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ZSHBUILTINS(1)                                                                                ZSHBUILTINS(1)



NAME
       zshbuiltins - zsh built-in commands

SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS
       - simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       . file [ arg ... ]
              Read commands from file and execute them in the current shell environment.

              If file does not contain a slash, or if PATH_DIRS is set, the shell looks in the components of
              $path to find the directory containing file.  Files in the  current  directory  are  not  read
              unless  `.'  appears  somewhere  in $path.  If a file named `file.zwc' is found, is newer than
              file, and is the compiled form (created with the zcompile builtin) of file, then commands  are
              read from that file instead of file.

              If  any  arguments  arg  are  given, they become the positional parameters; the old positional
              parameters are restored when the file is done executing.  If file was  not  found  the  return
              status  is  127; if file was found but contained a syntax error the return status is 126; else
              the return status is the exit status of the last command executed.

       : [ arg ... ]
              This command does nothing, although normal argument expansions is  performed  which  may  have
              effects on shell parameters.  A zero exit status is returned.

       alias [ {+|-}gmrsL ] [ name[=value] ... ]
              For  each  name with a corresponding value, define an alias with that value.  A trailing space
              in value causes the next word to be checked for alias expansion.  If the -g flag  is  present,
              define  a global alias; global aliases are expanded even if they do not occur in command posi-tion. position.
              tion.

              If the -s flags is present, define a suffix alias: if the command word on a command line is in
              the  form  `text.name',  where text is any non-empty string, it is replaced by the text `value
              text.name'.  Note that name is treated as a literal string, not a pattern.  A  trailing  space
              in value is not special in this case.  For example,

                     alias -s ps=gv

              will  cause the command `*.ps' to be expanded to `gv *.ps'.  As alias expansion is carried out
              earlier than globbing, the `*.ps' will then be expanded.  Suffix aliases constitute a  differ-ent different
              ent  name  space from other aliases (so in the above example it is still possible to create an
              alias for the command ps) and the two sets are never listed together.

              For each name with no value, print the value of name, if any.  With no  arguments,  print  all
              currently  defined  aliases  other than suffix aliases.  If the -m flag is given the arguments
              are taken as patterns (they should be quoted to preserve them from being interpreted  as  glob
              patterns), and the aliases matching these patterns are printed.  When printing aliases and one
              of the -g, -r or -s flags is present, restrict the  printing  to  global,  regular  or  suffix
              aliases,  respectively;  a  regular alias is one which is neither a global nor a suffix alias.
              Using `+' instead of `-', or ending the option list with a single `+', prevents the values  of
              the aliases from being printed.

              If the -L flag is present, then print each alias in a manner suitable for putting in a startup
              script.  The exit status is nonzero if a name (with no value) is given for which no alias  has
              been defined.

              For more on aliases, include common problems, see the section ALIASING in zshmisc(1).

       autoload [ {+|-}UXkmtz ] [ -w ] [ name ... ]
              Equivalent to functions -u, with the exception of -X/+X and -w.

              The  flag  -X may be used only inside a shell function, and may not be followed by a name.  It
              causes the calling function to be marked for autoloading and then immediately loaded and  exe-cuted, executed,
              cuted, with the current array of positional parameters as arguments.  This replaces the previ-ous previous
              ous definition of the function.  If no function definition is found, an error is  printed  and
              the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.

              The  flag  +X  attempts  to load each name as an autoloaded function, but does not execute it.
              The exit status is zero (success) if the function was not previously defined and a  definition
              for  it  was  found.  This does not replace any existing definition of the function.  The exit
              status is nonzero (failure) if the function was already defined  or  when  no  definition  was
              found.   In  the  latter  case  the function remains undefined and marked for autoloading.  If
              ksh-style autoloading is enabled, the function created will contain the contents of  the  file
              plus  a  call to the function itself appended to it, thus giving normal ksh autoloading behav-iour behaviour
              iour on the first call to the function.  If the -m flag is also given each name is treated  as
              a pattern and all functions already marked for autoload that match the pattern are loaded.

              With  the  -w  flag, the names are taken as names of files compiled with the zcompile builtin,
              and all functions defined in them are marked for autoloading.

              The flags -z and -k mark the function to be autoloaded using the zsh or ksh style, as  if  the
              option  KSH_AUTOLOAD  were unset or were set, respectively.  The flags override the setting of
              the option at the time the function is loaded.

              Note that the autoload command makes no attempt to ensure the shell  options  set  during  the
              loading or execution of the file have any particular value.  For this, the emulate command can
              be used:

                     emulate zsh -c 'autoload -Uz func'

              arranges that when func is loaded the shell is in native zsh emulation, and this emulation  is
              also applied when func is run.

       bg [ job ... ]
       job ... &
              Put each specified job in the background, or the current job if none is specified.

       bindkey
              See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       break [ n ]
              Exit  from  an  enclosing  for,  while, until, select or repeat loop.  If n is specified, then
              break n levels instead of just one.

       builtin name [ args ... ]
              Executes the builtin name, with the given args.

       bye    Same as exit.

       cap    See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       cd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       cd [ -qsLP ] old new
       cd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory.  In the first form, change the current directory to arg,  or  to
              the  value of $HOME if arg is not specified.  If arg is `-', change to the previous directory.

              Otherwise, if arg begins with a slash, attempt to change to the directory given by arg.

              If arg does not begin with a slash, the behaviour depends on whether the current directory `.'
              occurs  in  the  list of directories contained in the shell parameter cdpath.  If it does not,
              first attempt to change to the directory arg under the current directory, and  if  that  fails
              but  cdpath  is  set  and contains at least one element attempt to change to the directory arg
              under each component of cdpath in turn until successful.  If `.' occurs in cdpath, then cdpath
              is searched strictly in order so that `.' is only tried at the appropriate point.

              The  order  of  testing  cdpath is modified if the option POSIX_CD is set, as described in the
              documentation for the option.

              If no directory is found, the option CDABLE_VARS is set, and  a  parameter  named  arg  exists
              whose  value begins with a slash, treat its value as the directory.  In that case, the parame-ter parameter
              ter is added to the named directory hash table.

              The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in the name of the current
              directory, and tries to change to this new directory.

              The  third  form  of cd extracts an entry from the directory stack, and changes to that direc-tory. directory.
              tory.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of  the
              list  shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An argument of the form `-n' counts from
              the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context  are
              swapped.

              If  the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in the array
              chpwd_functions are not called.  This is useful for calls to cd that do not change  the  envi-ronment environment
              ronment seen by an interactive user.

              If  the  -s option is specified, cd refuses to change the current directory if the given path-name pathname
              name contains symlinks.  If the -P option is given or the CHASE_LINKS option is set,  symbolic
              links  are  resolved  to  their  true  values.   If  the -L option is given symbolic links are
              retained in the directory (and not resolved)  regardless  of  the  state  of  the  CHASE_LINKS
              option.

       chdir  Same as cd.

       clone  See the section `The zsh/clone Module' in zshmodules(1).

       command [ -pvV ] simple command
              The  simple  command argument is taken as an external command instead of a function or builtin
              and is executed. If the POSIX_BUILTINS option is set, builtins will also be executed but  cer-tain certain
              tain  special  properties  of  them  are  suppressed.  The -p flag causes a default path to be
              searched instead of that in $path. With the -v flag, command is similar to whence and with -V,
              it is equivalent to whence -v.

              See also the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       comparguments
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compcall
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compctl
              See the section `The zsh/compctl Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compdescribe
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compfiles
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compgroups
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compquote
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptags
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       comptry
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       compvalues
              See the section `The zsh/computil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       continue [ n ]
              Resume  the next iteration of the enclosing for, while, until, select or repeat loop.  If n is
              specified, break out of n-1 loops and resume at the nth enclosing loop.

       declare
              Same as typeset.

       dirs [ -c ] [ arg ... ]
       dirs [ -lpv ]
              With no arguments, print the contents of the directory stack.  Directories are added  to  this
              stack  with  the  pushd  command,  and removed with the cd or popd commands.  If arguments are
              specified, load them onto the directory stack, replacing anything that was there, and push the
              current directory onto the stack.

              -c     clear the directory stack.

              -l     print directory names in full instead of using of using ~ expressions.

              -p     print directory entries one per line.

              -v     number the directories in the stack when printing.


       disable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Temporarily  disable  the  named  hash table elements.  The default is to disable builtin com-mands. commands.
              mands.  This allows you to use an external command with the same name as  a  builtin  command.
              The  -a  option causes disable to act on regular or global aliases.  The -s option causes dis-able disable
              able to act on suffix aliases.  The -f option causes disable to act on shell  functions.   The
              -r options causes disable to act on reserved words.  Without arguments all disabled hash table
              elements from the corresponding hash table are printed.  With the -m flag  the  arguments  are
              taken as patterns (which should be quoted to prevent them from undergoing filename expansion),
              and all hash table elements from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are dis-abled. disabled.
              abled.  Disabled objects can be enabled with the enable command.

       disown [ job ... ]
       job ... &|
       job ... &!
              Remove  the  specified  jobs from the job table; the shell will no longer report their status,
              and will not complain if you try to exit an interactive shell with them  running  or  stopped.
              If no job is specified, disown the current job.

              If  the  jobs  are  currently  stopped  and  the AUTO_CONTINUE option is not set, a warning is
              printed containing information about how to make them running after they have  been  disowned.
              If  one of the latter two forms is used, the jobs will automatically be made running, indepen-dent independent
              dent of the setting of the AUTO_CONTINUE option.

       echo [ -neE ] [ arg ... ]
              Write each arg on the standard output, with a space separating each one.  If the  -n  flag  is
              not present, print a newline at the end.  echo recognizes the following escape sequences:

              \a     bell character
              \b     backspace
              \c     suppress final newline
              \e     escape
              \f     form feed
              \n     linefeed (newline)
              \r     carriage return
              \t     horizontal tab
              \v     vertical tab
              \\     backslash
              \0NNN  character code in octal
              \xNN   character code in hexadecimal
              \uNNNN unicode character code in hexadecimal
              \UNNNNNNNN
                     unicode character code in hexadecimal

              The  -E  flag,  or the BSD_ECHO option, can be used to disable these escape sequences.  In the
              latter case, -e flag can be used to enable them.

       echotc See the section `The zsh/termcap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       echoti See the section `The zsh/terminfo Module' in zshmodules(1).

       emulate [ -LR ] [ {zsh|sh|ksh|csh} [ flags ... ] ]
              Without any argument print current emulation mode.

