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ZIP(1L)                                                                                              ZIP(1L)



NAME
       zip - package and compress (archive) files

SYNOPSIS
       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]  [--longoption ...]  [-b path] [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt
       date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options and handle all options
       and  arguments more consistently.  Some old command lines that depend on command line inconsistencies
       may no longer work.

DESCRIPTION
       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP,  Minix,
       Atari,  Macintosh,  Amiga,  and Acorn RISC OS.  It is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands
       tar(1) and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A companion program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1L) programs can  work  with
       archives  produced  by  PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and
       PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives,  but
       recent  changes  in  the  zip file standard may facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is
       compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which  allow  archives
       as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2
       compression if the bzip2 library is included when zip is compiled.  Note  that  PKUNZIP  1.10  cannot
       extract  files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3._. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5._p1 (or later
       versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.  zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger  than  4  GB
       are  added  to  an  archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive
       still needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of  entries  in  the
       archive  will  exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also used for archives streamed from standard input as the
       size of such archives are not known in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to  cre-ate create
       ate  PKZIP  2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP
       4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6._ or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryption, or split archives created
       with  the pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the
       time of this writing does not support data descriptors (but recent changes in  the  PKWare  published
       zip standard now include some support for the data descriptor format zip uses).


       Mac  OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS X as part of the
       Unix port and most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally refer  to  MacOS  ver-sions versions
       sions  older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X port, such as resource
       forks, is expected in the next zip release.


       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the command line.


USE
       The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for  archiving  files;  and  for
       saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with information
       about the files (name, path, date, time of last modification, protection, and  check  information  to
       verify file integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed into a zip archive with a single
       command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for text files.  zip has one compression method
       (deflation)  and  can also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is added, zip can also
       compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require a reasonably modern unzip  to  decompress.
       When  bzip2 compression is selected, it replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically
       chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for  each
       file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is  a  new  or existing zip archive and inpath is a directory or file path optionally
       including wildcards.  When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip  will  replace  identically
       named  entries  in  the  zip  archive  (matching  the relative names as stored in the archive) or add
       entries for new names.  For example, if foo.zip exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and  the
       directory foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo.zip foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace  foo/file1  in  foo.zip  and  add  foo/file3  to foo.zip.  After this, foo.zip contains
       foo/file1, foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then foo.zip will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip takes the list of  input  files
       from standard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in foo.zip.

       Under Unix, this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find (1) command.  For
       example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single dash ("-") as the zip file name, in  which
       case  it  will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the output to be piped to another pro-gram. program.
       gram. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the purpose of  back-ing backing
       ing up the current directory.

       zip  also  accepts  a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in which case it will
       read the file from standard input, allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -would backupwould

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing  up  the  current  directory.
       This  generally produces better compression than the previous example using the -r option because zip
       can take advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -When xfWhen

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter, compressing  stan-dard standard
       dard input to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is provided in the
       unzip package, or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip  may  not  support
       this if zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -The xvfThe

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If  Zip64  support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a filter, zip creates a
       Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to  read  it.   This  is  to  avoid
       amgibuities  in  the zip file structure as defined in the current zip standard (PKWARE AppNote) where
       the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data is written for the entry, but for a stream the
       size  of  the  data  is  not  known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the
       option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip will exit with an error if Zip64 was in fact
       needed.   zip 3  and  unzip 6  and later can read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the
       Zip64 extensions if not needed when archive entries are copied (see the -U (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should  be  before  the  redirection
       including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file with the new con-tents, contents,
       tents, and only replace the old one when the process of creating the new version has  been  completed
       without error.

       If  the  name  of  the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is added. If the
       name already contains an extension other than .zip, the existing extension is kept  unchanged.   How-ever, However,
       ever,  split  archives  (archives  split  over multiple files) require the .zip extension on the last
       split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it scans for files to process  (if  needed).   If  this
       scan  takes  longer  than about 5 seconds, zip will display a "Scanning files" message and start dis-playing displaying
       playing progress dots every 2 seconds or every so many entries processed, whichever takes longer.  If
       there is more than 2 seconds between dots it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and
       could mean a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial  file  scan  is  a  two-step
       process where the directory scan is followed by a sort and these two steps are separated with a space
       in the dots.  If updating an existing archive, a space also appears between the  existing  file  scan
       and  the  new file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not controlled by the -ds dot size option, but
       the dots are turned off by the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used  to  scan  for
       files and get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If  zip  is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the -MM option below for
       more on how zip handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not readable.  If some files
       were skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how many files were read and
       how many skipped.

       Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of command modes,  external  and  internal.   The
       external  modes (add, update, and freshen) read files from the file system (as well as from an exist-ing existing
       ing archive) while the internal modes (delete and copy) operate exclusively on entries in an existing
       archive.


       add
              Update  existing entries and add new files.  If the archive does not exist create it.  This is
              the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update existing entries if newer on the file system and add new files.  If  the  archive  does
              not exist issue warning then create a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update  existing entries of an archive if newer on the file system.  Does not add new files to
              the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new archive.  This new mode is  simi-lar similar
              lar  to  update  but  command line patterns select entries in the existing archive rather than
              files from the file system and it uses the --out option to write the resulting  archive  to  a
              new file rather than update the existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new  File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar to update.  This
       mode synchronizes the archive with the files on the OS, only replacing files in the  archive  if  the
       file  time  or  size of the OS file is different, adding new files, and deleting entries from the ar-chive archive
       chive where there is no matching file.  As this mode can delete entries from  the  archive,  consider
       making a backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section below for examples.

       Split archives.   zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.  A split archive is a standard
       zip archive split over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not just archives split  in  to
       pieces, as the offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Concatenating the pieces
       together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will usually  refuse
       to process such a spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the offsets.)

       One  use  of  split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.  For a split ar-chive archive
       chive with 20 split files the files are typically named (replace ARCHIVE with the name  of  your  ar-chive) archive)
       chive)  ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.  Note that the last file is the .zip
       file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the original multi-disk archive generally  requiring  floppy
       disks and using volume labels to store disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but not spanned ar-chives, archives,
       chives, though a procedure exists for converting split archives of the  right  size  to  spanned  ar-chives. archives.
       chives.   The  reverse  is  also true, where each file of a spanned archive can be copied in order to
       files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is  given  as  a  number  followed
       optionally  by  one  of  k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be
       used to pause zip between splits to allow  changing  removable  media,  for  example,  but  read  the
       descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file or --out) to
       allow split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the  resulting
       archive  to outarchive.zip.  If inarchive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split
       size.  Be aware that if outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with  it  already  exist,
       these are always overwritten as needed without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.   Though  the  zip  standard requires storing paths in an archive using a specific character
       set, in practice zips have stored paths in archives in whatever the local  character  set  is.   This
       creates  problems  when an archive is created or updated on a system using one character set and then
       extracted on another system using a different character set.   When  compiled  with  Unicode  support
       enabled  on platforms that support wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to the standard local
       path for backward compatibility, the UTF-8 translation of the path.  This provides a common universal
       character  set  for storing paths that allows these paths to be fully extracted on other systems that
       support Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but represented in the local  character
       set,  it's possible that some paths will be skipped during a local character set directory scan.  zip
       with Unicode support now can read and store these paths.  Note that Win 9x systems and FAT file  sys-tems systems
       tems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be  aware  that  console  windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes don't accurately show all
       characters due to how each operating system switches in character sets for display.  However,  direc-tory directory
       tory navigation tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command  line  format.   This version of zip has updated command line processing and support for long
       options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a  value  is  last  in  an
       argument  and  anything after it is taken as the value.  If the option can be negated and "-" immedi-ately immediately
       ately follows the option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as  separate  argu-ments arguments
       ments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short  options  in  general take values either as part of the same argument or as the following argu-ment. argument.
       ment.  An optional = is also supported.  So

              -ttmmddyyyy

       and

              -tt=mmddyyyy

       and

              -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of values and use a slightly different format described
       below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to negate the
       option (if the option supports it), and can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding it
       with = (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So

              --before-date=mmddyyyy

       and

              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long  option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.  See the option descriptions
       below for which support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with
       an  embedded  dash  ("-")  at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would consider a trailing
       dash, such as for the option --some-option using --some- as the option, as part of  the  name  rather
       than  a  negating dash).  This may be changed to force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the
       future.

OPTIONS
       -a
       --ascii
              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.


       -A
       --adjust-sfx
              Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting executable archive is created by
              prepending  the  SFX  stub to an existing archive. The -A option tells zip to adjust the entry
              offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.  At present, only the Amiga port  of
       zip  is  capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the
       SFX stub if other updates need to be made.


       -AC
       --archive-clear
              [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which is recommended),  clear  the
              archive  bits  of  files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they are cleared.  You
              may want to use the -sf show files option to store the list of files processed in case the ar-chive archive
              chive  operation must be repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to
              check out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental backups.


       -AS
       --archive-set
              [WIN32]  Only include files that have the archive bit set.  Directories are  not  stored  when
              -AS  is  used,  though  by  default the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as
              usual and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

              The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified and, if used with  -AC,
              -AS  can provide an incremental backup capability.  However, other applications can modify the
              archive bit and it may not be a reliable indicator of which files have changed since the  last
              archive  operation.   Alternative  ways to create incremental backups are using -t to use file
              dates, though this won't catch old files copied to directories being archived, and -DF to cre-ate create
              ate a differential archive.


       -B
       --binary
              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).


