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UNZIP(1L)                                                                                          UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCKLMVWX$/:]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]  [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip  will  list,  test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly found on MS-DOS systems.  The
       default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below
       it)  all  files  from the specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L), creates ZIP archives;
       both programs are compatible with archives created by PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS,  but  in
       many cases the program options or default behaviors differ.

              Path  of  the  ZIP archive(s).  If the file specification is a wildcard, each matching file is
              processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file system).  Only the  filename
              can  be  a  wildcard;  the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are similar to those sup-ported supported
              ported in commonly used Unix shells (sh, ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches any single character found inside the  brackets;  ranges  are  specified  by  a
                     beginning  character,  a hyphen, and an ending character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (`!' or `^') follows the left bracket, then the range of  characters  within  the
                     brackets  is  complemented (that is, anything except the characters inside the brackets
                     is considered a match).  To  specify  a  verbatim  left  bracket,  the  three-character
                     sequence ``[[]'' has to be used.

              (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified by the operat-ing operating
              ing system, particularly under Unix and VMS.)  If no matches are found, the  specification  is
              assumed  to  be a literal filename; and if that also fails, the suffix .zip is appended.  Note
              that self-extracting ZIP files are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just specify  the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An  optional list of archive members to be processed, separated by spaces.  (VMS versions com-piled compiled
              piled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead.  See -v in  OPTIONS  below.)
              Regular  expressions  (wildcards) may be used to match multiple members; see above.  Again, be
              sure to quote expressions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the  operating  sys-tem. system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing.  Since wildcard characters
              normally match (`/') directory separators (for exeptions see the option -W, this option may be
              used  to  exclude  any  files  that are in subdirectories.  For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x
              */*'' would extract all C source files in the main directory, but none in any  subdirectories.
              Without  the  -x  option,  all  C  source files in all directories within the zipfile would be

       [-d exdir]
              An optional directory to which to extract files.  By default, all files and subdirectories are
              recreated  in the current directory; the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary directory
              (always assuming one has permission to write to the directory).  This option need  not  appear
              at the end of the command line; it is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the
              normal options), immediately after the zipfile specification, or between the file(s)  and  the
              -x option.  The option and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them,
              but note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be suppressed.  In particular,  ``-d ~''
              (tilde)  is  expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user's home directory, but ``-d~''
              is treated as a literal subdirectory ``~'' of the current directory.

       Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage screen is  limited  to  22  or  23
       lines  and  should  therefore  be considered only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an
       exhaustive list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on the command line is -Z, the  remaining  options  are
              taken  to  be zipinfo(1L) options.  See the appropriate manual page for a description of these

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming interface (API).

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is similar to the -p option except that
              the  name  of  each  file  is printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-EBCDIC ASCIIEBCDIC
              EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate.  This option is not listed in the
              unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that already exist on disk and that are
              newer than the disk copies.  By default unzip queries before overwriting, but  the  -o  option
              may  be  used  to suppress the queries.  Note that under many operating systems, the TZ (time-zone) (timezone)
              zone) environment variable must be set correctly in order for  -f  and  -u  to  work  properly
              (under  Unix  the  variable  is usually set automatically).  The reasons for this are somewhat
              subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file times (always  local  time)
              and  Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ
              value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings  Time  or
              ``summer time'').

       -l     list  archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file sizes and modification dates
              and times of the specified files are printed, along with totals for all files  specified.   If
              UnZip  was  compiled  with  OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also lists columns for the sizes of
              stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).  In addition,  the
              zipfile  comment  and individual file comments (if any) are displayed.  If a file was archived
              from a single-case file system (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option
              was given, the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract  files  to  pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is sent to stdout, and the files
              are always extracted in binary format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in memory and compares  the  CRC
              (cyclic  redundancy check, an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file's
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in each one.   This
              corresponds to zip's -go option except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip
              -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and create new ones if needed.  This option performs the  same  function
              as  the  -f option, extracting (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name
              on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not already exist on  disk.   See  -f
              above for information on setting the timezone properly.