              With single argument set up zsh options to emulate the specified shell as  much  as  possible.
              csh  will never be fully emulated.  If the argument is not one of the shells listed above, zsh
              will be used as a default; more precisely, the tests performed on the argument are the same as
              those used to determine the emulation at startup based on the shell name, see the section COM-PATIBILITY COMPATIBILITY
              PATIBILITY in zsh(1) .

              If the emulate command occurs inside a function that has been  marked  for  execution  tracing
              with  functions  -t  then  the xtrace option will be turned on regardless of emulation mode or
              other options.  Note that code executed inside the function by the ., source, or eval commands
              is not considered to be running directly from the function, hence does not provoke this behav-iour. behaviour.
              iour.

              If the -R switch is given, all settable options are reset to their default value corresponding
              to  the  specified emulation mode, except for certain options describing the interactive envi-ronment; environment;
              ronment; otherwise, only those options likely to cause portability  problems  in  scripts  and
              functions  are  altered.  If the -L switch is given, the options LOCAL_OPTIONS and LOCAL_TRAPS
              will be set as well, causing the effects of the emulate command and any setopt and  trap  com-mands commands
              mands  to  be  local  to  the  immediately  surrounding shell function, if any; normally these
              options are turned off in all emulation modes except ksh. The -L switch is mutually  exclusive
              with the use of -c in flags.

              The  flags  may  be  any  of  the invocation-time flags described in the section INVOCATION in
              zsh(1), except that `-o EMACS'  and  `-o  VI'  may  not  be  used.   Flags  such  as  `+r'/`+o
              RESTRICTED' may be prohibited in some circumstances.

              If  -c  arg appears in flags, arg is evaluated while the requested emulation is temporarily in
              effect.  In this case the emulation mode and all options are restored to their previous values
              before emulate returns.  The -R switch may precede the name of the shell to emulate; note this
              has a meaning distinct from including -R in flags.

              Use of -c enables `sticky' emulation mode for functions defined within the  evaluated  expres-sion: expression:
              sion:   the  emulation  mode  is  associated thereafter with the function so that whenever the
              function is executed the emulation (respecting the -R switch, if present) and all options  are
              set before entry to the function, and restored after exit.  If the function is called when the
              sticky emulation is already in effect, either within  an  `emulate  shell  -c'  expression  or
              within  another  function  with the same sticky emulation, entry and exit from the function do
              not cause options to be altered (except due to standard processing such as  the  LOCAL_OPTIONS
              option).   This also applies to functions marked for autoload within the sticky emulation; the
              appropriate set of options will be applied at the point the function is loaded as well as when
              it is run.

              For example:

                     emulate sh -c 'fni() { setopt cshnullglob; }
                     fno() { fni; }'
                     fno

              The  two  functions  fni  and fno are defined with sticky sh emulation.  fno is then executed,
              causing options associated with emulations to be set to their values in sh.   fni  then  calls
              fno; because fno is also marked for sticky sh emulation, no option changes take place on entry
              to or exit from it.  Hence the option cshnullglob, turned off by sh emulation, will be  turned
              on  within  fni  and remain on on return to fno.  On exit from fno, the emulation mode and all
              options will be restored to the state they were in before entry to the temporary emulation.

              The documentation above is typically sufficient for the intended  purpose  of  executing  code
              designed for other shells in a suitable environment.  More detailed rules follow.
              1.     The  sticky  emulation  environment provided by `emulate shell -c' is identical to that
                     provided by entry to a function marked for sticky emulation as a consequence  of  being
                     defined  in such an environment.  Hence, for example, the sticky emulation is inherited
                     by subfunctions defined within functions with sticky emulation.
              2.     No change of options takes place on entry to or exit from functions that are not marked
                     for  sticky  emulation,  other than those that would normally take place, even if those
                     functions are called within sticky emulation.
              3.     No special handling is provided for functions marked for  autoload  nor  for  functions
                     present in wordcode created by the zcompile command.
              4.     The  presence  or  absence  of the -R switch to emulate corresponds to different sticky
                     emulation modes, so for example `emulate sh -c', `emulate -R sh -c'  and  `emulate  csh
                     -c' are treated as three distinct sticky emulations.
              5.     Difference  in  shell options supplied in addition to the basic emulation also mean the
                     sticky emulations are different, so for example `emulate zsh -c' and  `emulate  zsh  -o
                     cbases -c' are treated as distinct sticky emulations.

       enable [ -afmrs ] name ...
              Enable  the  named hash table elements, presumably disabled earlier with disable.  The default
              is to enable builtin commands.  The -a option causes  enable  to  act  on  regular  or  global
              aliases.   The  -s option causes enable to act on suffix aliases.  The -f option causes enable
              to act on shell functions.  The -r option causes enable to act  on  reserved  words.   Without
              arguments all enabled hash table elements from the corresponding hash table are printed.  With
              the -m flag the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all hash table elements
              from the corresponding hash table matching these patterns are enabled.  Enabled objects can be
              disabled with the disable builtin command.

       eval [ arg ... ]
              Read the arguments as input to the shell and execute the resulting command(s) in  the  current
              shell process.  The return status is the same as if the commands had been executed directly by
              the shell; if there are no args or they contain no commands  (i.e.  are  an  empty  string  or
              whitespace) the return status is zero.

       exec [ -cl ] [ -a argv_ ] simple command
              Replace  the  current  shell  with an external command rather than forking.  With -c clear the
              environment; with -l prepend - to the argv[0] string of the command executed  (to  simulate  a
              login  shell);  with -a argv_ set the argv[0] string of the command executed.  See the section
              `Precommand Modifiers'.

       exit [ n ]
              Exit the shell with the exit status specified by n; if none is specified, use the exit  status
              from  the  last  command executed.  An EOF condition will also cause the shell to exit, unless
              the IGNORE_EOF option is set.

       export [ name[=value] ... ]
              The specified names are marked for automatic export to the environment  of  subsequently  exe-cuted executed
              cuted  commands.  Equivalent to typeset -gx.  If a parameter specified does not already exist,
              it is created in the global scope.

       false [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 1.

       fc [ -e ename ] [ -m match ] [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -l [ -nrdfEiD ] [ -t timefmt ] [ -m match ]
             [ old=new ... ] [ first [ last ] ]
       fc -p [ -a ] [ filename [ histsize [ savehistsize ] ] ]
       fc -P
       fc -ARWI [ filename ]
              Select a range of commands from first to last from the history list.  The arguments first  and
              last  may  be specified as a number or as a string.  A negative number is used as an offset to
              the current history event number.  A string specifies the most recent event beginning with the
              given string.  All substitutions old=new, if any, are then performed on the commands.

              If the -l flag is given, the resulting commands are listed on standard output.  If the -m flag
              is also given the first argument is taken as a pattern (should be quoted) and only the history
              events  matching this pattern will be shown.  Otherwise the editor program ename is invoked on
              a file containing these history events.  If ename is not given, the  value  of  the  parameter
              FCEDIT  is  used; if that is not set the value of the parameter EDITOR is used; if that is not
              set a builtin default, usually `vi' is used.  If ename is `-', no  editor  is  invoked.   When
              editing is complete, the edited command is executed.

              If  first  is not specified, it will be set to -1 (the most recent event), or to -16 if the -l
              flag is given.  If last is not specified, it will be set to first, or to -1 if the -l flag  is
              given.

              The flag -r reverses the order of the commands and the flag -n suppresses command numbers when
              listing.

              Also when listing,
              -d     prints timestamps for each command
              -f     prints full time-date stamps in the US `MM/DD/YY hh:mm' format
              -E     prints full time-date stamps in the European `dd.mm.yyyy hh:mm' format
              -i     prints full time-date stamps in ISO8601 `yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm' format
              -t fmt prints time and date stamps in the given format; fmt is  formatted  with  the  strftime
                     function with the zsh extensions described for the %D{string} prompt format in the sec-tion section
                     tion EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1).  The resulting formatted string  must
                     be no more than 256 characters or will not be printed.
              -D     prints elapsed times; may be combined with one of the options above.


              `fc  -p'  pushes the current history list onto a stack and switches to a new history list.  If
              the -a option is also specified, this history list will be automatically popped when the  cur-rent current
              rent  function  scope is exited, which is a much better solution than creating a trap function
              to call `fc -P' manually.  If no arguments are specified, the  history  list  is  left  empty,
              $HISTFILE  is  unset, and $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are set to their default values.  If one argu-ment argument
              ment is given, $HISTFILE is set to that filename, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST  are  left  unchanged,
              and  the history file is read in (if it exists) to initialize the new list.  If a second argu-ment argument
              ment is specified, $HISTSIZE & $SAVEHIST are instead  set  to  the  single  specified  numeric
              value.   Finally,  if a third argument is specified, $SAVEHIST is set to a separate value from
              $HISTSIZE.  You are free to change these environment values for the new history  list  however
              you desire in order to manipulate the new history list.

              `fc  -P'  pops  the  history list back to an older list saved by `fc -p'.  The current list is
              saved to its $HISTFILE before it is destroyed (assuming that $HISTFILE and $SAVEHIST  are  set
              appropriately,  of course).  The values of $HISTFILE, $HISTSIZE, and $SAVEHIST are restored to
              the values they had when `fc -p' was called.  Note that this  restoration  can  conflict  with
              making  these  variables  "local",  so  your best bet is to avoid local declarations for these
              variables in functions that use `fc -p'.  The one other guaranteed-safe combination is declar-ing declaring
              ing  these  variables  to  be local at the top of your function and using the automatic option
              (-a) with `fc -p'.  Finally, note that it is legal to manually pop a push marked for automatic
              popping if you need to do so before the function exits.

              `fc  -R'  reads  the  history from the given file, `fc -W' writes the history out to the given
              file, and `fc -A' appends the history out to the given file.  If no filename is specified, the
              $HISTFILE is assumed.  If the -I option is added to -R, only those events that are not already
              contained within the internal history list are added.  If the -I option is added to -A or  -W,
              only  those  events  that  are new since last incremental append/write to the history file are
              appended/written.  In any case, the created file will have no more than $SAVEHIST entries.

       fg [ job ... ]
       job ...
              Bring each specified job in turn to the foreground.  If no job is specified, resume  the  cur-rent current
              rent job.

       float [ {+|-}EFHghlprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent  to  typeset  -E,  except that options irrelevant to floating point numbers are not
              permitted.

       functions [ {+|-}UXkmtTuz ] [ name ... ]
       functions -M mathfn [ min [ max [ shellfn ] ] ]
       functions -M [ -m pattern ... ]
       functions +M [ -m ] mathfn
              Equivalent to typeset -f, with the exception of the -M option.  Use of the -M option  may  not
              be combined with any of the options handled by typeset -f.

              functions  -M  mathfn  defines mathfn as the name of a mathematical function recognised in all
              forms of arithmetical expressions; see the section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1).   By
              default  mathfn  may  take  any number of comma-separated arguments.  If min is given, it must
              have exactly min args; if min and max are both given, it must have at least min  and  at  most
              max args.  max may be -1 to indicate that there is no upper limit.

