path/foo/file", which might fail if the duplicated symlink did not  point
              to  a  directory  on the receiving side.  Another way to avoid this sending of a symlink as an
              implied directory is to use --copy-unsafe-links, or --copy-dirlinks (both of which also affect
              symlinks in the rest of the transfer -- see their descriptions for full details).

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option,  preexisting  destination files are renamed as each file is transferred or
              deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any)  suffix  gets  appended
              using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will be implied,
              and (2) if --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a  "protect"
              filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").
              This will prevent previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you are supply-ing supplying
              ing your own filter rules, you may need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule some-where somewhere
              where higher up in the list so that it has a high enough priority to be  effective  (e.g.,  if
              your  rules  specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in  the  speci-fied specified
              fied  directory  on  the  receiving  side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
              additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the files backed  up
              in the specified directory will keep their original filenames).

              This  option  allows  you  to  override  the default backup suffix used with the --backup (-b)
              option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is  an  empty

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync  to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modified time
              that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file has a modify time  equal
              to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are different.)

              In  the current implementation of --update, a difference of file format between the sender and
              receiver is always considered to be important enough for an update, no matter what date is  on
              the objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory or a symlink where the destination
              has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.  This might change  in  the
              future (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list if you have an opinion).

              This  causes  rsync not to create a new copy of the file and then move it into place.  Instead
              rsync will overwrite the existing file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can't accomplish  the
              full  amount  of network reduction it might be able to otherwise (since it does not yet try to
              sort data matches).  One exception to this is if you combine the option with  --backup,  since
              rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the transfer.

              This  option  is useful for transfer of large files with block-based changes or appended data,
              and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does not  delete  the  file),  but
              conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and  --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the  transfer  (and  possibly
              afterward if the transfer gets interrupted), so you should not use this option to update files
              that are in use.  Also note that rsync will be unable to update a file in-place  that  is  not
              writable by the receiving user.

              This  causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the end of the file, which presumes
              that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical with  the  start  of  the
              file  on the sending side.  If that is not true, the file will fail the checksum test, and the
              resend will do a normal --inplace update to correct the mismatched data.  Only  files  on  the
              receiving  side  that  are shorter than the corresponding file on the sending side (as well as
              new files) are sent.  Implies --inplace, but does  not  conflict  with  --sparse  (though  the
              --sparse option will be auto-disabled if a resend of the already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the sending side to include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a
              directory's contents are not copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with  a
              trailing  slash  (e.g.  ".",  "dir/.",  "dir/", etc.).  Without this option or the --recursive
              option, rsync will skip all directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect for
              each one).  If you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks  are  encountered, the item that they point to (the referent) is copied, rather
              than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling
              the  receiving  side  to  follow symlinks, such as symlinks to directories.  In a modern rsync
              such as this one, you'll need to specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The
              only  exception  is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K -- in that
              case, the -L option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside  the  copied  tree.
              Absolute  symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the source
              path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no additional effect if --copy-links was
              also specified.

              This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree. All abso-lute absolute
              lute symlinks are also ignored. Using this option in  conjunction  with  --relative  may  give
              unexpected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a real
              directory.  This is useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directories to  be  affected,  as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without  this  option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to a direc-tory, directory,
              tory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it were a
              real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real directory.

              For  example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file", but "foo" is
              a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the  receiver  deletes
              symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as  a directory, and receives the file into the new directory.
              With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer and link  together  the  corre-sponding corresponding
              sponding  files on the receiving side.  Without this option, hard-linked files in the transfer
              are treated as though they were separate files.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of the link are in the list of  files
              being sent.

       -p, --perms
              This  option  causes  the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the same as
              the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers
              to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions, though the
                     --executability option might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits  set  to  the  source  file's  permissions
                     masked  with  the receiving end's umask setting, and their special permission bits dis-abled disabled
                     abled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit  from  its  parent

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the same as that
              of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions, use  --perms.
              To   give  new  files  the  destination-default  permissions  (while  leaving  existing  files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use  --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures
              that  all  non-masked bits get enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this  line  in  the  file  ~/.popt
              (this  defines  the -s option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

                 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                 rsync -asv src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or it will re-enable the "--no-*" options.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories when --perms  is
              off  was  added  in rsync 2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was off, while  overriding  the  destina-tion's destination's
              tion's  setgid bit setting on a newly-created directory.  (Keep in mind that it is the version
              of the receiving rsync that affects this behavior.)

