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SENDMAIL(1)                                                                                      SENDMAIL(1)



NAME
       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I

DESCRIPTION
       The  Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface.  For the
       sake of compatibility with existing applications, some Sendmail command-line options  are  recognized
       but silently ignored.

       By  default,  Postfix  sendmail(1)  reads a message from standard input until EOF or until it reads a
       line with only a . character, and arranges for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1)  relies  on  the  post-drop(1) postdrop(1)
       drop(1) command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific command aliases are provided for other common modes of operation:

       mailq  List  the  mail queue. Each entry shows the queue file ID, message size, arrival time, sender,
              and the recipients that still need to be delivered.  If mail could not be delivered  upon  the
              last  attempt, the reason for failure is shown. The queue ID string is followed by an optional
              status character:

              *      The message is in the active queue, i.e. the message is selected for delivery.

              !      The message is in the hold queue, i.e. no further delivery attempt will be  made  until
                     the mail is taken off hold.

              This mode of operation is implemented by executing the postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
              Initialize  the  alias  database.   If  no  input  file is specified (with the -oA option, see
              below), the program processes the file(s)  specified  with  the  alias_database  configuration
              parameter.   If  no alias database type is specified, the program uses the type specified with
              the default_database_type configuration parameter.  This mode of operation is  implemented  by
              running the postalias(1) command.

              Note:  it  may  take  a  minute or so before an alias database update becomes visible. Use the
              "postfix reload" command to eliminate this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the appropriate  combination  of  command-line
       options. Some features are controlled by parameters in the main.cf configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
              Postfix sendmail uses the same configuration file regardless of whether or not a message is an
              initial submission.

       -B body_type
              The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go into daemon mode. This mode of operation is implemented by executing  the  "postfix  start"
              command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bm    Read  mail  from  standard input and arrange for delivery.  This is the default mode of opera-tion. operation.
              tion.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone SMTP server mode. Read SMTP commands from standard input, and write  responses  to
              standard output.  In stand-alone SMTP server mode, mail relaying and other access controls are
              disabled by default. To enable them, run the process as the mail_owner user.

              This mode of operation is implemented by running the smtpd(8) daemon.

       -bv    Do not collect or deliver a message. Instead, send an email report after verifying each recip-ient recipient
              ient address.  This is useful for testing address rewriting and routing configurations.

              This feature is available in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
              The  path  name  of  the Postfix main.cf file, or of its parent directory. This information is
              ignored with Postfix versions before 2.3.

              With all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory pathname with the MAIL_CONFIG  environ-ment environment
              ment variable to override the location of configuration files.

       -F full_name
              Set  the sender full name. This overrides the NAME environment variable, and is used only with
              messages that have no From: message header.

       -f sender
              Set the envelope sender address. This is the address where delivery problems are sent to. With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message header overrides the error return address.

       -G     Gateway (relay) submission, as opposed to initial user  submission.   Either  do  not  rewrite
              addresses  at  all,  or update incomplete addresses with the domain information specified with
              remote_header_rewrite_domain.

              This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration parameter instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When reading a message from standard input, don't treat a line with only a . character as  the
              end of input.

       -L label (ignored)
              The logging label. Use the syslog_name configuration parameter instead.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -N dsn (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery  status  notification control. Specify either a comma-separated list with one or more
              of failure (send notification when delivery fails), delay (send notification when delivery  is
              delayed),  or  success  (send  notification  when  the message is delivered); or specify never
              (don't send any notifications at all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default alias database. Specify pathname or type:pathname. See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate MIME encapsulation and specify the  appro-priate appropriate
              priate -B command-line option.

       -oi    When  reading a message from standard input, don't treat a line with only a . character as the
              end of input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is never eliminated from alias etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration parameter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set the envelope sender address. This is the address where delivery problems are sent to. With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the Errors-To: message header overrides the error return address.

       -R return_limit (ignored)
              Limit the size of bounced mail. Use the bounce_size_limit configuration parameter instead.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is implemented by executing the postqueue(1) command.

              Warning:  flushing  undeliverable  mail frequently will result in poor delivery performance of
              all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
              The interval between queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay configuration parameter instead.