              By  default  the  function  is implemented by a shell function of the same name; if shellfn is
              specified it gives the name of the corresponding shell function while mathfn remains the  name
              used  in  arithmetical  expressions.  The name of the function in $0 is mathfn (not shellfn as
              would usually be the case), provided the option FUNCTION_ARGZERO is in effect.  The positional
              parameters  in  the  shell  function  correspond to the arguments of the mathematical function
              call.  The result of the last arithmetical expression  evaluated  inside  the  shell  function
              (even  if it is a form that normally only returns a status) gives the result of the mathemati-cal mathematical
              cal function.

              functions -M with no arguments lists all such user-defined functions in the  same  form  as  a
              definition.  With the additional option -m and a list of arguments, all functions whose mathfn
              matches one of the pattern arguments are listed.

              function +M removes the list of mathematical functions; with  the  additional  option  -m  the
              arguments  are  treated  as  patterns  and  all functions whose mathfn matches the pattern are
              removed.  Note that the shell function implementing the behaviour is not  removed  (regardless
              of whether its name coincides with mathfn).

              For example, the following prints the cube of 3:

                     zmath_cube() { (( $1 * $1 * $1 )) }
                     functions -M cube 1 1 zmath_cube
                     print $(( cube(3) ))

       getcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       getln [ -AclneE ] name ...
              Read  the  top value from the buffer stack and put it in the shell parameter name.  Equivalent
              to read -zr.

       getopts optstring name [ arg ... ]
              Checks the args for legal options.  If the args are omitted, use the positional parameters.  A
              valid  option  argument begins with a `+' or a `-'.  An argument not beginning with a `+' or a
              `-', or the argument `--', ends the options.  Note that a single `-' is not considered a valid
              option argument.  optstring contains the letters that getopts recognizes.  If a letter is fol-lowed followed
              lowed by a `:', that option requires an argument.  The options can be separated from the argu-ment argument
              ment by blanks.

              Each  time  it  is  invoked,  getopts places the option letter it finds in the shell parameter
              name, prepended with a `+' when arg begins with a `+'.  The index of the next arg is stored in
              OPTIND.  The option argument, if any, is stored in OPTARG.

              The  first option to be examined may be changed by explicitly assigning to OPTIND.  OPTIND has
              an initial value of 1, and is normally reset to 1 upon exit from a shell function.  OPTARG  is
              not  reset and retains its value from the most recent call to getopts.  If either of OPTIND or
              OPTARG is explicitly unset, it remains unset, and the index or option argument is not  stored.
              The option itself is still stored in name in this case.

              A leading `:' in optstring causes getopts to store the letter of any invalid option in OPTARG,
              and to set name to `?' for an unknown option and to `:' when a required argument  is  missing.
              Otherwise,  getopts  sets  name  to `?' and prints an error message when an option is invalid.
              The exit status is nonzero when there are no more options.

       hash [ -Ldfmrv ] [ name[=value] ] ...
              hash can be used to directly modify the contents of the command  hash  table,  and  the  named
              directory hash table.  Normally one would modify these tables by modifying one's PATH (for the
              command hash table) or by creating appropriate shell parameters (for the named directory  hash
              table).   The  choice  of  hash  table  to work on is determined by the -d option; without the
              option the command hash table is used, and with the option the named directory hash  table  is
              used.

              Given  no  arguments, and neither the -r or -f options, the selected hash table will be listed
              in full.

              The -r option causes the selected hash table to be emptied.  It will be  subsequently  rebuilt
              in the normal fashion.  The -f option causes the selected hash table to be fully rebuilt imme-diately. immediately.
              diately.  For the command hash table this hashes all the absolute directories in the PATH, and
              for  the  named directory hash table this adds all users' home directories.  These two options
              cannot be used with any arguments.

              The -m option causes the arguments to be taken as patterns (which should be  quoted)  and  the
              elements  of the hash table matching those patterns are printed.  This is the only way to dis-play display
              play a limited selection of hash table elements.

              For each name with a corresponding value, put `name' in the selected hash  table,  associating
              it  with  the pathname `value'.  In the command hash table, this means that whenever `name' is
              used as a command argument, the shell will try to execute the file given by `value'.   In  the
              named directory hash table, this means that `value' may be referred to as `~name'.

              For  each  name  with  no corresponding value, attempt to add name to the hash table, checking
              what the appropriate value is in the normal manner for that hash  table.   If  an  appropriate
              value can't be found, then the hash table will be unchanged.

              The  -v option causes hash table entries to be listed as they are added by explicit specifica-tion. specification.
              tion.  If has no effect if used with -f.

              If the -L flag is present, then each hash table entry is printed in the  form  of  a  call  to
              hash.

       history
              Same as fc -l.

       integer [ {+|-}Hghilprtux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
              Equivalent to typeset -i, except that options irrelevant to integers are not permitted.

       jobs [ -dlprs ] [ job ... ]
       jobs -Z string
              Lists  information  about  each  given  job, or all jobs if job is omitted.  The -l flag lists
              process IDs, and the -p flag lists process groups.  If the -r flag is specified  only  running
              jobs  will  be listed and if the -s flag is given only stopped jobs are shown.  If the -d flag
              is given, the directory from which the job was started (which may not be the current directory
              of the job) will also be shown.

              The -Z option replaces the shell's argument and environment space with the given string, trun-cated truncated
              cated if necessary to fit.  This will normally be visible in ps (ps(1)) listings.   This  fea-ture feature
              ture is typically used by daemons, to indicate their state.

       kill [ -s signal_name | -n signal_number | -sig ] job ...
       kill -l [ sig ... ]
              Sends  either  SIGTERM  or  the  specified signal to the given jobs or processes.  Signals are
              given by number or by names, with or without the `SIG' prefix.  If the signal  being  sent  is
              not  `KILL'  or `CONT', then the job will be sent a `CONT' signal if it is stopped.  The argu-ment argument
              ment job can be the process ID of a job not in the job list.  In the second form, kill -l,  if
              sig is not specified the signal names are listed.  Otherwise, for each sig that is a name, the
              corresponding signal number is listed.  For each sig that is a signal number or a number  rep-resenting representing
              resenting the exit status of a process which was terminated or stopped by a signal the name of
              the signal is printed.

              On some systems, alternative signal names are allowed for a few signals.  Typical examples are
              SIGCHLD  and  SIGCLD or SIGPOLL and SIGIO, assuming they correspond to the same signal number.
              kill -l will only list the preferred form, however kill -l alt will show  if  the  alternative
              form  corresponds  to  a  signal number.  For example, under Linux kill -l IO and kill -l POLL
              both output 29, hence kill -IO and kill -POLL have the same effect.

              Many systems will allow process IDs to be negative to kill a process group or zero to kill the
              current process group.

       let arg ...
              Evaluate  each  arg  as  an arithmetic expression.  See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in
              zshmisc(1) for a description of arithmetic expressions.  The exit status is 0 if the value  of
              the last expression is nonzero, 1 if it is zero, and 2 if an error occurred.

       limit [ -hs ] [ resource [ limit ] ] ...
              Set or display resource limits.  Unless the -s flag is given, the limit applies only the chil-dren children
              dren of the shell.  If -s is given without other arguments, the resource limits of the current
              shell is set to the previously set resource limits of the children.

              If limit is not specified, print the current limit placed on resource, otherwise set the limit
              to the specified value.  If the -h flag is given, use hard limits instead of soft limits.   If
              no resource is given, print all limits.

              When  looping  over multiple resources, the shell will abort immediately if it detects a badly
              formed argument.  However, if it fails to set a limit for some other reason it  will  continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              resource can be one of:

              addressspace
                     Maximum amount of address space used.
              aiomemorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM for AIO operations.
              aiooperations
                     Maximum number of AIO operations.
              cachedthreads
                     Maximum number of cached threads.
              coredumpsize
                     Maximum size of a core dump.
              cputime
                     Maximum CPU seconds per process.
              datasize
                     Maximum data size (including stack) for each process.
              descriptors
                     Maximum value for a file descriptor.
              filesize
                     Largest single file allowed.
              maxproc
                     Maximum number of processes.
              maxpthreads
                     Maximum number of threads per process.
              memorylocked
                     Maximum amount of memory locked in RAM.
              memoryuse
                     Maximum resident set size.
              msgqueue
                     Maximum number of bytes in POSIX message queues.
              resident
                     Maximum resident set size.
              sigpending
                     Maximum number of pending signals.
              sockbufsize
                     Maximum size of all socket buffers.
              stacksize
                     Maximum stack size for each process.
              vmemorysize
                     Maximum amount of virtual memory.

              Which  of these resource limits are available depends on the system.  resource can be abbrevi-ated abbreviated
              ated to any unambiguous prefix.  It can also be an integer, which corresponds to  the  integer
              defined for the resource by the operating system.

              If argument corresponds to a number which is out of the range of the resources configured into
              the shell, the shell will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an  error  if
              this  fails.   As  the  shell  does not store such resources internally, an attempt to set the
              limit will fail unless the -s option is present.

              limit is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

              nh     hours
              nk     kilobytes (default)
              nm     megabytes or minutes
              [mm:]ss
                     minutes and seconds

              The limit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a  mode  emulating
              another shell.  It can be made available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:limit'.

       local [ {+|-}AEFHUahlprtux ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ] ...
              Same  as  typeset,  except that the options -g, and -f are not permitted.  In this case the -x
              option does not force the use of -g, i.e. exported variables will be local to functions.

       log    List all users currently logged in who are affected by the current setting of the watch param-eter. parameter.
              eter.

       logout [ n ]
              Same as exit, except that it only works in a login shell.

       noglob simple command
              See the section `Precommand Modifiers'.

       popd [ [-q] {+|-}n ]
              Remove  an entry from the directory stack, and perform a cd to the new top directory.  With no
              argument, the current top entry is removed.  An argument of the form `+n' identifies  a  stack
              entry by counting from the left of the list shown by the dirs command, starting with zero.  An
              argument of the form -n counts from the right.  If the PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings
              of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If  the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in the array
              $chpwd_functions are not called, and the new directory stack is not printed.  This  is  useful
              for calls to popd that do not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

       print [ -abcDilmnNoOpPrsSz ] [ -u n ] [ -f format ] [ -C cols ]
         [ -R [ -en ]] [ arg ... ]
              With  the `-f' option the arguments are printed as described by printf.  With no flags or with
              the flag `-', the arguments are printed on the standard output as described by echo, with  the
              following  differences:  the escape sequence `\M-x' metafies the character x (sets the highest
              bit), `\C-x' produces a control character (`\C-@' and  `\C-?'  give  the  characters  NUL  and
              delete),  and  `\E' is a synonym for `\e'.  Finally, if not in an escape sequence, `\' escapes
              the following character and is not printed.