       -v     be  verbose or print diagnostic version info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both
              an option and a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a zipfile is specified with
              no  other  options, -v lists archive files verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the compres-sion compression
              sion method, compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In contrast to  most  of  the
              competing  utilities,  unzip  removes the 12 additional header bytes of encrypted entries from
              the compressed size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and  compression  ratio  figures  are
              independent  of  the  entry's  encryption status and show the correct compression performance.
              (The complete size of the encryped compressed data stream for zipfile entries is  reported  by
              the  more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the separate manual.)  When no zipfile is specified
              (that is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v''), a diagnostic screen  is  printed.   In
              addition to the normal header with release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp
              site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system  for
              which  it  was compiled, as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled, the com-piler compiler
              piler and version used, and the compilation date; any special compilation options  that  might
              affect the program's operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in environ-ment environment
              ment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As a modifier it works
              in conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to produce more verbose or debugging output; this
              is not yet fully implemented but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files  are  extracted  exactly  as  they  are  stored  (as
              ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes files identified by zip as text files (those with the
              `t' label in zipinfo listings, rather than `b') to be automatically extracted  as  such,  con-verting converting
              verting  line endings, end-of-file characters and the character set itself as necessary.  (For
              example, Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and have no  end-of-file  (EOF)
              marker;  Macintoshes  use  carriage  returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use
              CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and the  Michigan  Terminal
              System  use  EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.)
              Note that zip's identification of text files is by no means perfect; some ``text''  files  may
              actually  be  binary  and  vice versa.  unzip therefore prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as a
              visual check for each file it extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa  option  forces  all
              files to be extracted as text, regardless of the supposed file type.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem]  force  the  creation  files with filecode type 180 ('C') when extracting Zip entries
              marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length, 512-byte record format.   Dou-bling Doubling
              bling  the  option  (-bb)  forces all files to be extracted in this format. When extracting to
              standard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conversion of text record  delimiters
              is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all (-bb) files.

       -B     [Unix only, and only if compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwrit-ten overwritten
              ten file with a tilde appended (e.g., the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to  ``foo~'').   This
              is similar to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

       -C     use  case-insensitive matching for the selection of archive entries from the command-line list
              of extract selection patterns.  unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask  for''  (this  is
              also  responsible  for  the  -L/-U change; see the relevant options below).  Because some file
              systems are fully case-sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system)  and  because
              both  ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms, unzip's default behavior is
              to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively.  That  is,  specifying  ``make-file'' ``makefile''
              file''  on  the  command line will only match ``makefile'' in the archive, not ``Makefile'' or
              ``MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for wildcard specifications).  Since this does not  correspond  to
              the  behavior  of  many  other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which preserves
              mixed case but is not sensitive to it), the -C option  may  be  used  to  force  all  filename
              matches  to  be  case-insensitive.   In  the  example  above, all three files would then match
              ``makefile'' (or ``make*'', or similar).  The -C option affects file specs in both the  normal
              file list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

              Please  note  that  the  -L  option  does neither affect the search for the zipfile(s) nor the
              matching of archive entries to existing files on the extraction  path.   On  a  case-sensitive
              file  system,  unzip  will  never  try  to  overwrite  a file ``FOO'' when extracting an entry

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded commas, and only if  compiled  with
              ACORN_FTYPE_NFS  defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field blocks
              into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names of the extracted  files.   (When  the
              stored  filename appears to already have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by
              the info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. Instead, the most compatible file-name filename
              name stored in the generic part of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk  paths.   The  archive's directory structure is not recreated; all files are deposited in
              the extraction directory (by default, the current one).

       -J     [BeOS only] junk file attributes.  The file's BeOS file attributes are not restored, just  the
              file's data.

       -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific info is skipped. Data-fork and
              resource-fork are restored as separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS, BeOS, Unix only] retain SUID/SGID/Tacky file attributes.  Without  this  flag,  these
              attribute bits are cleared for security reasons.

       -L     convert  to  lowercase  any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system or file
              system.  (This was unzip's default behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default  behav-ior behavior
              ior  is  identical  to  the old behavior with the -U option, which is now obsolete and will be
              removed in a future release.)  Depending on the archiver,  files  archived  under  single-case
              file  systems  (VMS,  old  MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be stored as all-uppercase names; this can be
              ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS  or  a
              case-sensitive  one  such  as  under Unix.  By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames
              exactly as they're stored (excepting truncation, conversion of unsupported characters,  etc.);
              this  option  causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lowercase.
              The -LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating
              file system.

