Mac Developer Library Developer
Search

 

This manual page is part of Xcode Tools version 5.0

To obtain these tools:

If you are running a version of Xcode Tools other than 5.0, view the documentation locally:

  • In Xcode

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.




COPYFILE(3)              BSD Library Functions Manual              COPYFILE(3)

NAME
     copyfile, fcopyfile, copyfile_state_alloc, copyfile_state_free, copyfile_state_get, copyfile_state_set
     -- copy a file

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <copyfile.h>

     int
     copyfile(const char *from, const char *to, copyfile_state_t state, copyfile_flags_t flags);

     int
     fcopyfile(int from, int to, copyfile_state_t state, copyfile_flags_t flags);

     copyfile_state_t
     copyfile_state_alloc(void);

     int
     copyfile_state_free(copyfile_state_t state);

     int
     copyfile_state_get(copyfile_state_t state, uint32_t flag, void * dst);

     int
     copyfile_state_set(copyfile_state_t state, uint32_t flag, const void * src);

     typedef int
     (*copyfile_callback_t)(int what, int stage, copyfile_state_t state, const char * src, const char * dst,
         void * ctx);

DESCRIPTION
     These functions are used to copy a file's data and/or metadata.  (Metadata consists of permissions,
     extended attributes, access control lists, and so forth.)

     The copyfile_state_alloc() function initializes a copyfile_state_t object (which is an opaque data
     type).  This object can be passed to copyfile() and fcopyfile(); copyfile_state_get() and
     copyfile_state_set() can be used to manipulate the state (see below).  The copyfile_state_free() func-tion function
     tion is used to deallocate the object and its contents.

     The copyfile() function can copy the named from file to the named to file; the fcopyfile() function
     does the same, but using the file descriptors of already-opened files.  If the state parameter is the
     return value from copyfile_state_alloc(), then copyfile() and fcopyfile() will use the information from
     the state object; if it is NULL, then both functions will work normally, but less control will be
     available to the caller.  The flags parameter controls which contents are copied:

     COPYFILE_ACL    Copy the source file's access control lists.

     COPYFILE_STAT   Copy the source file's POSIX information (mode, modification time, etc.).

     COPYFILE_XATTR  Copy the source file's extended attributes.

     COPYFILE_DATA   Copy the source file's data.

     These values may be or'd together; several convenience macros are provided:

     COPYFILE_SECURITY  Copy the source file's POSIX and ACL information; equivalent to
                        (COPYFILE_STAT|COPYFILE_ACL).

     COPYFILE_METADATA  Copy the metadata; equivalent to (COPYFILE_SECURITY|COPYFILE_XATTR).

     COPYFILE_ALL       Copy the entire file; equivalent to (COPYFILE_METADATA|COPYFILE_DATA).

     The copyfile() and fcopyfile() functions can also have their behavior modified by the following flags:

     COPYFILE_RECURSIVE     Causes copyfile() to recursively copy a hierarchy.  This flag is not used by
                            fcopyfile(); see below for more information.

     COPYFILE_CHECK         Return a bitmask (corresponding to the flags argument) indicating which contents
                            would be copied; no data are actually copied.  (E.g., if flags was set to
                            COPYFILE_CHECK|COPYFILE_METADATA, and the from file had extended attributes but
                            no ACLs, the return value would be COPYFILE_XATTR .)

     COPYFILE_PACK          Serialize the from file.  The to file is an AppleDouble-format file.

     COPYFILE_UNPACK        Unserialize the from file.  The from file is an AppleDouble-format file; the to
                            file will have the extended attributes, ACLs, resource fork, and FinderInfo data
                            from the to file, regardless of the flags argument passed in.

     COPYFILE_EXCL          Fail if the to file already exists.  (This is only applicable for the copyfile()
                            function.)

     COPYFILE_NOFOLLOW_SRC  Do not follow the from file, if it is a symbolic link.  (This is only applicable
                            for the copyfile() function.)

     COPYFILE_NOFOLLOW_DST  Do not follow the to file, if it is a symbolic link.  (This is only applicable
                            for the copyfile() function.)