              -a     Print arguments with the column incrementing first.  Only useful with  the  -c  and  -C
                     options.

              -b     Recognize all the escape sequences defined for the bindkey command, see zshzle(1).

              -c     Print  the  arguments  in columns.  Unless -a is also given, arguments are printed with
                     the row incrementing first.

              -C cols
                     Print the arguments in cols columns.  Unless -a is also given,  arguments  are  printed
                     with the row incrementing first.

              -D     Treat  the  arguments  as  directory  names,  replacing prefixes with ~ expressions, as
                     appropriate.

              -i     If given together with -o or -O, sorting is performed case-independently.

              -l     Print the arguments separated by newlines instead of spaces.

              -m     Take the first argument as a pattern (should be quoted), and remove it from  the  argu-ment argument
                     ment list together with subsequent arguments that do not match this pattern.

              -n     Do not add a newline to the output.

              -N     Print the arguments separated and terminated by nulls.

              -o     Print the arguments sorted in ascending order.

              -O     Print the arguments sorted in descending order.

              -p     Print the arguments to the input of the coprocess.

              -P     Perform prompt expansion (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).

              -r     Ignore the escape conventions of echo.

              -R     Emulate  the  BSD  echo  command, which does not process escape sequences unless the -e
                     flag is given.  The -n flag suppresses the trailing newline.  Only the -e and -n  flags
                     are recognized after -R; all other arguments and options are printed.

              -s     Place the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  Each argument
                     to the print command is treated as a single word in the history, regardless of its con-tent. content.
                     tent.

              -S     Place  the results in the history list instead of on the standard output.  In this case
                     only a single argument is allowed; it will be split into words as if  it  were  a  full
                     shell command line.  The effect is similar to reading the line from a history file with
                     the HIST_LEX_WORDS option active.

              -u n   Print the arguments to file descriptor n.

              -z     Push the arguments onto the editing buffer stack, separated by spaces.

              If any of `-m', `-o' or `-O' are used in combination with `-f'  and  there  are  no  arguments
              (after the removal process in the case of `-m') then nothing is printed.

       printf format [ arg ... ]
              Print  the  arguments  according to the format specification. Formatting rules are the same as
              used in C. The same escape sequences as for echo are recognised in the format. All  C  conver-sion conversion
              sion specifications ending in one of csdiouxXeEfgGn are handled. In addition to this, `%b' can
              be used instead of `%s' to cause escape sequences in the argument to be  recognised  and  `%q'
              can  be  used  to quote the argument in such a way that allows it to be reused as shell input.
              With the numeric format specifiers, if the corresponding argument starts with a quote  charac-ter, character,
              ter, the numeric value of the following character is used as the number to print otherwise the
              argument is evaluated as an arithmetic expression. See the section `Arithmetic Evaluation'  in
              zshmisc(1)  for a description of arithmetic expressions. With `%n', the corresponding argument
              is taken as an identifier which is created as an integer parameter.

              Normally, conversion specifications are applied to each argument in order but they can explic-itly explicitly
              itly specify the nth argument is to be used by replacing `%' by `%n$' and `*' by `*n$'.  It is
              recommended that you do not mix references of this explicit style with the  normal  style  and
              the handling of such mixed styles may be subject to future change.

              If  arguments  remain unused after formatting, the format string is reused until all arguments
              have been consumed. With the print builtin, this can be suppressed by using the -r option.  If
              more  arguments  are  required  by the format than have been specified, the behaviour is as if
              zero or an empty string had been specified as the argument.

       pushd [ -qsLP ] [ arg ]
       pushd [ -qsLP ] old new
       pushd [ -qsLP ] {+|-}n
              Change the current directory, and push the old current directory onto the directory stack.  In
              the  first  form, change the current directory to arg.  If arg is not specified, change to the
              second directory on the stack (that is, exchange the top two entries), or change to  $HOME  if
              the PUSHD_TO_HOME option is set or if there is only one entry on the stack.  Otherwise, arg is
              interpreted as it would be by cd.  The meaning of old and new in the second form is  also  the
              same as for cd.

              The  third form of pushd changes directory by rotating the directory list.  An argument of the
              form `+n' identifies a stack entry by counting from the left of the list  shown  by  the  dirs
              command,  starting  with  zero.   An  argument of the form `-n' counts from the right.  If the
              PUSHD_MINUS option is set, the meanings of `+' and `-' in this context are swapped.

              If the -q (quiet) option is specified, the hook function chpwd and the functions in the  array
              $chpwd_functions  are  not called, and the new directory stack is not printed.  This is useful
              for calls to pushd that do not change the environment seen by an interactive user.

              If the option -q is not specified and the shell option PUSHD_SILENT is not set, the  directory
              stack will be printed after a pushd is performed.

              The options -s, -L and -P have the same meanings as for the cd builtin.

       pushln [ arg ... ]
              Equivalent to print -nz.

       pwd [ -rLP ]
              Print  the  absolute  pathname  of the current working directory.  If the -r or the -P flag is
              specified, or the CHASE_LINKS option is set and the -L flag is not  given,  the  printed  path
              will not contain symbolic links.

       r      Same as fc -e -.

       read [ -rszpqAclneE ] [ -t [ num ] ] [ -k [ num ] ] [ -d delim ]
        [ -u n ] [ name[?prompt] ] [ name ...  ]
              Read  one  line and break it into fields using the characters in $IFS as separators, except as
              noted below.  The first field is assigned to the first name, the second field  to  the  second
              name,  etc., with leftover fields assigned to the last name.  If name is omitted then REPLY is
              used for scalars and reply for arrays.

              -r     Raw mode: a `\' at the end of a line does not signify line continuation and backslashes
                     in the line don't quote the following character and are not removed.

              -s     Don't  echo back characters if reading from the terminal.  Currently does not work with
                     the -q option.

              -q     Read only one character from the terminal and set name to `y' if this character was `y'
                     or  `Y' and to `n' otherwise.  With this flag set the return status is zero only if the
                     character was `y' or `Y'.  This option may be used with a timeout; if  the  read  times
                     out,  or encounters end of file, status 2 is returned.  Input is read from the terminal
                     unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

              -k [ num ]
                     Read only one (or num) characters.  All are assigned to the first  name,  without  word
                     splitting.   This  flag is ignored when -q is present.  Input is read from the terminal
                     unless one of -u or -p is present.  This option may also be used within zle widgets.

                     Note that despite the mnemonic `key' this option does read full characters,  which  may
                     consist of multiple bytes if the option MULTIBYTE is set.

              -z     Read  one  entry  from the editor buffer stack and assign it to the first name, without
                     word splitting.  Text is pushed onto the stack with `print -z' or with  push-line  from
                     the  line  editor  (see  zshzle(1)).   This flag is ignored when the -k or -q flags are
                     present.

              -e
              -E     The input read is printed (echoed) to the standard output.  If the -e flag is used,  no
                     input is assigned to the parameters.

              -A     The first name is taken as the name of an array and all words are assigned to it.

              -c
              -l     These flags are allowed only if called inside a function used for completion (specified
                     with the -K flag to compctl).  If the -c flag is given, the words of the  current  com-mand command
                     mand  are  read.  If  the -l flag is given, the whole line is assigned as a scalar.  If
                     both flags are present, -l is used and -c is ignored.

              -n     Together with -c, the number of the word the cursor is on is read.  With -l, the  index
                     of  the  character the cursor is on is read.  Note that the command name is word number
                     1, not word 0, and that when the cursor is at the end of the line, its character  index
                     is the length of the line plus one.

              -u n   Input is read from file descriptor n.

              -p     Input is read from the coprocess.

              -d delim
                     Input is terminated by the first character of delim instead of by newline.

              -t [ num ]
                     Test if input is available before attempting to read.  If num is present, it must begin
                     with a digit and will be evaluated to give a number of seconds, which may be a floating
                     point  number;  in  this  case the read times out if input is not available within this
                     time.  If num is not present, it is taken to be zero, so that read returns  immediately
                     if no input is available.  If no input is available, return status 1 and do not set any
                     variables.

                     This option is not available when reading from the editor buffer with -z,  when  called
                     from within completion with -c or -l, with -q which clears the input queue before read-ing, reading,
                     ing, or within zle where other mechanisms should be used to test for input.

                     Note that read does not attempt to alter the input processing mode.  The  default  mode
                     is  canonical  input,  in  which an entire line is read at a time, so usually `read -t'
                     will not read anything until an entire line has been typed.  However, when reading from
                     the  terminal  with  -k input is processed one key at a time; in this case, only avail-ability availability
                     ability of the first character is tested, so that e.g. `read -t -k 2' can  still  block
                     on  the  second  character.   Use  two instances of `read -t -k' if this is not what is
                     wanted.

              If the first argument contains a `?', the remainder of this word is used as a prompt on  stan-dard standard
              dard error when the shell is interactive.

              The  value  (exit status) of read is 1 when an end-of-file is encountered, or when -c or -l is
              present and the command is not called from a compctl function, or as described for -q.  Other-wise Otherwise
              wise the value is 0.

              The  behavior of some combinations of the -k, -p, -q, -u and -z flags is undefined.  Presently
              -q cancels all the others, -p cancels -u, -k cancels -z, and otherwise -z cancels both -p  and
              -u.

              The -c or -l flags cancel any and all of -kpquz.

       readonly
              Same as typeset -r.

       rehash Same as hash -r.

       return [ n ]
              Causes  a shell function or `.' script to return to the invoking script with the return status
              specified by n.  If n is omitted, the return status is that of the last command executed.