              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of regular files
              when  --perms  is  not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
              'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination file's  executability  dif-fers differs
              fers from that of the corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file's permis-sions permissions
              sions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a  corresponding
                     'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" strings to the permission
              of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
              that  the sending side supplied for the file, which means that this option can seem to have no
              effect on existing files if --perms is not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can specify  an
              item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item that
              should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.  For example:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each  additional  option  is  just
              appended to the list of changes to make.

              See  the  --perms  and  --executability  options for how the resulting permission value can be
              applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as the source
              file,  but  only  if  the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
              option to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).  Without this option,  the  owner  is
              set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by default, but may fall back to
              using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a  full  dis-cussion). discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as the source
              file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was  speci-fied), specified),
              fied),  only  groups  that the invoking user on the receiving side is a member of will be pre-served. preserved.
              served.  Without this option, the group is set to the default group of the  invoking  user  on
              the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of group information will associate matching names by default, but may fall
              back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids  option  for  a
              full discussion).

              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote system to
              recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
              super-user and --super is not specified.

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync  to transfer modification times along with the files and update them on the
              remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization  that  excludes  files
              that have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a missing -t or -a will cause
              the next transfer to behave as if it used -I, causing all files  to  be  updated  (though  the
              rsync  algorithm  will make the update fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed,
              you're much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times  (see  --times).
              If  NFS  is  sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This
              option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even  if  the  receiving  rsync
              wasn't  run  by  the  super-user.   These activities include: preserving users via the --owner
              option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via  the  --groups  option,
              and  copying  devices  via  the  --devices option.  This is useful for systems that allow such
              activities without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get errors if the
              receiving  side isn't being running as the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the
              super-user can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on  the  destination.   Con-flicts Conflicts
              flicts with --inplace because it's not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE:  Don't  use this option when the destination is a Solaris "tmpfs" filesystem. It doesn't
              seem to handle seeks over null regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
              This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will  just  report  the  actions  it
              would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
              With  this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and the whole file is sent as-is
              instead.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and  destination  machines  is  higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the
              "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and des-tination destination
              tination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This  tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does not limit
              the user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified, and also the analogous recur-sion recursion
              sion on the receiving side during deletion.  Also keep in mind  that  rsync  treats  a  "bind"
              mount to the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.  Otherwise,
              it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of  the
              mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If  rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or --copy-unsafe-links), a sym-link symlink
              link to a directory on another device is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directo-ries non-directories
              ries are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells  rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist yet on the
              destination.  If this option is combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files  will  be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to delete extraneous files).

              This  tells  rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this does not
              ignore existing directores, or nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directories) that  are
              a part of the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones that aren't on the
              sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchronized.  You must have  asked
              rsync  to  send  the  whole  directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard for the
              directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus
              gets  a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent directory.  Files that are
              excluded  from  transfer  are  also  excluded  from  being  deleted   unless   you   use   the
              --delete-excluded  option  or  mark  the  rules  as only matching on the sending side (see the
              include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no  effect  unless  --recursive  was  in  effect.
              Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions will also occur when --dirs (-d) is in effect, but only for
              directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to run  first  using
              the  --dry-run  option  (-n)  to  see what files would be deleted to make sure important files
              aren't listed.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files at the  destination
              will  be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
              errors) on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files on the destination.   You  can
              override this with the --ignore-errors option.