       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files


       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will  put  the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying over stuff.zip to the cur-rent current
              rent directory when done. This option is useful when updating an existing archive and the file
              system  containing  this  old  archive does not have enough space to hold both old and new ar-chives archives
              chives at the same time.  It may also be useful when streaming in some cases to avoid the need
              for  data  descriptors.   Note  that using this option may require zip take additional time to
              copy the archive file when done to the destination file system.


       -c
       --entry-comments
              Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating) are done  first,  and
              the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment followed by
              return, or just return for no comment.


       -C
       --preserve-case
              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-) downcases.


       -C2
       --preserve-case-2
              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.


       -C5
       --preserve-case-5
              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.


       -d
       --delete
              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start with foo/harry/,  and  all  of
              the  files that end with .o (in any path).  Note that shell pathname expansion has been inhib-ited inhibited
              ited with backslashes, so that zip can see the asterisks, enabling zip to match  on  the  con-tents contents
              tents  of  the zip archive instead of the contents of the current directory.  (The backslashes
              are not used on MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where the shell expands wildcards could result  in  the
              asterisks  being  converted  to a list of files in the current directory and that list used to
              delete entries from the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the  zip  archive.   This  requires
              that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We
              considered making this case insensitive on systems where paths were case insensitive,  but  it
              is  possible  the  archive  came  from  a  system where case does matter and the archive could
              include both Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the  new  option  -ic  to
              ignore case in the archive.


       -db
       --display-bytes
              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.


       -dc
       --display-counts
              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.


       -dd
       --display-dots
              Display  dots while each entry is zipped (except on ports that have their own progress indica-tor). indicator).
              tor).  See -ds below for setting dot size.  The default is a dot every 10  MB  of  input  file
              processed.   The  -v option also displays dots (previously at a much higher rate than this but
              now -v also defaults to 10 MB) and this rate is also controlled by -ds.


       -df
       --datafork
              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.  Good for exporting files  to
              foreign operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be ignored at all.


       -dg
       --display-globaldots
              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.  The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.


       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See -dd to enable displaying dots.
              Setting this option implies -dd.  Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is a mul-tiplier. multiplier.
              tiplier.   Currently  m  can  be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k,
              size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also controlled
              by this option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip scans for input
              files.  The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is
              longer.


       -du
       --display-usize
              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.


       -dv
       --display-volume
              Display  the  volume  (disk)  number each entry is being read from, if reading an existing ar-chive, archive,
              chive, and being written to.


       -D
       --no-dir-entries
              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.  Directory entries  are  created  by
              default  so  that  their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The environment variable
              ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new option format
              detailed below, and can include several options.) The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
              the latter previously could not be set as default in the ZIPOPT environment  variable  as  the
              contents  of ZIPOPT gets inserted near the beginning of the command line and the file list had
              to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.


       -DF
       --difference-archive
              Create an archive that contains all new and changed files since the original archive was  cre-ated. created.
              ated.   For this to work, the input file list and current directory must be the same as during
              the original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files not in foofull  and
              the files where the size or file time of the files do not match those in foofull.

              Note  that  the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone
              in order for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the  original  archive
              was created could result in no times matching and all files being included.

              A  possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a normal archive of the con-tents contents
              tents of the directory as a full backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.


       -e
       --encrypt
              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on the  terminal  in
              response  to  a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard error is not a tty, zip will exit
              with an error).  The password prompt is repeated to save the user from typing errors.


       -E
       --longnames
              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.


       -f
       --freshen
              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only  if  it  has  been  modified  more
              recently  than the version already in the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will
              not add files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which the  original  zip  command  was
              run, since paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note  that  the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local timezone
              in order for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the  differences  between  the
              Unix-format  file  times (always in GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local
              time) and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle Euro-pean European
              pean time with automatic adjustment for ``summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The  format  is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET, hh is the difference between
              GMT and local time such as -1 above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
              effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone
              EST5EDT.


       -F
       --fix
       -FF
       --fixfix
              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions of the  archive  are  missing,
              but  requires  a  reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive is scanned as usual,
              but zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should be valid, but  any  inconsis-tent inconsistent
              tent entries will be left out.

              When  doubled  as  in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for special
              signatures to identify the limits between the archive members. The single -F is more  reliable
              if the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option first.

              If  the  archive  is  too  damaged or the end has been truncated, you must use -FF.  This is a
              change from zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F  option
              now  more  reliably  fixes  archives with minor damage and the -FF option is needed to fix ar-chives archives
              chives where -F might have been sufficient before.

              Neither option will recover archives that have been  incorrectly  transferred  in  ascii  mode
              instead  of  binary.  After the repair, the -t option of unzip may show that some files have a
              bad CRC. Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them from the  archive  using  the  -d
              option of zip.

              Note  that  -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded zip archive that was
              stored (without compression) in the archive and, depending on the  damage,  it  may  find  the
              entries  in  the embedded archive rather than the archive itself.  Try -F first as it does not
              have this problem.