       -qIqueueid
              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.  This option  is  implemented
              by executing the postqueue(1) command, and is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
              Schedule immediate delivery of all mail that is queued for the named site. This option accepts
              only site names that are eligible for the "fast flush" service, and is implemented by  execut-ing executing
              ing  the  postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more information about the "fast flush" ser-vice. service.
              vice.

       -qSsite
              This command is not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q" command instead.

       -t     Extract recipients from message headers. These are added to any recipients  specified  on  the
              command line.

              With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no recipient addresses are spec-ified specified
              ified on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V envid
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -V)
              Variable Envelope Return Path. Given an  envelope  sender  address  of  the  form  owner-list-name@origin, owner-listname@origin,
              name@origin,  each  recipient  user@domain  receives  mail with a personalized envelope sender
              address.

              By default, the personalized envelope sender address is owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The
              default  +  and  =  characters are configurable with the default_verp_delimiters configuration
              parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
              As -XV, but uses x and y as the VERP delimiter characters, instead of the characters specified
              with the default_verp_delimiters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send  an  email  report  of  the first delivery attempt (Postfix versions 2.1 and later). Mail
              delivery always happens in the background. When multiple -v options are given, enable  verbose
              logging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log  mailer  traffic.  Use  the  debug_peer_list and debug_peer_level configuration parameters
              instead.

SECURITY
       By design, this program is not set-user (or group) id. However, it must handle data  from  untrusted,
       possibly remote, users.  Thus, the usual precautions need to be taken against malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems are logged to syslogd(8) and to the standard error stream.

ENVIRONMENT
       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
              Enable  debugging  with an external command, as specified with the debugger_command configura-tion configuration
              tion parameter.

       NAME   The sender full name. This is used only with messages that have no From: message  header.  See
              also the -F option above.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       The  following  main.cf  parameters are especially relevant to this program.  The text below provides
       only a parameter summary. See postconf(5) for more details including examples.

COMPATIBILITY CONTROLS
       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       sendmail_fix_line_endings (always)
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command converts email message line  endings  from  <CR><LF>
              into UNIX format (<LF>).

TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS
       The DEBUG_README file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a Postfix system.

       debugger_command (empty)
              The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level (2)
              The increment in verbose logging level when a remote client or server matches a pattern in the
              debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
              Optional list of remote client or server hostname or network address patterns that  cause  the
              verbose logging level to increase by the amount specified in $debug_peer_level.

ACCESS CONTROLS
       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to flush the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
              List  of  users  who  are authorized to submit mail with the sendmail(1) command (and with the
              privileged postdrop(1) helper command).

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS
       bounce_size_limit (50000)
              The maximal amount of original message text that is sent in a non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
              The maximal number of attempts to fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
              The delay between attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
              The maximal number of Received:  message headers that is allowed in the primary message  head-ers. headers.
              ers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
              The  time  between deferred queue scans by the queue manager; prior to Postfix 2.4 the default
              value was 1000s.

FAST FLUSH CONTROLS
       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and operation details for the Postfix "fast flush"  ser-vice. service.
       vice.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destination logfiles with mail that is
              queued to those destinations.

VERP CONTROLS
       The VERP_README file describes configuration and operation details of Postfix  support  for  variable
       envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
              The characters Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on the Postfix sendmail(1) command
              line and in SMTP commands.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS
       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The alias databases for local(8) delivery that are updated with "newaliases" or with "sendmail
              -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default location of the Postfix main.cf and master.cf configuration files.

       daemon_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The default database type for use in newaliases(1), postalias(1) and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
              The time after which the sender receives the message headers of mail that is still queued.

       enable_errors_to (no)
              Report  mail delivery errors to the address specified with the non-standard Errors-To: message
              header, instead of the envelope sender address (this feature is removed with  Postfix  version
              2.2,  is  turned  off  by default with Postfix version 2.1, and is always turned on with older
              Postfix versions).

       mail_owner (postfix)
              The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue and most Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
              Don't rewrite message headers from remote clients at all when this parameter is empty;  other-wise, otherwise,
              wise, rewrite message headers and append the specified domain name to incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see 'postconf -d' output)
              The  mail system name that is prepended to the process name in syslog records, so that "smtpd"
              becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".

FILES
       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

SEE ALSO
       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8), queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging

README_FILES
       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to locate this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA



                                                                                                 SENDMAIL(1)

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