              If return was executed from a trap in a TRAPNAL function, the effect is different for zero and
              non-zero  return  status.   With  zero  status  (or after an implicit return at the end of the
              trap), the shell will return to whatever it was previously processing; with a non-zero status,
              the  shell  will  behave as interrupted except that the return status of the trap is retained.
              Note that the numeric value of the signal which caused the trap is passed as the  first  argu-ment, argument,
              ment,  so  the statement `return $((128+$1))' will return the same status as if the signal had
              not been trapped.

       sched  See the section `The zsh/sched Module' in zshmodules(1).

       set [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o [ option_name ] ] ... [ {+|-}A [ name ] ] [ arg ... ]
              Set the options for the shell and/or set the positional parameters,  or  declare  and  set  an
              array.   If  the  -s  option  is  given, it causes the specified arguments to be sorted before
              assigning them to the positional parameters (or to the array name if -A  is  used).   With  +s
              sort  arguments  in  descending order.  For the meaning of the other flags, see zshoptions(1).
              Flags may be specified by name using the -o option. If no option name is supplied with -o, the
              current  option  states are printed:  see the description of setopt below for more information
              on the format.  With +o they are printed in a form that can be used as input to the shell.

              If the -A flag is specified, name is set to an array containing the given args; if no name  is
              specified, all arrays are printed together with their values.

              If  +A  is used and name is an array, the given arguments will replace the initial elements of
              that array; if no name is specified, all arrays are printed without their values.

              The behaviour of arguments after -A name or +A name depends on whether the  option  KSH_ARRAYS
              is  set.   If it is not set, all arguments following name are treated as values for the array,
              regardless of their form.  If the option is set, normal option processing  continues  at  that
              point; only regular arguments are treated as values for the array.  This means that

                     set -A array -x -- foo

              sets array to `-x -- foo' if KSH_ARRAYS is not set, but sets the array to foo and turns on the
              option `-x' if it is set.

              If the -A flag is not present, but there are arguments  beyond  the  options,  the  positional
              parameters  are set.  If the option list (if any) is terminated by `--', and there are no fur-ther further
              ther arguments, the positional parameters will be unset.

              If no arguments and no `--' are given, then the names and values of all parameters are printed
              on the standard output.  If the only argument is `+', the names of all parameters are printed.

              For historical reasons, `set -' is treated as `set +xv' and `set - args' as `set +xv --  args'
              when in any other emulation mode than zsh's native mode.

       setcap See the section `The zsh/cap Module' in zshmodules(1).

       setopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Set the options for the shell.  All options specified either with flags or by name are set.

              If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently set are printed.  The form is
              chosen so as to minimize the differences from the default options for  the  current  emulation
              (the  default emulation being native zsh, shown as <Z> in zshoptions(1)).  Options that are on
              by default for the emulation are shown with the prefix no only if they are  off,  while  other
              options  are  shown  without  the  prefix  no and only if they are on.  In addition to options
              changed from the default state by the user, any options activated automatically by  the  shell
              (for  example,  SHIN_STDIN  or  INTERACTIVE) will be shown in the list.  The format is further
              modified by the option KSH_OPTION_PRINT, however the rationale for choosing  options  with  or
              without the no prefix remains the same in this case.

              If the -m flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to protect
              them from filename expansion), and all options with names matching these patterns are set.

              Note that a bad option name does not cause execution of subsequent shell code to  be  aborted;
              this  is  behaviour  is different from that of `set -o'.  This is because set is regarded as a
              special builtin by the POSIX standard, but setopt is not.

       shift [ n ] [ name ... ]
              The positional parameters ${n+1} ... are renamed to $1 ..., where n is an  arithmetic  expres-sion expression
              sion  that defaults to 1.  If any names are given then the arrays with these names are shifted
              instead of the positional parameters.

       source file [ arg ... ]
              Same as `.', except that the current directory is  always  searched  and  is  always  searched
              first, before directories in $path.

       stat   See the section `The zsh/stat Module' in zshmodules(1).

       suspend [ -f ]
              Suspend  the  execution  of the shell (send it a SIGTSTP) until it receives a SIGCONT.  Unless
              the -f option is given, this will refuse to suspend a login shell.

       test [ arg ... ]
       [ [ arg ... ] ]
              Like the system version of test.  Added for compatibility; use conditional expressions instead
              (see  the  section  `Conditional  Expressions').  The main differences between the conditional
              expression syntax and the test and [ builtins are:  these commands are not  handled  syntacti-cally, syntactically,
              cally,  so for example an empty variable expansion may cause an argument to be omitted; syntax
              errors cause status 2 to be returned instead of a shell error; and arithmetic operators expect
              integer arguments rather than arithmetic expressions.

              The  command attempts to implement POSIX and its extensions where these are specified.  Unfor-tunately Unfortunately
              tunately there are intrinsic ambiguities in the syntax; in particular there is no  distinction
              between test operators and strings that resemble them.  The standard attempts to resolve these
              for small numbers of arguments (up to four); for five or more arguments  compatibility  cannot
              be  relied  on.   Users are urged wherever possible to use the `[[' test syntax which does not
              have these ambiguities.

       times  Print the accumulated user and system times for the shell  and  for  processes  run  from  the
              shell.

       trap [ arg ] [ sig ... ]
              arg  is  a  series  of commands (usually quoted to protect it from immediate evaluation by the
              shell) to be read and executed when the shell receives any of the signals specified by one  or
              more  sig  args.  Each sig can be given as a number, or as the name of a signal either with or
              without the string SIG in front (e.g. 1, HUP, and SIGHUP are all the same signal).

              If arg is `-', then the specified signals are reset to their defaults, or, if no sig args  are
              present, all traps are reset.

              If  arg  is  an  empty string, then the specified signals are ignored by the shell (and by the
              commands it invokes).

              If arg is omitted but one or more sig args are provided (i.e.  the first argument is  a  valid
              signal number or name), the effect is the same as if arg had been specified as `-'.

              The trap command with no arguments prints a list of commands associated with each signal.

              If  sig  is ZERR then arg will be executed after each command with a nonzero exit status.  ERR
              is an alias for ZERR on systems that have no SIGERR signal (this is the usual case).

              If sig is DEBUG then arg will be executed before each command if the  option  DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD
              is set (as it is by default), else after each command.  Here, a `command' is what is described
              as a `sublist' in the shell grammar, see the section  SIMPLE  COMMANDS  &  PIPELINES  in  zsh-misc(1). zshmisc(1).
              misc(1).   If DEBUG_BEFORE_CMD is set various additional features are available.  First, it is
              possible to skip the next command by setting the option ERR_EXIT; see the description  of  the
              ERR_EXIT  option  in  zshoptions(1).   Also,  the  shell parameter ZSH_DEBUG_CMD is set to the
              string corresponding to the command to be executed following the trap.  Note that this  string
              is  reconstructed from the internal format and may not be formatted the same way as the origi-nal original
              nal text.  The parameter is unset after the trap is executed.

              If sig is 0 or EXIT and the trap statement is executed inside the body of a function, then the
              command  arg is executed after the function completes.  The value of $? at the start of execu-tion execution
              tion is the exit status of the shell or the return status of the function exiting.  If sig  is
              0  or EXIT and the trap statement is not executed inside the body of a function, then the com-mand command
              mand arg is executed when the shell terminates; the trap runs before any  zshexit  hook  func-tions. functions.
              tions.

              ZERR,  DEBUG,  and  EXIT  traps are not executed inside other traps.  ZERR and DEBUG traps are
              kept within subshells, while other traps are reset.

              Note that traps defined with the trap builtin are slightly different  from  those  defined  as
              `TRAPNAL  ()  { ... }', as the latter have their own function environment (line numbers, local
              variables, etc.) while the former use the environment  of  the  command  in  which  they  were
              called.  For example,

                     trap 'print $LINENO' DEBUG

              will print the line number of a command executed after it has run, while

                     TRAPDEBUG() { print $LINENO; }

              will always print the number zero.

              Alternative  signal  names  are  allowed as described under kill above.  Defining a trap under
              either name causes any trap under an alternative name to be removed.  However,  it  is  recom-mended recommended
              mended that for consistency users stick exclusively to one name or another.

       true [ arg ... ]
              Do nothing and return an exit status of 0.

       ttyctl -fu
              The  -f  option freezes the tty, and -u unfreezes it.  When the tty is frozen, no changes made
              to the tty settings by external programs will be honored by the shell, except for  changes  in
              the  size  of the screen; the shell will simply reset the settings to their previous values as
              soon as each command exits or is suspended.  Thus, stty and similar programs  have  no  effect
              when the tty is frozen.  Without options it reports whether the terminal is frozen or not.

       type [ -wfpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -v.

       typeset [ {+|-}AEFHUafghklprtuxmz ] [ -LRZi [ n ]] [ name[=value] ... ]
       typeset -T [ {+|-}Urux ] [ -LRZ [ n ]] SCALAR[=value] array [ sep ]
              Set or display attributes and values for shell parameters.

              A  parameter is created for each name that does not already refer to one.  When inside a func-tion, function,
              tion, a new parameter is created for every name (even those that already exist), and is  unset
              again  when  the  function  completes.  See `Local Parameters' in zshparam(1).  The same rules
              apply to special shell parameters, which retain their special attributes when made local.

              For each name=value assignment, the parameter name is set to value.   Note  that  arrays  cur-rently currently
              rently  cannot  be  assigned  in  typeset  expressions, only scalars and integers.  Unless the
              option KSH_TYPESET is set, normal expansion rules apply to assignment arguments, so value  may
              be  split  into separate words; if the option is set, assignments which can be recognised when
              expansion is performed  are  treated  as  single  words.   For  example  the  command  typeset
              vbl=$(echo  one two) is treated as having one argument if KSH_TYPESET is set, but otherwise is
              treated as having the two arguments vbl=one and two.

              If the shell option TYPESET_SILENT is not set, for each remaining name that refers to a param-eter parameter
              eter  that  is  set, the name and value of the parameter are printed in the form of an assign-ment. assignment.
              ment.  Nothing is printed for newly-created parameters, or when  any  attribute  flags  listed
              below  are  given  along  with the name.  Using `+' instead of minus to introduce an attribute
              turns it off.

              If the -p option is given, parameters and values are printed in the form of a typeset  command
              and  an  assignment  (which  will  be  printed  separately for arrays and associative arrays),
              regardless of other flags and options.  Note that the -h flag on parameters is  respected;  no
              value will be shown for these parameters.