              The format of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged archive foo.zip,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries  to  read  the entries normally, copying good entries to the new archive foofix.zip.  If
              this doesn't work, as when the archive is truncated, or if some entries you know  are  in  the
              archive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and  compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may create an
              inconsistent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the  -F  option  to  fix
              that archive.

              A  split  archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last split of
              the archive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to  fix  the  archive,
              which will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad checksum or are otherwise dam-aged. damaged.
              aged.


       -FI
       --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can hang if the
              FIFO is not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.


       -FS
       --filesync
              Synchronize  the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an archive is
              updated, new files are added and changed files are updated but files that no longer  exist  on
              the  OS  are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new mode that checks entries
              in the archive against the file system.  If the file time and file size of the  entry  matches
              that  of  the OS file, the entry is copied from the old archive instead of being read from the
              file system and compressed.  If the OS file has changed, the entry is read and  compressed  as
              usual.   If  the  entry  in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry is deleted.
              Enabling this option should create archives that are the  same  as  new  archives,  but  since
              existing  entries  are copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive with -FS can
              be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also consider using -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same directory it was  created
              in so the relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the old archive, it may be
              faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the  local  timezone
              in  order  for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive
              was created could result in no times matching and recompression of all files.

              This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to  preserve  the  original  archive,
              make  a  copy  of the archive first or use the --out option to output the updated archive to a
              new file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with a  new  archive  name  is
              safer, avoids mismatches between archive and OS paths, and is preferred.


       -g
       --grow
              Grow  (append  to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one. If this operation
              fails, zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. If  the  restoration  fails,
              the archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when there's no existing archive or
              when at least one archive member must be updated or deleted.


       -h
       -?
       --help
              Display the zip help information (this also appears if zip is run with no arguments).


       -h2
       --more-help
              Display extended help including more on  command  line  format,  pattern  matching,  and  more
              obscure options.


       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its subdirecto-ries. subdirectories.
              ries. (Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than  the  current  one.)   The  backslash
              avoids  the  shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is performed by zip at all
              directory levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems where \  escapes  the  next  character.
              For other systems where the shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples  are  for  Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a directory directly
              under the current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*

              or

                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports  without  wildcard  expansion  in  the
              shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though  the  command  syntax  used  to require -i at the end of the command line, this version
              actually allows -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates at the next argument
              starting  with  -,  the end of the command line, or the list terminator @ (an argument that is
              just @).  So the above can be given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for example.  There must be a space between the option and the first file of a list.  For just
              one file you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as  additional  examples.  The single value forms are not recommended because they can be con-fusing confusing
              fusing and, in particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the first  letter  of  file
              combines  with i to form a two-letter option starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your command
              line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories  that  match
              the patterns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R for more on patterns.


       -I
       --no-image
              [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not consider Image  files
              (eg.  DOS  partitions  or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but will store
              them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result in a zipfile con-taining containing
              taining a directory (and its content) while using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile con-taining containing
              taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be  obtained  (without  the  'I'
              option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.


       -ic
       --ignore-case
              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only available on sys-tems systems
              tems where the case of files is ignored.  On systems with case-insensitive file systems,  case
              is  normally  ignored  when  matching  files  on  the  file  system  but is not ignored for -f
              (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and similar modes when  matching  against  archive  entries
              (currently -f ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems where case does
              matter and names that are the same except for case can exist in an archive.   The  -ic  option
              makes  all  matching case insensitive.  This can result in multiple archive entries matching a
              command line pattern.


       -j
       --junk-paths
              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do  not  store  directory  names.  By
              default, zip will store the full path (relative to the current directory).


       -jj
       --absolute-path
              [MacOS]  record  Fullpath  (+  Volname). The complete path including volume will be stored. By
              default the relative path will be stored.


       -J
       --junk-sfx
              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

       -k
       --DOS-names
              Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store  only  the  MSDOS  attribute
              (just the user write attribute from Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
              it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such
              as those with two dots.

       -l
       --to-crlf
              Translate  the  Unix  end-of-line  character  LF  into the MSDOS convention CR LF. This option
              should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used  on  Unix  if  the  zip  file  is
              intended  for  PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR LF, this option adds
              an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the origi-nal original
              nal file, to undo the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

       -la
       --log-append
              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open  a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location is overwrit-ten, overwritten,
              ten, but the -la option will result in an existing file being opened and the new log  informa-tion information
              tion  appended  to  any existing information.  Only warnings and errors are written to the log
              unless the -li option is also given, then all information messages are  also  written  to  the
              log.

       -li
       --log-info
              Include  information messages, such as file names being zipped, in the log.  The default is to
              only include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final status.