     COPYFILE_MOVE          Unlink (using remove(3)) the from file.  (This is only applicable for the
                            copyfile() function.)  No error is returned if remove(3) fails.  Note that
                            remove(3) removes a symbolic link itself, not the target of the link.

     COPYFILE_UNLINK        Unlink the to file before starting.  (This is only applicable for the copyfile()
                            function.)

     COPYFILE_NOFOLLOW      This is a convenience macro, equivalent to
                            (COPYFILE_NOFOLLOW_DST|COPYFILE_NOFOLLOW_SRC).

     The copyfile_state_get() and copyfile_state_set() functions can be used to manipulate the
     copyfile_state_t object returned by copyfile_state_alloc().  In both functions, the dst parameter's
     type depends on the flag parameter that is passed in.

     COPYFILE_STATE_SRC_FD

     COPYFILE_STATE_DST_FD        Get or set the file descriptor associated with the source (or destination)
                                  file.  If this has not been initialized yet, the value will be -2.  The
                                  dst (for copyfile_state_get()) and src (for copyfile_state_set()) parame-ters parameters
                                  ters are pointers to int.

     COPYFILE_STATE_SRC_FILENAME

     COPYFILE_STATE_DST_FILENAME  Get or set the filename associated with the source (or destination) file.
                                  If it has not been initialized yet, the value will be NULL.  For
                                  copyfile_state_set(), the src parameter is a pointer to a C string (i.e.,
                                  char* ); copyfile_state_set() makes a private copy of this string.  For
                                  copyfile_state_get() function, the dst parameter is a pointer to a pointer
                                  to a C string (i.e., char** ); the returned value is a pointer to the
                                  state 's copy, and must not be modified or released.

     COPYFILE_STATE_STATUS_CB     Get or set the callback status function (currently only used for recursive
                                  copies; see below for details).  The src parameter is a pointer to a func-tion function
                                  tion of type copyfile_callback_t (see above).

     COPYFILE_STATE_STATUS_CTX    Get or set the context parameter for the status call-back function (see
                                  below for details).  The src parameter is a void *.

     COPYFILE_STATE_QUARANTINE    Get or set the quarantine information with the source file.  The src
                                  parameter is a pointer to an opaque object (type void * ).

     COPYFILE_STATE_COPIED        Get the number of data bytes copied so far.  (Only valid for
                                  copyfile_state_get(); see below for more details about callbacks.)  The
                                  dst parameter is a pointer to off_t (type off_t * ).

     COPYFILE_STATE_XATTRNAME     Get the name of the extended attribute during a callback for
                                  COPYFILE_COPY_XATTR (see below for details).  This field cannot be set,
                                  and may be NULL.

Recursive Copies
     When given the COPYFILE_RECURSIVE flag, copyfile() (but not fcopyfile()) will use the fts(3) functions
     to recursively descend into the source file-system object.  It then calls copyfile() on each of the
     entries it finds that way.  If a call-back function is given (using copyfile_state_set() and
     COPYFILE_STATE_STATUS_CB ), the call-back function will be called four times for each directory object,
     and twice for all other objects.  (Each directory will be examined twice, once on entry -- before copy-ing copying
     ing each of the objects contained in the directory -- and once on exit -- after copying each object
     contained in the directory, in order to perform some final cleanup.)

     The call-back function will have one of the following values as the first argument, indicating what is
     being copied:

     COPYFILE_RECURSE_FILE         The object being copied is a file (or, rather, something other than a
                                   directory).

     COPYFILE_RECURSE_DIR          The object being copied is a directory, and is being entered.  (That is,
                                   none of the filesystem objects contained within the directory have been
                                   copied yet.)

     COPYFILE_RECURSE_DIR_CLEANUP  The object being copied is a directory, and all of the objects contained
                                   have been copied.  At this stage, the destination directory being copied
                                   will have any extra permissions that were added to allow the copying will
                                   be removed.

     COPYFILE_RECURSE_ERROR        There was an error in processing an element of the source hierarchy; this
                                   happens when fts(3) returns an error or unknown file type.  (Currently,
                                   the second argument to the call-back function will always be COPYFILE_ERR
                                   in this case.)