              If  the  -T option is given, two or three arguments must be present (an exception is that zero
              arguments are allowed to show the list of parameters created in this fashion).  The first  two
              are  the name of a scalar and an array parameter (in that order) that will be tied together in
              the manner of $PATH and $path.  The optional third argument is  a  single-character  separator
              which will be used to join the elements of the array to form the scalar; if absent, a colon is
              used, as with $PATH.  Only the first character of the separator is significant; any  remaining
              characters are ignored.  Only the scalar parameter may be assigned an initial value.  Both the
              scalar and the array may otherwise be manipulated as normal.  If one is unset, the other  will
              automatically  be unset too.  There is no way of untying the variables without unsetting them,
              or converting the type of one of them with another typeset command; +T does not work,  assign-ing assigning
              ing  an  array  to  SCALAR  is  an error, and assigning a scalar to array sets it to be a sin-gle-element single-element
              gle-element array.  Note that both `typeset -xT ...' and `export -T ...' work,  but  only  the
              scalar  will  be marked for export.  Setting the value using the scalar version causes a split
              on all separators (which cannot be quoted).  It is possible to use the same two tied variables
              with  a  different separator character in which case the variables remain joined as before but
              the separator is changed.  This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              The -g (global) flag is treated specially: it means that any resulting parameter will  not  be
              restricted  to  local scope.  Note that this does not necessarily mean that the parameter will
              be global, as the flag will apply to any existing parameter (even if unset) from an  enclosing
              function.  This flag does not affect the parameter after creation, hence it has no effect when
              listing existing parameters, nor does the flag +g have any effect except in  combination  with
              -m (see below).

              If  no  name is present, the names and values of all parameters are printed.  In this case the
              attribute flags restrict the  display  to  only  those  parameters  that  have  the  specified
              attributes,  and  using  `+'  rather than `-' to introduce the flag suppresses printing of the
              values of parameters when there is no parameter name.  Also, if the last option  is  the  word
              `+', then names are printed but values are not.

              If  the  -m  flag  is given the name arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted).
              With no attribute flags, all parameters (or functions with the -f flag)  with  matching  names
              are  printed  (the  shell  option  TYPESET_SILENT  is not used in this case).  Note that -m is
              ignored if no patterns are given.  If the +g flag is combined with -m, a new  local  parameter
              is  created  for every matching parameter that is not already local.  Otherwise -m applies all
              other flags or assignments to the existing parameters.  Except when assignments are made  with
              name=value, using +m forces the matching parameters to be printed, even inside a function.

              If no attribute flags are given and either no -m flag is present or the +m form was used, each
              parameter name printed is preceded by a list of the attributes of that parameter (array, asso-ciation, association,
              ciation,  exported,  integer,  readonly).   If  +m is used with attribute flags, and all those
              flags are introduced with +, the matching parameter names are printed  but  their  values  are
              not.

              Attribute  flags  that  transform  the final value (-L, -R, -Z, -l, u) are only applied to the
              expanded value at the point of a parameter expansion  expression  using  `$'.   They  are  not
              applied when a parameter is retrieved internally by the shell for any purpose.

              The following attribute flags may be specified:

              -A     The names refer to associative array parameters; see `Array Parameters' in zshparam(1).

              -L     Left justify and remove leading blanks from value.  If n is  nonzero,  it  defines  the
                     width of the field.  If n is zero, the width is determined by the width of the value of
                     the first assignment.  In the case of numeric parameters, the length  of  the  complete
                     value  assigned  to  the  parameter  is used to determine the width, not the value that
                     would be output.

                     The width is the count of characters, which may be multibyte characters if  the  MULTI-BYTE MULTIBYTE
                     BYTE  option  is  in  effect.  Note that the screen width of the character is not taken
                     into account;  if  this  is  required,  use  padding  with  parameter  expansion  flags
                     ${(ml...)...} as described in `Parameter Expansion Flags' in zshexpn(1).

                     When  the  parameter is expanded, it is filled on the right with blanks or truncated if
                     necessary to fit the field.  Note  truncation  can  lead  to  unexpected  results  with
                     numeric parameters.  Leading zeros are removed if the -Z flag is also set.

              -R     Similar to -L, except that right justification is used; when the parameter is expanded,
                     the field is left filled with blanks or truncated from the end.  May  not  be  combined
                     with the -Z flag.

              -U     For  arrays  (but  not  for associative arrays), keep only the first occurrence of each
                     duplicated value.  This may also be set for  colon-separated  special  parameters  like
                     PATH  or FIGNORE, etc.  This flag has a different meaning when used with -f; see below.

              -Z     Specially handled if set along with the -L flag.  Otherwise, similar to -R, except that
                     leading  zeros  are used for padding instead of blanks if the first non-blank character
                     is a digit.  Numeric parameters are specially handled: they  are  always  eligible  for
                     padding with zeroes, and the zeroes are inserted at an appropriate place in the output.

              -a     The names refer to array parameters.  An array parameter may be created this  way,  but
                     it  may  not be assigned to in the typeset statement.  When displaying, both normal and
                     associative arrays are shown.

              -f     The names refer to functions rather than parameters.  No assignments can be  made,  and
                     the  only other valid flags are -t, -T, -k, -u, -U and -z.  The flag -t turns on execu-tion execution
                     tion tracing for this function; the flag -T does the same, but turns off tracing on any
                     function  called from the present one, unless that function also has the -t or -T flag.
                     The -u and -U flags cause the function to be marked for  autoloading;  -U  also  causes
                     alias expansion to be suppressed when the function is loaded.  The fpath parameter will
                     be searched to find the function definition when the function is first referenced;  see
                     the  section  `Functions'.  The  -k  and  -z  flags  make  the function be loaded using
                     ksh-style or zsh-style autoloading respectively. If neither is given,  the  setting  of
                     the KSH_AUTOLOAD option determines how the function is loaded.

              -h     Hide:  only  useful  for  special  parameters  (those marked `<S>' in the table in zsh-param(1)), zshparam(1)),
                     param(1)), and for local parameters with the same name as a special  parameter,  though
                     harmless  for others.  A special parameter with this attribute will not retain its spe-cial special
                     cial effect when made local.  Thus after  `typeset  -h  PATH',  a  function  containing
                     `typeset  PATH'  will create an ordinary local parameter without the usual behaviour of
                     PATH.  Alternatively, the local parameter may itself be  given  this  attribute;  hence
                     inside a function `typeset -h PATH' creates an ordinary local parameter and the special
                     PATH parameter is not altered in any way.  It is also possible to create a local param-eter parameter
                     eter  using  `typeset +h special', where the local copy of special will retain its spe-cial special
                     cial properties regardless of having  the  -h  attribute.   Global  special  parameters
                     loaded  from shell modules (currently those in zsh/mapfile and zsh/parameter) are auto-matically automatically
                     matically given the -h attribute to avoid name clashes.

              -H     Hide value: specifies that typeset will not display the value  of  the  parameter  when
                     listing  parameters;  the  display for such parameters is always as if the `+' flag had
                     been given.  Use of the parameter is in other respects normal, and the option does  not
                     apply if the parameter is specified by name, or by pattern with the -m option.  This is
                     on by default for the parameters in the zsh/parameter and zsh/mapfile  modules.   Note,
                     however, that unlike the -h flag this is also useful for non-special parameters.

              -i     Use  an  internal integer representation.  If n is nonzero it defines the output arith-metic arithmetic
                     metic base, otherwise it is determined by the first assignment.  Bases  from  2  to  36
                     inclusive are allowed.

              -E     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output the variable
                     will be converted to scientific notation.  If n is nonzero it  defines  the  number  of
                     significant figures to display; the default is ten.

              -F     Use an internal double-precision floating point representation.  On output the variable
                     will be converted to fixed-point decimal notation.  If n is nonzero it defines the num-ber number
                     ber of digits to display after the decimal point; the default is ten.

              -l     Convert  the result to lower case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The value is not
                     converted when assigned.

              -r     The given names are marked readonly.  Note that if name is  a  special  parameter,  the
                     readonly attribute can be turned on, but cannot then be turned off.

              -t     Tags the named parameters.  Tags have no special meaning to the shell.  This flag has a
                     different meaning when used with -f; see above.

              -u     Convert the result to upper case whenever the parameter is expanded.  The value is  not
                     converted  when  assigned.   This  flag  has a different meaning when used with -f; see
                     above.

              -x     Mark for automatic export to the environment of subsequently executed commands.  If the
                     option  GLOBAL_EXPORT  is set, this implies the option -g, unless +g is also explicitly
                     given; in other words the parameter is not made local to the enclosing function.   This
                     is for compatibility with previous versions of zsh.

       ulimit [ [ -SHacdfilmnpqrstvx | -N resource [ limit ] ... ]
              Set or display resource limits of the shell and the processes started by the shell.  The value
              of limit can be a number in the unit specified below or one of the values  `unlimited',  which
              removes  the  limit on the resource, or `hard', which uses the current value of the hard limit
              on the resource.

              By default, only soft limits are manipulated. If the -H flag is given use hard limits  instead
              of soft limits.  If the -S flag is given together with the -H flag set both hard and soft lim-its. limits.
              its.

              If no options are used, the file size limit (-f) is assumed.

              If limit is omitted the current value of the specified resources are printed.  When more  than
              one resource value is printed, the limit name and unit is printed before each value.

              When  looping  over multiple resources, the shell will abort immediately if it detects a badly
              formed argument.  However, if it fails to set a limit for some other reason it  will  continue
              trying to set the remaining limits.

              Not  all  the  following  resources are supported on all systems.  Running ulimit -a will show
              which are supported.

              -a     Lists all of the current resource limits.
              -b     Socket buffer size in bytes (N.B. not kilobytes)
              -c     512-byte blocks on the size of core dumps.
              -d     Kilobytes on the size of the data segment.
              -f     512-byte blocks on the size of files written.
              -i     The number of pending signals.
              -l     Kilobytes on the size of locked-in memory.
              -m     Kilobytes on the size of physical memory.
              -n     open file descriptors.
              -q     Bytes in POSIX message queues.
              -s     Kilobytes on the size of the stack.
              -t     CPU seconds to be used.
              -r     The number of simultaneous threads available to the user.
              -u     The number of processes available to the user.
              -v     Kilobytes on the size of virtual memory.  On some systems  this  refers  to  the  limit
                     called `address space'.
              -x     The number of locks on files.

              A  resource  may also be specified by integer in the form `-N resource', where resource corre-sponds corresponds
              sponds to the integer defined for the resource by the operating system.  This may be  used  to
              set  the  limits  for  resources known to the shell which do not correspond to option letters.
              Such limits will be shown by number in the output of `ulimit -a'.