       -M     pipe  all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command.  At the end of
              a screenful of output, unzip pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt;  the  next  screenful  may  be
              viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.  unzip can be terminated by press-ing pressing
              ing the ``q'' key and, on some systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1),  there  is
              no  forward-searching or editing capability.  Also, unzip doesn't notice if long lines wrap at
              the edge of the screen, effectively resulting in the printing of two or  more  lines  and  the
              likelihood  that some text will scroll off the top of the screen before being viewed.  On some
              systems the number of available lines on the screen is  not  detected,  in  which  case  unzip
              assumes the height is 24 lines.

       -n     never  overwrite  existing  files.  If a file already exists, skip the extraction of that file
              without prompting.  By default unzip queries before extracting any file that  already  exists;
              the  user  may choose to overwrite only the current file, overwrite all files, skip extraction
              of the current file, skip extraction of all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File  comments  are  created  with  the  -c
              option  of zip(1L), or with the -N option of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which stores filenotes
              as comments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous option, so use it with  care.
              (It  is  often  used  with  -f,  however, and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under

       -P password
              use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS  INSECURE!   Many  multi-user multiuser
              user  operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other
              user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the  threat  of  over-the-shoulder  peeking.
              Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.
              Whenever possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to  enter  passwords.   (And  where
              security  is truly important, use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the
              relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).  Ordinarily unzip prints  the  names  of  the
              files  it's  extracting  or testing, the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that
              may be stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished  with  each  archive.   The
              -q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.  Since all PC operating systems
              allow spaces in filenames, unzip by default  extracts  filenames  with  spaces  intact  (e.g.,
              ``EA DATA. SF'').   This  can  be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in particular does not grace-fully gracefully
              fully support spaces in filenames.  Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awk-wardness awkwardness
              wardness in some cases.

       -U     (obsolete;  to  be removed in a future release) leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS, MSDOS,
              DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with a version number, in the for-mat format
              mat  file.ext;##.  By default the ``;##'' version numbers are stripped, but this option allows
              them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to particularly short lengths, the
              version numbers may be truncated or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modifies the pattern matching routine
              so that both `?' (single-char wildcard) and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the  direc-tory directory
              tory  separator  character `/'.  (The two-character sequence ``**'' acts as a multi-char wild-card wildcard
              card that includes the directory separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

               "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
               "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
               "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
               "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                       but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to the pattern matching style used by the shells of some
              of UnZip's supported target OSs (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not be avail-able available
              able on systems where the Zip archive's interal directory separator character `/'  is  allowed
              as  regular  character  in native operating system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip uses the same
              pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile specifications and zip entry  selection  pat-terns patterns
              terns  in  most  ports.  For systems allowing `/' as regular filename character, the -W option
              would not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT] restore owner/protection info (UICs) under VMS, or user and  group  info
              (UID/GID) under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions of
              OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM  Peer  1.0),
              or security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this will require special system privileges,
              and doubling the option (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for  extraction;  but
              under  Unix,  for example, a user who belongs to several groups can restore files owned by any
              of those groups, as long as the user IDs match his  or  her  own.   Note  that  ordinary  file
              attributes  are  always  restored--this  option applies only to optional, extra ownership info
              available on some operating systems.  [NT's access control lists do not  appear  to  be  espe-cially especially
              cially  compatible  with OS/2's, so no attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access
              privileges.  It is not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium  is  removable  (e.g.,  a
              diskette).   Doubling the option (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment  variable.  During
              extraction, filename extensions that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive members into locations  outside
              of  the  current  ``  extraction  root  folder''. For security reasons, unzip normally removes
              ``parent dir'' path components (``../'') from the names of extracted file.  This  safety  fea-ture feature
              ture  (new  for  version 5.50) prevents unzip from accidentally writing files to ``sensitive''
              areas outside the active extraction folder tree head.  The -: option lets unzip switch back to
              its  previous, more liberal behaviour, to allow exact extraction of (older) archives that used
              ``../'' components to create multiple directory trees at the level of the  current  extraction
              folder.   This  option  does  not enable writing explicitly to the root directory (``/'').  To
              achieve this, it is necessary to set the extraction target folder to root (e.g. -d / ).   How-ever, However,
              ever,  when  the  -: option is specified, it is still possible to implicitly write to the root
              directory by specifiying enough ``../'' path components within  the  zip  archive.   Use  this
              option with extreme caution.