       -ll
       --from-crlf
              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be used on  binary
              files.  This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.  If
              the file is converted and the file is later determined to be binary a warning  is  issued  and
              the  file  is  probably  corrupted.  In this release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer
              read from a file, zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on  the  file.   This
              check  seems  to  catch  all binary files tested, but the original check remains and if a con-verted converted
              verted file is later determined to be binary that warning is still issued.  A new algorithm is
              now  being  used  for  binary detection that should allow line end conversion of text files in
              UTF-8 and similar encodings.

       -L
       --license
              Display the zip license.

       -m
       --move
              Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually,  this  deletes  the  target  directo-ries/files directories/files
              ries/files  after making the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes empty after removal
              of the files, the directory is also removed. No deletions are done until zip has  created  the
              archive without error.  This is useful for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous
              so it is recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive before removing  all
              input files.

       -MM
       --must-match
              All  input  patterns  must match at least one file and all input files found must be readable.
              Normally when an input pattern does not match a file the "name not matched" warning is  issued
              and  when  an  input file has been found but later is missing or not readable a missing or not
              readable warning is issued.  In either case zip continues creating the archive,  with  missing
              or  unreadable  new  files being skipped and files already in the archive remaining unchanged.
              After the archive is created, if any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN  error  code
              (18  on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most systems).  With -MM set,
              zip exits as soon as an input pattern is not matched (whenever the "name not matched"  warning
              would be issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either case zip exits with an OPEN
              error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or  unreadable
              files will result in an error.  It is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still
              exit with an error if any input pattern doesn't match at least one file  and  if  any  matched
              files are unreadable.  If you want to create the archive anyway and only need to know if files
              were skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.  Such files are simply  stored
              (0% compression) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste its time trying to compress
              them.  The suffixes are separated by either colons or semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

              will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will store any files that  end  in  .Z,  .zip,
              .tiff,  .gif,  or .snd without trying to compress them (image and sound files often have their
              own specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does not compress files with extensions
              in  the  list  .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.   Such files are stored directly in the output ar-chive. archive.
              chive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For example
              under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless of exten-sion. extension.
              sion.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format). By default,
              zip  does  not compress files with filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files
              and PackDir files).

       -nw
       --no-wild
              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is  still  done  by
              the  shell  unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no
              wildcard substitution is desired.

       -N
       --notes
              [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments.  They  can  be  restored  by
              using the -N option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted for comments only for those
              files that do not have filenotes.

       -o
       --latest-time
              Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest)  "last  modified"  time
              found among the entries in the zip archive.  This can be used without any other operations, if
              desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time of the entries in foo.zip.

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing archive, output the
              new  archive to output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without changing the existing ar-chive archive
              chive and the input archive must be a different file than the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with -U to copy
              entries from an existing archive to a new archive.  See the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another  use is converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance, to convert
              an archive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 split.zip --out unsplit.zip

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy mode will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and which should  be  compatible
              with  most  unzips)  to normal entries (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if
              standard encryption was used.  For archives with encrypted entries, zipcloak will decrypt  the
              entries and convert them to normal entries.

       -p
       --paths
              Include  relative file paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.  This is the
              default.  The -j option junks the paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user  operat-ing operating
              ing  systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of any other user; even
              on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.   Storing  the
              plaintext  password  as part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever
              possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security  is
              truly  important,  use strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
              weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

       -q
       --quiet
              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment prompts.  (Useful,  for  example,  in
              shell scripts and background tasks).

       -Qn
       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

       -r
       --recurse-paths
              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo.zip foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In  this  case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named foo.zip,
              including files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does  not  use  the  shell's
              file-name  substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a specific subset of the files
              in directory foo and its subdirectories, use the -i option to specify the pattern of files  to
              be  included.   You  should not use -r with the name ".*", since that matches ".."  which will
              attempt to zip up the parent directory (probably not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down directories in the
              file  system,  any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
              directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on
              Unix  and  similar systems where the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wild-cards wildcards
              cards or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets  zip  see  the  wildcards  and
              match files in subdirectories using them as it recurses.

       -R
       --recurse-patterns
              Travel the directory structure recursively starting at the current directory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In  this  case,  all  the files matching *.c in the tree starting at the current directory are
              stored into a zip archive named foo.zip.  Note  that  *.c  will  match  file.c,  a/file.c  and
              a/b/.c.  More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note for PKZIP users: the
              equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the archive, or will after zipping, and can
              have optional wildcards in them.  For example, given the current directory is foo and under it
              are directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.


       -RE
       --regex
              [WIN32]  Before zip 3._, regular expression list matching was enabled by  default  on  Windows
              platforms.  Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is
              now off by default for Windows so "[" and "]" are  just  normal  characters  in  names.   This
              option enables [] matching again.


       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable  creating  a  split archive and set the split size.  A split archive is an archive that
              could be split over many files.  As the archive is created, if the size of the archive reaches
              the  specified  split  size,  that  split is closed and the next split opened.  In general all
              splits but the last will be the split size and the last will be  whatever  is  left.   If  the
              entire archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive is created.