              The number may alternatively be out of the range of limits compiled into the shell.  The shell
              will try to read or write the limit anyway, and will report an error if this fails.

       umask [ -S ] [ mask ]
              The umask is set to mask.  mask can be either an octal number or a symbolic value as described
              in chmod(1).  If mask is omitted, the current value is printed.  The -S option causes the mask
              to  be  printed as a symbolic value.  Otherwise, the mask is printed as an octal number.  Note
              that in the symbolic form the permissions you specify are those which are to be  allowed  (not
              denied) to the users specified.

       unalias
              Same as unhash -a.

       unfunction
              Same as unhash -f.

       unhash [ -adfms ] name ...
              Remove  the  element  named  name from an internal hash table.  The default is remove elements
              from the command hash table.  The -a option causes unhash to remove regular or global aliases;
              note  when removing a global aliases that the argument must be quoted to prevent it from being
              expanded before being passed to the command.  The -s option causes  unhash  to  remove  suffix
              aliases.  The -f option causes unhash to remove shell functions.  The -d options causes unhash
              to remove named directories.  If the -m flag is given the  arguments  are  taken  as  patterns
              (should  be  quoted) and all elements of the corresponding hash table with matching names will
              be removed.

       unlimit [ -hs ] resource ...
              The resource limit for each resource is set to the hard limit.  If the -h flag  is  given  and
              the  shell  has  appropriate privileges, the hard resource limit for each resource is removed.
              The resources of the shell process are only changed if the -s flag is given.

              The unlimit command is not made available by default when the shell starts in a mode emulating
              another shell.  It can be made available with the command `zmodload -F zsh/rlimits b:unlimit'.

       unset [ -fmv ] name ...
              Each named parameter is unset.  Local parameters remain local even if unset; they appear unset
              within scope, but the previous value will still reappear when the scope ends.

              Individual  elements of associative array parameters may be unset by using subscript syntax on
              name, which should be quoted (or the entire command prefixed with noglob) to protect the  sub-script subscript
              script from filename generation.

              If  the  -m  flag  is specified the arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted) and all
              parameters with matching names are unset.  Note that this cannot be used when unsetting  asso-ciative associative
              ciative array elements, as the subscript will be treated as part of the pattern.

              The -v flag specifies that name refers to parameters. This is the default behaviour.

              unset -f is equivalent to unfunction.

       unsetopt [ {+|-}options | {+|-}o option_name ] [ name ... ]
              Unset  the  options  for  the  shell.   All options specified either with flags or by name are
              unset.  If no arguments are supplied, the names of all options currently  unset  are  printed.
              If  the  -m  flag is given the arguments are taken as patterns (which should be quoted to pre-serve preserve
              serve them from being interpreted as glob patterns), and all options with names matching these
              patterns are unset.

       vared  See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       wait [ job ... ]
              Wait for the specified jobs or processes.  If job is not given then all currently active child
              processes are waited for.  Each job can be either a job specification or the process ID  of  a
              job in the job table.  The exit status from this command is that of the job waited for.

       whence [ -vcwfpams ] name ...
              For each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a command name.

              -v     Produce a more verbose report.

              -c     Print the results in a csh-like format.  This takes precedence over -v.

              -w     For  each  name, print `name: word' where word is one of alias, builtin, command, func-tion, function,
                     tion, hashed, reserved or none, according as name corresponds to an alias,  a  built-in
                     command,  an  external  command,  a  shell  function,  a  command defined with the hash
                     builtin, a reserved word, or is not recognised.  This takes precedence over -v and  -c.

              -f     Causes the contents of a shell function to be displayed, which would otherwise not hap-pen happen
                     pen unless the -c flag were used.

              -p     Do a path search for name even if it is an alias,  reserved  word,  shell  function  or
                     builtin.

              -a     Do a search for all occurrences of name throughout the command path.  Normally only the
                     first occurrence is printed.

              -m     The arguments are taken as patterns (should be quoted), and  the  information  is  dis-played displayed
                     played for each command matching one of these patterns.

              -s     If a pathname contains symlinks, print the symlink-free pathname as well.

       where [ -wpms ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -ca.

       which [ -wpams ] name ...
              Equivalent to whence -c.

       zcompile [ -U ] [ -z | -k ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -ca [ -m ] [ -R | -M ] file [ name ... ]
       zcompile -t file [ name ... ]
              This builtin command can be used to compile functions or scripts, storing the compiled form in
              a file, and to examine files containing the compiled form.  This allows faster autoloading  of
              functions and execution of scripts by avoiding parsing of the text when the files are read.

              The  first  form (without the -c, -a or -t options) creates a compiled file.  If only the file
              argument is given, the output file has the name `file.zwc' and will  be  placed  in  the  same
              directory  as  the file.  The shell will load the compiled file instead of the normal function
              file when the function is autoloaded; see the section `Autoloading  Functions'  in  zshmisc(1)
              for  a  description  of  how autoloaded functions are searched.  The extension .zwc stands for
              `zsh word code'.

              If there is at least one name argument, all the named files are compiled into the output  file
              given  as  the  first argument.  If file does not end in .zwc, this extension is automatically
              appended.  Files containing multiple compiled functions are called  `digest'  files,  and  are
              intended to be used as elements of the FPATH/fpath special array.

              The  second form, with the -c or -a options, writes the compiled definitions for all the named
              functions into file.  For -c, the names must be functions currently defined in the shell,  not
              those  marked  for  autoloading.   Undefined  functions that are marked for autoloading may be
              written by using the -a option, in which case the fpath is searched and the  contents  of  the
              definition files for those functions, if found, are compiled into file.  If both -c and -a are
              given, names of both defined functions and functions marked for autoloading may be given.   In
              either  case, the functions in files written with the -c or -a option will be autoloaded as if
              the KSH_AUTOLOAD option were unset.

              The reason for handling loaded and not-yet-loaded functions with  different  options  is  that
              some  definition  files for autoloading define multiple functions, including the function with
              the same name as the file, and, at the end, call that function.  In such cases the  output  of
              `zcompile  -c'  does  not  include the additional functions defined in the file, and any other
              initialization code in the file is lost.  Using `zcompile -a' captures all this extra informa-tion. information.
              tion.

              If  the  -m option is combined with -c or -a, the names are used as patterns and all functions
              whose names match one of these patterns will be written. If no name is given, the  definitions
              of all functions currently defined or marked as autoloaded will be written.

              The third form, with the -t option, examines an existing compiled file.  Without further argu-ments, arguments,
              ments, the names of the original files compiled into it are listed.  The first line of  output
              shows  the version of the shell which compiled the file and how the file will be used (i.e. by
              reading it directly or by mapping it into memory).  With arguments, nothing is output and  the
              return status is set to zero if definitions for all names were found in the compiled file, and
              non-zero if the definition for at least one name was not found.

              Other options:

              -U     Aliases are not expanded when compiling the named files.

              -R     When the compiled file is read, its contents are copied into the shell's memory, rather
                     than memory-mapped (see -M).  This happens automatically on systems that do not support
                     memory mapping.

                     When compiling scripts instead of autoloadable functions, it is often desirable to  use
                     this  option;  otherwise  the  whole file, including the code to define functions which
                     have already been defined, will remain mapped, consequently wasting memory.

              -M     The compiled file is mapped into the shell's memory when read. This is done in  such  a
                     way  that  multiple  instances  of  the  shell running on the same host will share this
                     mapped file.  If neither -R nor -M is given, the zcompile builtin decides  what  to  do
                     based on the size of the compiled file.

              -k
              -z     These  options  are  used  when  the  compiled  file contains functions which are to be
                     autoloaded. If -z is given, the function will be  autoloaded  as  if  the  KSH_AUTOLOAD
                     option  is  not  set, even if it is set at the time the compiled file is read, while if
                     the -k is given, the function will be loaded as if KSH_AUTOLOAD is set.  These  options
                     also  take  precedence  over any -k or -z options specified to the autoload builtin. If
                     neither of these options is given, the function will be loaded  as  determined  by  the
                     setting of the KSH_AUTOLOAD option at the time the compiled file is read.

                     These  options  may  also appear as many times as necessary between the listed names to
                     specify the loading style of all following functions, up to the next -k or -z.

                     The created file  always  contains  two  versions  of  the  compiled  format,  one  for
                     big-endian  machines and one for small-endian machines.  The upshot of this is that the
                     compiled file is machine independent and if it is read or mapped, only one half of  the
                     file is actually used (and mapped).

       zformat
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zftp   See the section `The zsh/zftp Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zle    See the section `Zle Builtins' in zshzle(1).

       zmodload [ -dL ] [ ... ]
       zmodload -F [ -lLme -P param ] module [+-]feature...
       zmodload -e [ -A ] [ ... ]
       zmodload [ -a [ -bcpf [ -I ] ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -u [ -abcdpf [ -I ] ] [ -iL ] ...
       zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
       zmodload -R modalias ...
              Performs operations relating to zsh's loadable modules.  Loading of modules while the shell is
              running (`dynamical loading') is not available on all operating systems, or on  all  installa-tions installations
              tions  on a particular operating system, although the zmodload command itself is always avail-able available
              able and can be used to manipulate modules built into versions of the shell executable without
              dynamical loading.

              Without arguments the names of all currently loaded binary modules are printed.  The -L option
              causes this list to be in the form of a series of zmodload  commands.   Forms  with  arguments
              are:

              zmodload [ -i ] name ...
              zmodload -u [ -i ] name ...
                     In  the  simplest  case,  zmodload loads a binary module.  The module must be in a file
                     with a name consisting of the specified name followed by  a  standard  suffix,  usually
                     `.so' (`.sl' on HPUX).  If the module to be loaded is already loaded the duplicate mod-ule module
                     ule is ignored.  If zmodload detects an inconsistency, such as an invalid  module  name
                     or  circular dependency list, the current code block is aborted.   Hence `zmodload mod-ule module
                     ule 2>/dev/null' is sufficient to test whether a module is available.  If it is  avail-able, available,
                     able,  the module is loaded if necessary, while if it is not available, non-zero status
                     is silently returned.  The option -i is accepted for compatibility but has no effect.

                     The named module is searched for in the same  way  a  command  is,  using  $module_path
                     instead of $path.  However, the path search is performed even when the module name con-tains contains
                     tains a `/', which it usually does.  There is no way to prevent the path search.

                     If the module supports features (see below), zmodload tries to enable all features when
                     loading  a module.  If the module was successfully loaded but not all features could be
                     enabled, zmodload returns status 2.

                     With -u, zmodload unloads modules.  The same name must be given that was given when the
                     module  was loaded, but it is not necessary for the module to exist in the file system.
                     The -i option suppresses the error if the module is  already  unloaded  (or  was  never
                     loaded).