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as
              well as --delete-excluded.  However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync
              will  currently  choose  the  --delete-before  algorithm.  A future version may change this to
              choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be  done  before  the  transfer  starts.
              This  is  the  default  if  --delete  or  --delete-excluded  is  specified  without one of the
              --delete-WHEN options.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is  tight  for  space  and  removing
              extraneous files would help to make the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might  cause  the  transfer  to  timeout  (if
              --timeout was specified).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the transfer
              happens.  This is a faster method than choosing the before- or after-transfer  algorithm,  but
              it  is only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done  after  the  transfer  has  com-pleted. completed.
              pleted.   This  is  useful  if  you are sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the
              transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the  delete  phase  of  the  current
              transfer.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending side, this
              tells rsync to also delete any files on the receiving side that are excluded (see  --exclude).
              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for a way to make individual exclusions behave this way on the
              receiver, and for a way to protect files  from  --delete-excluded.   See  --delete  (which  is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This  option  tells  rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced by a non-directory. nondirectory.
              directory.  This is only relevant if deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required  when  using  --delete-after,
              and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This  tells  rsync  not  to  delete more than NUM files or directories (NUM must be non-zero).
              This is useful when mirroring very large trees to prevent disasters.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the  specified  SIZE.  The
              SIZE  value  can  be  suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a frac-tional fractional
              tional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte
              (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multiplier to
              be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note: lower-case is also accepted for  all
              values.)   Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one
              byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified SIZE, which
              can  help  in not transferring small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in the rsync algorithm to  a  fixed  value.   It  is  normally
              selected  based on the size of each file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for  communication
              between  the  local  and  remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell  COMMAND  will  be
              used  to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket connection  to  a  running  rsync
              daemon  on  the  remote host.  See the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION" above.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented to rsync as
              a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the command
              and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve  spaces  in
              an  argument  (but not backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted
              string gives you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay  attention
              to which quotes your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific  connect  options in their
              .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment  variable,  which
              accepts the same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use  this to specify what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up rsync.  Often
              used    when    rsync    is    not    in    the    default    remote-shell's    path     (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note that PROGRAM is run with the help of a shell, so it
              can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-rupt corrupt
              rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

              One  tricky example is to set a different default directory on the remote machine for use with
              the --relative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you often don't  want  to
              transfer  between  systems.  It  uses  the same algorithm that CVS uses to determine if a file
              should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to:

                     RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~  #*  .#*  ,*
                     _$*  *$  *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc
                     *.ln core .svn/

              then files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and  any  files  listed  in  the
              CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally,  any  file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches
              one of the patterns listed therein.  Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these  patterns  are
              split on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If  you're  combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes
              are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on  the  com-mand-line. command-line.
              mand-line.   This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly.  If you
              want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should  omit
              the  -C  as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either
              on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your  other
              rules).   The  first  option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The
              second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain  files  from  the  list  of
              files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may  use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of
              files to exclude.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.  The first time it
              is used is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync  to  look  for  per-directory  .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled
              through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files  in  the  transfer.   If  -F  is
              repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This  option  is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and
              does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains  exclude
              patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank  lines  in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include  rule  and
              does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This  option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include
              patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input.

              Using  this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the
              specified FILE or - for standard input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option  is implied, which preserves the path information that is
                     specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you  want  to  turn
                     that off).

              o      The  --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list
                     on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or  --no-d  if  you
                     want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it
                     explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects  change  the  default  state  of  rsync,  so  the  position  of  the
                     --files-from  option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed
                     (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as  does  --no-R  and  all  other

              The  file  names that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading
              slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.   For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created
              as /backup/bin on the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the imme-diate immediate
              diate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned
              in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the  -r  option  was  enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be speci-fied specified
              fied explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that the  effect
              of  the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read
              from the file -- it does not force the duplication of  the  source-spec  path  (/usr  in  this

              In  addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host
              if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of  the  transfer).
              As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the trans-fer". transfer".
              fer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was  located  on  the
              remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0')
              character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from,
              and  any  merged  files specified in a --filter rule.  It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since
              all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating  temporary  copies
              of the files transferred on the receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each tempo-rary temporary
              rary file in the same directory as the associated destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does  not  have  enough  free
              space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to  rename  each  received
              temporary  file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which  means
              that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a tempo-rary temporary
              rary  file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus  there  might
              not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to
              combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied  files  get  put
              into  subdirectories  in  the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you
              don't have enough room to duplicate all the  arriving  files  on  the  destination  partition,
              another  way  to  tell  rsync  that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the
              --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off
              a  copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir partialdir
              dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from there.
              (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This  option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is
              missing.  The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either
              a  file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file.  If found,
              rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files,  so
              either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This  option  instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy
              to compare destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destina-tion destination
              tion  directory).   If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file
              will NOT be transferred to the destination directory.  This is useful for  creating  a  sparse
              backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.

              Beginning  in  version  2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found
              that  differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match
              is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-fer. transfer.