              Split  archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is named ar-chive archive
              chive and three splits are required, the resulting archive will be  in  the  three  files  ar-chive.z01, archive.z01,
              chive.z01,  archive.z02,  and  archive.zip.  Do not change the numbering of these files or the
              archive will not be readable as these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently the number must  be  an
              integer.   The multiplier can currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
              or t (terabytes).  As 64k is the minimum split size, numbers without  multipliers  default  to
              megabytes.   For  example,  to  create a split archive called foo with the contents of the bar
              directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently the old splits of a split archive are not excluded from a new archive, but they  can
              be  specifically  excluded.   If  possible, keep the input and output archives out of the path
              being zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in this  case
              the  current  directory.   This split mode updates the splits as the archive is being created,
              requiring all splits to remain writable, but creates split archives that are readable  by  any
              unzip  that supports split archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which allows
              splits to be written directly to removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and provide details of how  the  split-ting splitting
              ting  is being done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next
              split destination.

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option for how a split archive can be
              updated  as  it is copied to a new archive.  A split archive can also be converted into a sin-gle-file single-file
              gle-file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 split.zip --out single.zip

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

       -sb
       --split-bell
              If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each split destina-tion. destination.
              tion.

       -sc
       --show-command
              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new command parser permutes the
              arguments, putting all options and any values associated with them before any non-option argu-ments. arguments.
              ments.   This  allows  an  option to appear anywhere in the command line as long as any values
              that go with the option go with it.  This option displays the command line  as  zip  sees  it,
              including any arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed,
              options later in the command line can override options earlier in the command line.

       -sf
       --show-files
              Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if creating a new archive,
              this  will list the files that would be added.  If the option is negated, -sf-, output only to
              an open log file.  Screen display is not recommended for large lists.

       -so
       --show-options
              Show all available options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As  this  com-mand command
              mand  reads  the  option  table,  it should include all options.  Each line includes the short
              option (if defined), the long option (if defined), the format of any value that goes with  the
              option,  if  the  option  can be negated, and a small description.  The value format can be no
              value, required value, optional value, single character value, number value, or a list of val-ues. values.
              ues.   The  output  of this option is not intended to show how to use any option but only show
              what options are available.

       -sp
       --split-pause
              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates split archives  as  -s
              does,  but stream writing is used so each split can be closed as soon as it is written and zip
              will pause between each split to allow changing split destination or media.

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses  stream  ar-chive archive
              chive  format  that may not be readable by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with
              -sp, test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to  a  standard  archive  see  the  --out
              option.

       -su
       --show-unicode
              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

       -sU
       --show-just-unicode
              As  -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if exists, otherwise show the standard ver-sion version
              sion of the path.

       -sv
       --split-verbose
              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being done.

       -S
       --system-hidden
              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date, where mm is the  month  (00-12),
              dd is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 86_1 date format yyyy-mm-dd
              is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified  on  or  after  7
              December 1991, to the zip archive infamy.zip.

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate  on  files  modified  after  or  at the specified date, where mm is the month
              (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 86_1  date  format
              yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will  add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before 30 Novem-ber November
              ber 1995, to the zip archive infamy.zip.

       -T
       --test
              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the old zip file is unchanged  and
              (with the -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use  command  cmd  instead  of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is used.  On
              Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the current directory instead of the  standard  system  unzip,
              could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In cmd, {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of the archive
              is appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

       -u
       --update
              Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive  only  if  it  has  been  modified  more
              recently than the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any files which have been modified
              since the zip archive stuff.zip was last created/modified (note that zip will not try to  pack
              stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts like the -f (freshen) option.

       -U
       --copy-entries
              Copy  entries  from  one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a different
              output file than the input archive.  Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.   When  delete  is
              being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the archive and all other entries
              are copied to the new archive, while copy mode selects the files to include  in  the  new  ar-chive. archive.
              chive.   Unlike  -u  update,  input  patterns  on the command line are matched against archive
              entries only and not the file system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies entries with names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.   The  wildcard  must  be
              escaped  on  some  systems to prevent the shell from substituting names of files from the file
              system which may have no relevance to the entries in the archive.

              If no input files appear on the command line and --out is used, copy mode is assumed:

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting and decrypting entries is not
              yet supported using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine  what  zip  should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3._, in addition to the standard
              file path, now includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry path  is  not  entirely
              7-bit ASCII.  When an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts back to the standard file
              path.  The problem with using the standard path is this path is in the local character set  of
              the zip that created the entry, which may contain characters that are not valid in the charac-ter character
              ter set being used by the unzip.  When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has a  Uni-code Unicode
              code  path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the standard path using the
              current local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there is a  mismatch
              between  the  stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard
              path was updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is assumed that the standard  path
              is more current and zip uses that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters that are not valid in the current character set are escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx,
              where x is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if a 16-bit character number
              is  sufficient  to  represent the Unicode character and the second if the character needs more
              than 16 bits to represent it's Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on systems where  UTF-8  is  the
              current character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces  zip  to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that storing UTF-8 directly is the
              default on Unix systems that support it.  This option could be useful on Windows systems where
              the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller,
              but native UTF-8 is not backward compatible on Windows systems.