                     Each  module  has  a boot and a cleanup function.  The module will not be loaded if its
                     boot function fails.  Similarly a module can only be unloaded if its  cleanup  function
                     runs successfully.

              zmodload -F [ -almLe -P param ] module [+-]feature...
                     zmodload  -F allows more selective control over the features provided by modules.  With
                     no options apart from -F, the module named module is loaded,  if  it  was  not  already
                     loaded,  and  the  list  of  features is set to the required state.  If no features are
                     specified, the module is loaded, if it was not already loaded, but the  state  of  fea-tures features
                     tures  is  unchanged.  Each feature may be preceded by a + to turn the feature on, or -to orto
                     to turn it off; the + is assumed if neither character  is  present.   Any  feature  not
                     explicitly  mentioned  is  left  in its current state; if the module was not previously
                     loaded this means any such features will remain disabled.  The return status is zero if
                     all features were set, 1 if the module failed to load, and 2 if some features could not
                     be set (for example, a parameter couldn't be added because there was a different param-eter parameter
                     eter of the same name) but the module was loaded.

                     The  standard  features  are builtins, conditions, parameters and math functions; these
                     are indicated by the prefix `b:', `c:' (`C:' for an infix condition),  `p:'  and  `f:',
                     respectively,  followed  by  the  name that the corresponding feature would have in the
                     shell.  For example, `b:strftime' indicates a builtin named strftime and p:EPOCHSECONDS
                     indicates  a  parameter  named EPOCHSECONDS.  The module may provide other (`abstract')
                     features of its own as indicated by its documentation; these have no prefix.

                     With -l or -L, features provided by the module are listed.  With -l alone,  a  list  of
                     features  together  with their states is shown, one feature per line.  With -L alone, a
                     zmodload -F command that would cause enabled features of the module to be turned on  is
                     shown.   With -lL, a zmodload -F command that would cause all the features to be set to
                     their current state is shown.  If one of these combinations  is  given  the  option  -P
                     param then the parameter param is set to an array of features, either features together
                     with their state or (if -L alone is given) enabled features.

                     With the option -L the module name may be omitted; then a list of all enabled  features
                     for  all modules providing features is printed in the form of zmodload -F commands.  If
                     -l is also given, the state of both enabled and disabled features  is  output  in  that
                     form.

                     A  set  of  features  may be provided together with -l or -L and a module name; in that
                     case only the state of those features is considered.  Each feature may be preceded by +
                     or  - but the character has no effect.  If no set of features is provided, all features
                     are considered.

                     With -e, the command first tests that the module is loaded; if it is not, status  1  is
                     returned.   If the module is loaded, the list of features given as an argument is exam-ined. examined.
                     ined.  Any feature given with no prefix is simply tested to see if the module  provides
                     it;  any  feature given with a prefix + or - is tested to see if is provided and in the
                     given state.  If the tests on all features in the list succeed, status 0  is  returned,
                     else status 1.

                     With  -m,  each entry in the given list of features is taken as a pattern to be matched
                     against the list of features provided by the module.  An initial + or - must  be  given
                     explicitly.  This may not be combined with the -a option as autoloads must be specified
                     explicitly.

                     With -a, the given list of features is marked for autoload from the  specified  module,
                     which may not yet be loaded.  An optional + may appear before the feature name.  If the
                     feature is prefixed with -, any existing autoload is removed.  The options  -l  and  -L
                     may  be  used  to list autoloads.  Autoloading is specific to individual features; when
                     the module is loaded only the requested feature is enabled.  Autoload requests are pre-served preserved
                     served  if  the  module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit `zmodload -Fa module
                     -feature' is issued.  It is not an error to request an autoload for a feature of a mod-ule module
                     ule that is already loaded.

                     When  the  module is loaded each autoload is checked against the features actually pro-vided provided
                     vided by the module; if the feature is not provided the autoload request is deleted.  A
                     warning  message  is  output; if the module is being loaded to provide a different fea-ture, feature,
                     ture, and that autoload is successful, there is no effect on the status of the  current
                     command.   If  the  module  is  already loaded at the time when zmodload -Fa is run, an
                     error message is printed and status 1 returned.

                     zmodload -Fa can be used with the -l, -L, -e and -P options for listing and testing the
                     existence  of  autoloadable  features.   In this case -l is ignored if -L is specified.
                     zmodload -FaL with no module name lists autoloads for all modules.

                     Note that only standard features as described above can be autoloaded;  other  features
                     require the module to be loaded before enabling.

              zmodload -d [ -L ] [ name ]
              zmodload -d name dep ...
              zmodload -ud name [ dep ... ]
                     The  -d  option  can  be used to specify module dependencies.  The modules named in the
                     second and subsequent arguments will be loaded before the module  named  in  the  first
                     argument.

                     With  -d and one argument, all dependencies for that module are listed.  With -d and no
                     arguments, all module dependencies are listed.  This listing is by default in  a  Make-file-like Makefile-like
                     file-like format.  The -L option changes this format to a list of zmodload -d commands.

                     If -d and -u are both used, dependencies are removed.  If only one argument  is  given,
                     all dependencies for that module are removed.

              zmodload -ab [ -L ]
              zmodload -ab [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ub [ -i ] builtin ...
                     The  -ab  option defines autoloaded builtins.  It defines the specified builtins.  When
                     any of those builtins is called, the module specified in the first argument  is  loaded
                     and  all  its  features are enabled (for selective control of features use `zmodload -F
                     -a' as described above).  If only the name is given, one builtin is defined,  with  the
                     same  name as the module.  -i suppresses the error if the builtin is already defined or
                     autoloaded, but not if another builtin of the same name is already defined.

                     With -ab and no arguments, all autoloaded builtins are listed, with the module name (if
                     different)  shown  in  parentheses  after the builtin name.  The -L option changes this
                     format to a list of zmodload -a commands.

                     If -b is used together with the -u option, it removes builtins previously defined  with
                     -ab.   This is only possible if the builtin is not yet loaded.  -i suppresses the error
                     if the builtin is already removed (or never existed).

                     Autoload requests are retained if the module is subsequently unloaded until an explicit
                     `zmodload -ub builtin' is issued.

              zmodload -ac [ -IL ]
              zmodload -ac [ -iI ] name [ cond ... ]
              zmodload -uc [ -iI ] cond ...
                     The  -ac option is used to define autoloaded condition codes. The cond strings give the
                     names of the conditions defined by the module. The optional -I option is used to define
                     infix condition names. Without this option prefix condition names are defined.

                     If given no condition names, all defined names are listed (as a series of zmodload com-mands commands
                     mands if the -L option is given).

                     The -uc option removes definitions for autoloaded conditions.

              zmodload -ap [ -L ]
              zmodload -ap [ -i ] name [ parameter ... ]
              zmodload -up [ -i ] parameter ...
                     The -p option is like the -b and -c options, but  makes  zmodload  work  on  autoloaded
                     parameters instead.

              zmodload -af [ -L ]
              zmodload -af [ -i ] name [ function ... ]
              zmodload -uf [ -i ] function ...
                     The -f option is like the -b, -p, and -c options, but makes zmodload work on autoloaded
                     math functions instead.

              zmodload -a [ -L ]
              zmodload -a [ -i ] name [ builtin ... ]
              zmodload -ua [ -i ] builtin ...
                     Equivalent to -ab and -ub.

              zmodload -e [ -A ] [ string ... ]
                     The -e option without arguments lists all loaded modules; if  the  -A  option  is  also
                     given, module aliases corresponding to loaded modules are also shown.  If arguments are
                     provided, nothing is printed; the return status is set to zero if all strings given  as
                     arguments  are names of loaded modules and to one if at least on string is not the name
                     of a loaded module.  This can be used to test for the  availability  of  things  imple-mented implemented
                     mented  by  modules.   In  this case, any aliases are automatically resolved and the -A
                     flag is not used.

              zmodload -A [ -L ] [ modalias[=module] ... ]
                     For each argument, if both modalias and module are given,  define  modalias  to  be  an
                     alias  for  the  module module.  If the module modalias is ever subsequently requested,
                     either via a call to zmodload or implicitly, the shell  will  attempt  to  load  module
                     instead.  If module is not given, show the definition of modalias.  If no arguments are
                     given, list all defined module aliases.  When listing, if the -L flag was  also  given,
                     list the definition as a zmodload command to recreate the alias.

                     The  existence  of  aliases  for  modules is completely independent of whether the name
                     resolved is actually loaded as a module: while the alias exists, loading and  unloading
                     the  module under any alias has exactly the same effect as using the resolved name, and
                     does not affect the connection between the alias and the resolved  name  which  can  be
                     removed  either  by  zmodload  -R  or by redefining the alias.  Chains of aliases (i.e.
                     where the first resolved name is itself an alias) are valid so long as  these  are  not
                     circular.   As  the aliases take the same format as module names, they may include path
                     separators:  in this case, there is no requirement for any part of the  path  named  to
                     exist  as  the  alias will be resolved first.  For example, `any/old/alias' is always a
                     valid alias.

                     Dependencies added to aliased modules are actually added to the resolved module;  these
                     remain  if  the  alias is removed.  It is valid to create an alias whose name is one of
                     the standard shell modules and which resolves to a different  module.   However,  if  a
                     module  has dependencies, it will not be possible to use the module name as an alias as
                     the module will already be marked as a loadable module in its own right.

                     Apart from the above, aliases can be used in the zmodload command anywhere module names
                     are  required.   However,  aliases  will not be shown in lists of loaded modules with a
                     bare `zmodload'.

              zmodload -R modalias ...
                     For each modalias argument that was previously defined as a module alias  via  zmodload
                     -A,  delete the alias.  If any was not defined, an error is caused and the remainder of
                     the line is ignored.

              Note that zsh makes no distinction between modules that were linked into the shell and modules
              that  are loaded dynamically. In both cases this builtin command has to be used to make avail-able available
              able the builtins and other things defined by modules (unless  the  module  is  autoloaded  on
              these  definitions).  This is true even for systems that don't support dynamic loading of mod-ules. modules.
              ules.

       zparseopts
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zprof  See the section `The zsh/zprof Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zpty   See the section `The zsh/zpty Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zregexparse
              See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zsocket
              See the section `The zsh/net/socket Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zstyle See the section `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1).

       ztcp   See the section `The zsh/net/tcp Module' in zshmodules(1).



zsh 5.0.2                                     December 21, 2012                               ZSHBUILTINS(1)

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