              If  DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --copy-dest
              and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR
              to  the destination directory using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files
              have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one  of
              the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative  path,  it is relative to the destination directory.  See also --com-pare-dest --compare-dest
              pare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the des-tination destination
              tination  directory.   The  files  must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permis-sions, permissions,
              sions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause
              rsync  to search the list in the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If  a  match  is
              not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that if you combine this option with  --ignore-times,  rsync  will  not  link  any  files
              together  because  it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the
              file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to  the  destination  directory.   See  also  --com-pare-dest --compare-dest
              pare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note  that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working
              properly for a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With  this  option,  rsync  compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine,
              which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is  useful  over  a  slow

              Note  that  this  option  typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by
              using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of  the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connec-tion. connection.

              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of  letting  it  default.
              If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

              With  this  option  rsync  will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and
              group names and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname  to  determine  what  ownership  to  give
              files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination sys-tem, system,
              tem, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information  on  how  the  chroot  setting
              affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred  for
              the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon.  The
              --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.   See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.  This is
              only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to  connect  with  an  rsync  daemon
              (since  the  URL  syntax  has  a way to specify the port as a part of the URL).  See also this
              option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems  to  the  utmost
              degree.  You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you  may
              be  able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.  If  the  remote
              shell  is  either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made  to  each  file,  including
              attribute  changes.   This  is  exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you
              repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is  at
              least  version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the
              output of other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 9 letters long.  The general format is  like  the
              string  YXcstpogz,  where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output  if  they  are  being

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A  c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation
                     of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that  are
                     being modified).

              The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink,
              a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the  asso-ciated associated
              ciated  attribute  for  the item is being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to
              this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a  "+",  (2)  an  identical  item
              replaces  the  dots  with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?"
              (this can happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means the checksum of the file is different and will be updated by the file  trans-fer transfer
                     fer (requires --checksum).

              o      A s means the size of the file is different and will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value
                     (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means that the time will  be  set  to  the
                     transfer time, which happens anytime a symlink is transferred, or when a file or device
                     is transferred without --times.

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being updated  to  the  sender's  value
                     (requires --perms).

              o      An  o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires
                     --owner and super-user privileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's  value  (requires
                     --group and the authority to set the group).

              o      The z slot is reserved for future use.

              One  other  output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*delet-ing" "*deleting"
              ing" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking  to  a  recent  enough
              rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message).

              This  allows  you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update
              basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences pre-fixed prefixed
              fixed  with  a  percent  (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the
              "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying this option will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated  in  a  significant
              way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition, if
              the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string, the logging of names  increases  to
              mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
              See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use --out-format  without  --ver-bose --verbose
              bose if you like, or you can override the format of its per-file output using this option.

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic transferstatistic
              statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the  end  of  the  file's
              transfer.   When  this  late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will
              also output the name of the file being transferred prior to  its  progress  information  (fol-lowed, (followed,
              lowed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This  option  causes  rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the logging
              that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a  non-daemon nondaemon
              daemon  transfer.   If  specified  as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a
              default format of "%i %n%L".  See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file  specified  by
              the  --log-file  option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect).  If
              you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file.  For a  list
              of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  tells  rsync  to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to
              tell how effective the rsync algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in  the  generic  sense),  which  includes
                     directories, symlinks, etc.

              o      Number  of  files  transferred  is  the count of normal files that were updated via the
                     rsync algorithm, which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in  the  transfer.   This  does  not
                     count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes  for  just  the  trans-ferred transferred
                     ferred files.

              o      Literal  data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for
                     it to recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got  locally  when  recreating  the  updated

              o      File  list  size  is  how  big  the  file-list  data was when the sender sent it to the
                     receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to  some  com-pressing compressing
                     pressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the
                     file list.  This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file
                     list to the receiver.

              o      Total  bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to
                     the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received  by  the
                     client  side  from  the server side.  "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the
                     bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more con-sistent. consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to
              test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the  invalid  ones.   All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#),
              followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".   A  lit-eral literal
              eral backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 dig-its digits
              its (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big numbers  output  using  larger
              units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If this option was specified once, these units are K (1000),
              M (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated, the units are powers of 1024
              instead of 1000.

              By  default,  rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted.
              In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep  partially  transferred  files.  Using  the
              --partial  option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer
              of the rest of the file much faster.

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will  be
              used  to  hold  the  partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the  resumption  of
              the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose.

              Note  that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a
              file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without  using
              the incremental rsync algorithm).