       unzip's  default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment variable.  This can be
       done with any option, but it is probably most useful with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o,  or  -n  modifiers:
       make  unzip  auto-convert  text files by default, make it convert filenames from uppercase systems to
       lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively, make it quieter, or make it  always  overwrite  or
       never  overwrite  files  as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as quietly as possible,
       only reporting errors, one would use one of the following commands:

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS ""-qq""

       Environment options are, in effect, considered to be just like any other command-line options, except
       that  they are effectively the first options on the command line.  To override an environment option,
       one may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override one of the quiet-flags in
       the example above, use the command

           unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The  first  hyphen  is  the  normal switch character, and the second is a minus sign, acting on the q
       option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two
       (or more) minuses may be used:

           unzip -t--q zipfile
           unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the  two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it is reasonably intuitive:  just
       ignore the first hyphen and go from there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix  nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above, the default variable names are UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the sym-bol symbol
       bol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused with the environment vari-able), variable),
       able),  and  UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L), UNZIPOPT is also
       accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT  are  defined,  however,  UNZIP  takes  precedence.
       unzip's  diagnostic option (-v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four pos-sible possible
       sible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for the -f  and  -u
       to operate correctly.  See the description of -f above for details.  This variable may also be neces-sary necessary
       sary to get timestamps of extracted files to be set correctly.   The  WIN32  (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3)
       port  of unzip gets the timezone configuration from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the
       Control Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to United States export restric-tions, restrictions,
       tions, de-/encryption support might be disabled in your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000,
       US export restrictions have been liberated, and our source archives do now include full  crypt  code.
       In case you need binary distributions with crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP InfoZIP
       ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a version  for  crypt  support,
       either  attempt to test or extract an encrypted archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see
       the -v option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of the special compilation options.

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the command line, but at a cost  in
       security.   The  preferred  decryption  method  is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is
       encrypted, unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.  unzip continues to  use
       the  same  password as long as it appears to be valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The
       correct password will always check out against the header, but there is a  1-in-256  chance  that  an
       incorrect  password will as well.  (This is a security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps
       prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage  by  testing  only  the
       header.)   In  the  case  that  an  incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway,
       either an incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail  during  the
       extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not constitute a valid compressed data stream.

       If  the  first  password fails the header check on some file, unzip will prompt for another password,
       and so on until all files are extracted.  If a password is not known, entering a null password  (that
       is,  just  a  carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further prompting.  Only
       unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be extracted.  (In fact, that's not  quite  true;
       older  versions  of  zip(1L)  and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
       file to see if the null password works.  This  may  result  in  ``false  positives''  and  extraction
       errors, as noted above.)

       Archives  encrypted  with  8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with accented European characters)
       may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multi-ple multiple
       ple  encoding methods for such characters, including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850.  DOS
       PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP 2.50 uses Latin-1 (and  is  therefore  incompatible
       with DOS PKZIP); Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but Latin-1 everywhere
       else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts
       to use the default character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate one (e.g., OEM code
       page) to test passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if both of these fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as
       a  last  resort.   (EBCDIC  is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known archivers
       that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings other than Latin-1 are not supported.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive into the current directory and  subdi-rectories subdirectories
       rectories below it, creating any subdirectories as necessary:

           unzip letters

       To extract all members of into the current directory only:

           unzip -j letters

       To test, printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK or not:

           unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the summaries:

           unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The  backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards, as in Unix; dou-ble double
       ble quotes could have been used instead, as in the source examples below.)  To  extract  to  standard
       output  all  members of whose names end in .tex, auto-converting to the local end-of-line
       convention and piping the output into more(1):

           unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing program:

           unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and Makefile--into the /tmp directory:

           unzip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is turned  on).   To  extract  all
       FORTRAN  and  C source files, regardless of case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile,
       MAKEFILE or similar):

           unzip -C "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and convert  the
       line-endings  of  all  of the files to the local standard (without respect to any files that might be
       marked ``binary''):

           unzip -aaCL "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory, without querying (NOTE:
       be  careful  of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those
       created by Zip 2.1 or later contain no timezone information, and a ``newer''  file  from  an  eastern
       timezone may, in fact, be older):

           unzip -fo sources

       To  extract  newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create any files not
       already there (same caveat as previous example):

           unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo  options  are  stored  in  environment
       variables,  whether  decryption  support was compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled,

           unzip -v

       In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.  To do a singly quiet  list-ing: listing:

           unzip -l

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

           unzip -ql

       (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard listing:

           unzip --ql
           unzip -l-q
           unzip -l--q
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The  current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it very useful to define a pair of aliases:  tt for
       ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z'' (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt  zipfile''  to
       test  an  archive, something that is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck unzip will report ``No
       errors detected in compressed data of,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to ``-aL'' and  is  tempted
       to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO variable is set to ``-z''.