       -v
       --verbose
              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables the display of a progress indi-cator indicator
              cator during compression (see -dd for more on dots) and requests verbose diagnostic info about
              zipfile structure oddities.

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic  screen  is  printed  instead.
              This  should  now  work  even  if  stdout is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the
              information for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.  The version screen  provides  the  help
              screen header with program name, version, and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home
              and distribution sites, and shows information about the target environment (compiler type  and
              version, OS version, compilation date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip
              executable).

       -V
       --VMS-portable
              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are   truncated  at  EOF.)    When  a  -V  archive  is
              unpacked on a non-VMS system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF text files  and  pure binary
              files  like fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed files and file types with embedded
              record  sizes  (notably  variable-length  record types) will probably be seen as corrupt else-where. elsewhere.
              where.

       -VV
       --VMS-specific
              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks in a  file,   including   any   data
              beyond  EOF.   Useful for moving ill-formed files  among  VMS systems.   When a -VV archive is
              unpacked on a non-VMS system, almost all files will appear corrupt.

       -w
       --VMS-versions
              [VMS] Append the version number of the files to  the  name,  including  multiple  versions  of
              files.  Default is to use only the most recent version of a specified file.

       -ww
       --VMS-dot-versions
              [VMS]  Append  the  version  number  of  the files to the name, including multiple versions of
              files, using the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most recent version of  a  specified
              file.

       -ws
       --wild-stop-dirs
              Wildcards  match  only  at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths as strings and given
              the paths

                     /foo/bar/dir/file1.c

                     /foo/bar/file2.c

              an input pattern such as

                     /foo/bar/*

              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.   Note  that  in  the
              first  case  a  directory boundary (/) was crossed in the match.  With -ws no directory bounds
              will be included in the match, making wildcards local to a specific directory level.  So, with
              -ws enabled, only the second path would be matched.

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which  will  include  the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding all the files that end in
              .o.  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching  is  per-formed performed
              formed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while excluding all the files that match the
              patterns in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o

              and

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value is assumed (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o


              See -i for more on include and exclude.

       -X
       --no-extra
              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,  uid/gid  and  file  times  on
              Unix).   The  zip  format  uses extra fields to include additional information for each entry.
              Some extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are applicable to  all  sys-tems. systems.
              tems.   Normally when zip reads entries from an existing archive, it reads the extra fields it
              knows, strips the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to that  system.   With  -X,  zip
              strips  all  old  fields and only includes the Unicode and Zip64 extra fields (currently these
              two extra fields cannot be disabled).

              Negating this option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but  also  copies  over  any
              unrecognized extra fields.

       -y
       --symlinks
              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip archive, instead of
              compressing and storing the file referred to by the link.  This can avoid multiple  copies  of
              files  being  included  in  the archive as zip recurses the directory trees and accesses files
              directly and by links.

       -z
       --archive-comment
              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment is ended  by  a  line
              containing  just  a  period,  or  an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and
              VMS).  The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by zip are store and
              deflate.  Compression method can be set to:

              store  -  Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no compres-
              sion.  This is generally faster than compressing entries, but results  in  no  space  savings.
              This is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate  -  This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that storing is better than
              deflation, the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method also becomes available.  Only
              some  modern unzips currently support the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will
              be using before relying on archives using this method (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c


       -#
       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where -0 indicates no  compres-sion compression
              sion  (store  all files), -1 indicates the fastest compression speed (less compression) and -9
              indicates the slowest compression speed (optimal compression, ignores the  suffix  list).  The
              default compression level is -6.

              Though  still  being  worked, the intention is this setting will control compression speed for
              all compression methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

       -!
       --use-privileges
              [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

       -@
       --names-stdin
              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

       -$
       --volume-label
              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive holding the first file to be  com-pressed. compressed.
              pressed.   If  you want to include only the volume label or to force a specific drive, use the
              drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar


EXAMPLES
       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all  the  files  in  the  current
       directory  in it, in compressed form (the .zip suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name
       contains a dot already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files  starting  with  "."  are  not
       included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates  the  archive  foo.zip, containing all the files and directories in the directory foo that is
       contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without  recording  the  directory
       name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you  are  short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both the original directory
       and the corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can  create  the  archive  in  steps
       using the -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where  the  first command creates foo.zip, and the next two add to it.  At the completion of each zip
       command, the last created archive is deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.