              Rsync  will  create  the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path).  This
              makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to  have  rsync
              create  the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then remove
              it again when the partial file is deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of
              all  your  existing excludes.  This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may
              exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on
              the  receiving  side.   An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of
              "--exclude=.rsync-partial/" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect
              rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice.   For  instance,  if  you
              want  to  make  rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.   -f  'R  .rsync-partial/'.   (Avoid
              using  --delete-before  or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over leftover
              over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a  security  risk.
              E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can  also  set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.  Setting
              this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather  it  affects  where
              partial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,  instead  of using --par-tial-dir=.rsync-tmp --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp
              tial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your
              environment  and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for par-tial partial
              tial transfers.  The only times that the --partial option does not look for  this  environment
              value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and
              (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply
              --partial.   This  is  so  that  a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the
              overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom
              provided by --partial-dir.

              This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the
              end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in  rapid  succession.
              This  attempts  to  make the updating of the files a little more atomic.  By default the files
              are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file's destination directory, but if you've
              specified  the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in
              the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from  the
              transfer,  and  what  you  can do if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be
              lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)  and  also
              requires  enough  free  disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the
              updated files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1)
              there  is  no  chance  of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the
              updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and (2)  there  are
              no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed
              into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update  algorithm  that
              is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This  option  tells  the  receiving  rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list,
              including nested directories that have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding
              the  creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning
              a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories  get
              deleted  when  a  delete is active.  However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories
              can prevent existing items from being deleted (because an exclude hides source files and  pro-tects protects
              tects destination files).

              You  can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global
              "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure that the  directory  "emptydir"  was
              kept in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's  an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary des-tination destination
              tination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and direc-tories directories
              tories  in  the  destination  are  removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used
              instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored  options  of
              "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"  would  work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This  gives
              a bored user something to watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In  this  example,  the  receiver  has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file,
              which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the  transfer  will
              finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if the incremental transfer algorithm is in use.  For exam-ple, example,
              ple, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported
              rate  will  probably  drop  dramatically  when  the receiver gets to the literal data, and the
              transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it  was  fin-ishing finishing
              ishing the matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that
              looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in total, the average rate  of  transfer  for
              the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it
              was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session,  and  there  are  169
              more  files  for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of
              the 396 total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose is to make it much easier to
              specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              This  option  allows  you to provide a password in a file for accessing a remote rsync daemon.
              Note that this option is only useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in  trans-port, transport,
              port,  not when using a remote shell as the transport. The file must not be world readable. It
              should contain just the password as a single line.

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This  option  is
              inferred  if  there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, (2) to
              be  able to specify more than one local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),
              or (3) to avoid the automatically added "-r --exclude='/*/*'" options that rsync usually  uses
              as  a compatibility kluge when generating a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
              a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe
              to try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second. This option
              is most effective when using rsync with large files (several megabytes and  up).  Due  to  the
              nature  of rsync transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if rsync determines the transfer was
              too fast, it will wait before sending the next data block. The result is an  average  transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              Record  a  file  that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch.
              See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when  cre-ating creating
              ating the batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this  media
              fills  to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to
              the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as  long  as  you
              don't  mind a partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote  system  because  this
              allows  the  batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus  can't  write
              the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch.  If
              FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section  for

              Force  an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch file that is
              compatible with an older version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is  being  used  with
              the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option,
              you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older  protocol  ver-sion version
              sion  to  be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading sys-tem). system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only affects sockets  that  rsync
              has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              Set the MD4 checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included  in  each
              block  and  file  MD4  checksum calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated by the
              server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to set  a  specific  checksum
              seed,  which  is  useful for applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or in
              the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Note that setting NUM to 0  causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       -E, --extended-attributes
              Apple  specific  option  to  copy  extended attributes, resource forks, and ACLs.  Requires at
              least Mac OS X 10.4 or suitably patched rsync.

              Apple  specific  option  to  enable  filesystem  caching   of   rsync   file   i/o   Otherwise
              fcntl(F_NOCACHE) is used to limit memory growth.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may be accessed
              using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise
              it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accord-ingly. accordingly.
              ingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

              By  default  rsync  will  bind  to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon
              option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address  (or  hostname)  to
              bind  to.   This  makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option.  See
              also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second for the data
              the daemon sends.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value will be rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the client version  of  this  option
              (above) for some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This is only relevant when --daemon
              is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon  is  running  over  a  remote
              shell  program  and  the  remote  user  is  not  the  super-user;  in that case the default is
              rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a  back-ground background
              ground  process.  This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Con-troller. Controller.
              troller.  --no-detach is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the  daemon  to  listen  on  rather  than  the
              default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This  option  tells  the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log
              file" setting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of  using  the  "log
              format"  setting  in the config file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon  logs  during  its  startup  phase.
              After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that
              the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon  will
              use  to  listen  for  connections.   One of these options may be required in older versions of
              Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in  use"  error
              when  nothing  else  is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the dae-mon). daemon).