       The  exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the fol-lowing following
       lowing values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but processing completed successfully any-way. anyway.
                     way.   This  includes  zipfiles  where one or more files was skipped due to unsupported
                     compression method or encryption with an unknown password.

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have completed suc-cessfully successfully
                     cessfully  anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-arounds. workarounds.

              3      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably failed  immedi-ately. immediately.

              4      unzip  was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during program initializa-tion. initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to  read  the  decryption

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk.

              7      unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression.

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported compression meth-ods methods
                     ods or unsupported decryption.

              82     no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).  (If even one file  is  success-fully successfully
                     fully processed, however, the exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-looking things, so unzip instead
       maps them into VMS-style status codes.  The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success)  for  normal
       exit,  0x7fff0001  for  warning  errors, and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other
       errors, where the `?' is 2 (error) for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal  error)  for  the
       remaining  ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option to expand upon this behav-ior: behavior:
       ior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in conjunction with zip.  (All parts must  be  con-catenated concatenated
       catenated  together  in  order,  and then ``zip -F'' must be performed on the concatenated archive in
       order to ``fix'' it.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet supported, except with funzip (and then only the  first
       member of the archive can be extracted).

       Archives  encrypted  with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented European characters) may not
       be portable across systems and/or other archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrapping of  long  lines.  However,
       the  code  may fail to detect the correct wrapping locations. First, TAB characters (and similar con-trol control
       trol sequences) are not taken into account, they are handled as ordinary printable characters.   Sec-ond, Second,
       ond,  depending  on  the  actual  system / OS port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but
       rather rely on "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs  would  require  the
       implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. (On Windows NT
       and successors, timestamps are now restored.)

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a  defective  floppy  diskette,  if  the
       ``Fail''  option  is  chosen  from DOS's ``Abort, Retry, Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may
       hang the system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but  control-C  (or  control-Break) controlBreak)
       Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under  DEC  Ultrix,  unzip  would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC, not always reproducible).
       This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug  (improper
       handling  of  page  faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1), this
       may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block devices and character devices are
       not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.
       Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files, directories  and  symbolic  (soft)

       [OS/2]  Extended  attributes  for existing directories are only updated if the -o (``overwrite all'')
       option is given.  This is a limitation of the operating system; because directories only have a  cre-ation creation
       ation  time  associated  with  them,  unzip has no way to determine whether the stored attributes are
       newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required:  first
       unpack the archive normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then overwrite just
       the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is accepted for the -d option; the
       simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS]  When  the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only allows skipping, overwriting
       or renaming; there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version of the file.  In  fact,
       the ``overwrite'' choice does create a new version; the old version is not overwritten or deleted.

       funzip(1L), zip(1L), zipcloak(1L), zipgrep(1L), zipinfo(1L), zipnote(1L), zipsplit(1L)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at

       The  primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon
       (Zip, general maintenance, shared code, Zip64, Win32, Unix);  Christian  Spieler  (UnZip  maintenance
       coordination,  VMS,  MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization);
       Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White (Win32, Windows GUI,  Windows  DLLs);  Kai  Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2,
       Win32); Steven M. Schweda (VMS, support of new features); Paul Kienitz (Amiga, Win32); Chris Herborth
       (BeOS, QNX, Atari); Jonathan Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker  (Atari,
       MVS);  John  Bush  (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site maintenance); Steve Salisbury
       (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64);  and  Dave  Smith  (Tandem

       The following people were former members of the Info-ZIP development group and provided major contri-butions contributions
       butions to key parts of the current code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression);
       Jean-loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler (inflate decompression, fUnZip).

       The  author  of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mas-cott Mascott
       cott did the first Unix port; and David P.  Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its  early  days
       with  Keith  Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full list of contribu-tors contributors
       tors to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source  distribu-tion distribution
       tion for a relatively complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                                  28 February 2005 (v5.52)                                 UNZIP(1L)

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