       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is  given  as  a  number  followed
       optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo

       creates  a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo contained
       5 GB of contents and the contents were stored in the split archive without compression (to make  this
       example  simple), this would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02 at 2 GB, and split.zip
       at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable media,  for  exam-ple, example,
       ple, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip  does  not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file) to allow
       split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the  resulting
       archive  to outarchive.zip.  If inarchive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split
       size.  Be aware that outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with it are always overwrit-ten overwritten
       ten without warning.  This may be changed in the future.





PATTERN MATCHING
       This  section  applies  only to Unix.  Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.  How-ever, However,
       ever, the special wildcard characters * and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename  substitution  (also  called  "glob-bing") "globbing")
       bing") on command arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any character in the range indicated within the brackets (example: [a-f], [0-9]).  This
              form of wildcard matching allows a user to specify a list of characters between square  brack-ets brackets
              ets and if any of the characters match the expression matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation  is  also  supported,  where  any character in that position not in the list matches.
              Negation is supported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option to avoid  the  confusion  that
              names with [ or ] have caused.


       When  these  characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes), the shell
       will look for files relative to the current path that match the pattern,  and  replace  the  argument
       with a list of the names that matched.

       The  zip  program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modified or, in
       the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files  to  be  operated  on,  by
       using  backslashes  or  quotes  to tell the shell not to do the name expansion.  In general, when zip
       encounters a name in the list of files to do, it first looks for the name in the file system.  If  it
       finds  it, it then adds it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the name
       in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using the  pattern  matching  characters  described
       above,  if  present.   For  each  match,  it will add that name to the list of files to be processed,
       unless this name matches one given with the -x option, or does not match any name given with  the  -i
       option.

       The  pattern  matching  includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in ".o", no
       matter what the path prefix is.  Note that the backslash must precede every special  character  (i.e.
       ?*[]), or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip do the pattern
       matching for file paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for  -i,  -x,
       -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

ENVIRONMENT
       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

       ZIPOPT
              contains default options that will be used when running zip.  The contents of this environment
              variable will get added to the command line just after the zip command.

       ZIP
              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Options
              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Exts
              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native filenames  with  one  of
              the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

       ZIP_OPTS
              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

SEE ALSO
       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

DIAGNOSTICS
       The  exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the fol-lowing following
       lowing values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have completed suc-cessfully successfully
                     cessfully  anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-arounds. workarounds.
                     arounds.

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers  during  program  initializa-tion. initialization.
                     tion.

              5      a  severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably failed immedi-ately. immediately.
                     ately.

              6      entry too large to be processed (such as input files larger than 2 GB  when  not  using
                     Zip64 or trying to read an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large to be
                     split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-looking things, so  zip  instead
       maps  them into VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*
       Unix_status, and an appropriate Severity (as specified in ziperr.h).  More details  are  included  in
       the VMS-specific documentation.  See [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

BUGS
       zip  3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted
       by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if they contain encrypted
       members  or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip
       or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can list the contents of
       the  zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not
       use encryption and use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only stream-LF format zip files are
       expected  to  work with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.  This version
       of zip handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to transfer zip files  from  VMS
       to MSDOS, type "set file type block" on VMS.  When transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type
       fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet syntax  foo::*.*.

       On  OS/2,  zip  cannot  match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.
       This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit DosFindFirst/Next don't find  such  names.   Other  programs
       such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under  OS/2,  the  amount  of  Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the amount
       returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report differ-ent different
       ent  EA  sizes  when  DIRing  a file.  However, the structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQuery-PathInfo() DosQueryPathInfo()
       PathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding bytes and link pointers (it's a linked list)  to
       have  all  fields  on  4-byte  boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore the
       value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from  that  reported  by  DIR.   zip
       stores  the 32-bit format for portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly, Onno van der Linden, Kai  Uwe
       Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute this software so
       long as all of the original files are included, that it is not sold for profit, and that  this  copy-right copyright
       right notice is retained.

       LIKE  ANYTHING ELSE THAT'S FREE, ZIP AND ITS ASSOCIATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH NO
       WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS  BE  LIABLE
       FOR ANY DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       Please  send  bug  reports  and  comments  using the web page at: www.info-zip.org.  For bug reports,
       please include the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the
       machine and operating system in use, and as much additional information as possible.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Thanks  to  R.  P.  Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this project, and from which the
       shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public domain the zip file format,  com-pression compression
       pression  format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to the file format; to
       Steve Burg for clarifications on the deflate format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for pro-viding providing
       viding some useful ideas for the compression algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley
       and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for the Info-ZIP  group  to  use;  and  most
       importantly,  to  the  Info-ZIP  group itself (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless
       testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been possible.  Finally we should  thank
       (blame)  the  first  Info-ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the first
       place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated by E. Gordon  for  zip
       3.0.



Info-ZIP                                     16 June 2008 (v3.0)                                     ZIP(1L)

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