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the  options  available  for
              starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and which files to
       skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way  to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the  list  of  files/directories  to  transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred
       against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if
       it  is  an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename
       is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter rules have the
       following syntax:


       You  have  your  choice  of  using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you use a
       short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN  or  FILE-NAME FILENAME
       NAME  that  follows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_).  Here
       are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that start  with
       a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as
       described above -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token  to
       clear  the  list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).  If a pattern does
       not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ "
       (for  an  include  option)  or  "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter
       option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start  of  the

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add mul-tiple multiple
       tiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter
       option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You  can  include  and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as
       introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that
       is  matched against the names of the files that are going to be transferred.  These patterns can take
       several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in  the  hierarchy  of
              files,  otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading
              ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a file named "foo" at either the  "root  of
              the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).
              An unqualified "foo" would match any file or  directory  named  "foo"  anywhere  in  the  tree
              because  the  algorithm  is  applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path
              component gets a turn at being the end of the file name.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo"  would
              match  at  any  point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".
              See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to  specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a file, link, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching  by  checking  if  the
              pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any non-empty path component (it stops at slashes).

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in  a  wildcard  pattern,  a  backslash  can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is
              matched literally when no wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched  against
              the  full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename.  (Remember that the
              algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified)
              and  all  the files in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  (This behavior
              is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by  -a),  every  subcomponent  of
       every  path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each
       subcomponent's full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must
       not  be  excluded).   The  exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal stage when
       rsync finds the files to send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can render  a
       deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend through that excluded section of the
       hierarchy.  This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this  won't

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any
       of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule),
       and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include rules for
       all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory named
              foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below  a  directory  named
              foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files
              but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and
              foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       You  can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:)
       filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-directory  (':').   A  single-instance singleinstance
       instance  merge  file  is  read  one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the
       place of the "."  rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it  tra-verses traverses
       verses  for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inher-ited inherited
       ited rules.  These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side  because  it  is  the
       sending  side  that  is being scanned for the available files to transfer.  These rule files may also
       need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get  deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-pars-ing rule-parsing
              ing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other  rule-pars-ing rule-parsing
              ing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner.  This turns
              on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!)  to  be  specified.   If  no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e .rules" is like
              "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of  the  normal  line-split-ting. line-splitting.
              ting.   This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
              is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules  (assuming  that  prefix-parsing
              wasn't also disabled).

       o      You  may  also  specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (below) in order to have
              the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set.   For  instance,
              "merge,-/  .excl"  would  treat  the  contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s "dirmerge,s
              merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the send-ing sending
              ing side.

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  "/" specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname
              of the current item.  For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude
              "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the  current  trans-fer. transfer.

       o      A  "!"  specifies  that  the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match.
              For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted  as  excludes
              in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An  s  is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule affects the
              sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is for a rule  to  affect
              both  sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side senderside
              side only.  See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate  way  to  specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule affects the
              receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.   See
              also  the  protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory  where  the  merge-file  was
       found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory perdirectory
       directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than  the  inherited
       rules.   The  entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was
       specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the
       list  of  global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only
       clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it  with
       a  leading  slash.   Anchored  rules  in  a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's
       directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where  the  dir-merge
       filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also
       turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to  the  start
       of  the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of
       the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first trans-fer transfer
       fer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory
       for the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter  in  all  directories  from  the  root  down
       through  the  parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the
       file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for  an  rsync  daemon,  the
       root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan
       begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the  par-ent-dir parent-dir
       ent-dir  scan  and  only  looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C",
       which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use
       this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory  .cvsignore  file
       gets  placed  into  your  rules  by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without
       this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your  other  rules
       (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore
       rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end.  This  allows  their  dir-specific  rules  to
       supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules.  To affect the
       other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of  $HOME/.cvsignore,  and
       the  value  of  $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule
       into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule  (as  introduced  in  the
       FILTER  RULES  section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is
       encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in
       their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as
       opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If  you  think
       of  the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root
       is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory.  This root governs where pat-
       terns that start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path
       or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your  matching  (in
       addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host).  The following
       examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute  path  of  "/home/me/foo/bar",
       and  one  with  a  path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various command choices differ for a
       2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose
       and  put  a  /  in  front  of  the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you  can  feel
       free  to  exclude  the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the
       'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from
       being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easi-est easiest
       est way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use  --delete-after,  because
       this  ensures  that  the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it
       tries to delete anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global
       exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory
       merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume that  the  remote  .rules
       files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending
       side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified
       after the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we
       want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving  side.   To  do
       this  we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and
       then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted.  Like one  of  these

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch  mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a
       tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some  changes  have  been  made  to  this
       source  tree  and  those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using
       batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree  to
       one  of  the  destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch
       file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       To  apply  the  recorded  changes  to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option,
       specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the  destination
       tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For  convenience,  one  additional file is creating when the write-batch option is used.  This file's
       name is created by appending ".sh" to the batch filename.  The .sh file contains a command-line suit-able suitable
       able  for  updating  a  destination tree using that batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or
       Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is  then  used
       instead of the original path. This is useful when the destination tree path differs from the original
       destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block gen-eration generation
       eration more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be
       used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  instead  of  sending  the
       same data to every host individually.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the information to
       repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then  updated  with  the
       batched  data  going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the two examples reveals
       some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can push or pull
              data  to/from  a  remote  host using either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to get the right rsync options  when  running
              the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file doesn't need
              to be copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the  script  because  it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit the script file if you wished
              to make use of it (just be sure that no other option is trying to use standard input, such  as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to the desti-
       nation tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destina-tion destination
       tion trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the file appears to be up-to-date upto-date
       to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and then, if  the  file  fails  to  verify,  the
       update  discarded  with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation
       if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted
       regardless  of  the  file's  size  and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case,  rsync  can
       be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version  used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to generate the
       batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in the batch file is  too  new  for
       the  batch-reading  rsync  to  handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to have the creating
       rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed  for-mat format
       mat in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When  reading  a  batch  file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data in the
       batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options  can  (and
       should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch, --files-from is dropped, and
       the --filter/--include/--exclude options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is  speci-fied. specified.

       The  code  that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into a single
       list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can  use  this
       to  modify  the  exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete is desired.  A normal user
       can ignore this detail and just use  the  shell  script  as  an  easy  way  to  run  the  appropriate
       --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new implementa-tion. implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A  message  "skipping  non-regular"  file  is
       emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links  is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the destination.  Note
       that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their  referent,  rather  than
       the symlink.

       rsync  also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this might be used is
       a web site mirror that wishes ensure the rsync module they copy does not include  symbolic  links  to
       /etc/passwd  in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be
       copied as the file they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe  links  to
       be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty, or if they
       contain enough ".."  components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of precedence,  so
       if  your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The  one  that  seems  to
       cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message  is  usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing unwanted
       garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem  is  to
       run your remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero length file.
       If you are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some
       text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it. The most common cause is
       incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output  state-ments statements
       ments for non-interactive logins.

       If  you  are  having  trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.  At this
       level of verbosity rsync will show why each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on  a  platform
              that  cannot  support them; or an option was specified that is supported by the client and not
              by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore patterns in  .cvsignore  files.  See
              the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as the trans-port transport
              port for rsync.  Command line options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

              The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable  allows you to redirect your rsync client to use a web
              proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to run authenticated rsync  connec-tions connections
              tions  to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password
              to a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default username  sent  to
              an rsync daemon.  If neither is set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

       rsyncd.conf(5) fcntl(2)

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments on the
       --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at

       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed by  a  user
       under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such
       as when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For instance, the  support  directory
       of  the rsync distribution has an example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover
       questions unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This  program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Thanks to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell for helpful sug-gestions, suggestions,
       gestions, patches and testing of rsync.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial  thanks  also  to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, Wayne Davison,
       J.W. Schultz.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have later  contrib-uted contributed
       uted to it.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                                 6 Nov 2006                                         rsync(1)

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