     The second argument to the call-back function will indicate the stage of the copy, and will be one of
     the following values:

     COPYFILE_START   Before copying has begun.  The third parameter will be a newly-created
                      copyfile_state_t object with the call-back function and context pre-loaded.

     COPYFILE_FINISH  After copying has successfully finished.

     COPYFILE_ERR     Indicates an error has happened at some stage.  If the first argument to the call-back
                      function is COPYFILE_RECURSE_ERROR, then an error occurred while processing the source
                      hierarchy; otherwise, it will indicate what type of object was being copied, and errno
                      will be set to indicate the error.

     The fourth and fifth parameters are the source and destination paths that are to be copied (or have
     been copied, or failed to copy, depending on the second argument).

     The last argument to the call-back function will be the value set by COPYFILE_STATE_STATUS_CTX, if any.

     The call-back function is required to return one of the following values:

     COPYFILE_CONTINUE  The copy will continue as expected.

     COPYFILE_SKIP      This object will be skipped, and the next object will be processed.  (Note that,
                        when entering a directory.  returning COPYFILE_SKIP from the call-back function will
                        prevent the contents of the directory from being copied.)

     COPYFILE_QUIT      The entire copy is aborted at this stage.  Any filesystem objects created up to this
                        point will remain.  copyfile() will return -1, but errno will be unmodified.

     The call-back function must always return one of the values listed above; if not, the results are unde-fined. undefined.
     fined.

     The call-back function will be called twice for each object (and an additional two times for directory
     cleanup); the first call will have a stage parameter of COPYFILE_START; the second time, that value
     will be either COPYFILE_FINISH or COPYFILE_ERR to indicate a successful completion, or an error during
     processing.  In the event of an error, the errno value will be set appropriately.

     The COPYFILE_PACK, COPYFILE_UNPACK, COPYFILE_MOVE, and COPYFILE_UNLINK flags are not used during a
     recursive copy, and will result in an error being returned.

Progress Callback
     In addition to the recursive callbacks described above, copyfile() and fcopyfile() will also use a
     callback to report data (e.g., COPYFILE_DATA) progress.  If given, the callback will be invoked on each
     write(2) call.  The first argument to the callback function will be COPYFILE_COPY_DATA.  The second
     argument will either be COPYFILE_PROGRESS (indicating that the write was successful), or COPYFILE_ERR
     (indicating that there was an error of some sort).

     The amount of data bytes copied so far can be retrieved using copyfile_state_get(), with the
     COPYFILE_STATE_COPIED requestor (the argument type is a pointer to off_t ).

     When copying extended attributes, the first argument to the callback function will be
     COPYFILE_COPY_XATTR.  The other arguments will be as described for COPYFILE_COPY_DATA; the name of the
     extended attribute being copied may be retrieved using copyfile_state_get() and the parameter
     COPYFILE_STATE_XATTRNAME.  When using COPYFILE_PACK, the callback may be called with COPYFILE_START for
     each of the extended attributes first, followed by COPYFILE_PROGRESS before getting and packing the
     data for each individual attribute, and then COPYFILE_FINISH when finished with each individual
     attribute.  (That is, COPYFILE_START may be called for all of the extended attributes, before the first
     callback with COPYFILE_PROGRESS is invoked.)  Any attribute skipped by returning COPYFILE_SKIP from the
     COPYFILE_START callback will not be placed into the packed output file.

     The return value for the data callback must be one of

     COPYFILE_CONTINUE  The copy will continue as expected.  (In the case of error, it will attempt to write
                        the data again.)

     COPYFILE_SKIP      The data copy will be aborted, but without error.

     COPYFILE_QUIT      The data copy will be aborted; in the case of COPYFILE_PROGRESS, errno will be set
                        to ECANCELED.

     While the src and dst parameters will be passed in, they may be NULL in the case of fcopyfile().

RETURN VALUES
     Except when given the COPYFILE_CHECK flag, copyfile() and fcopyfile() return less than 0 on error, and
     0 on success.  All of the other functions return 0 on success, and less than 0 on error.

WARNING
     Both copyfile() and fcopyfile() can copy symbolic links; there is a gap between when the source link is
     examined and the actual copy is started, and this can be a potential security risk, especially if the
     process has elevated privileges.

     When performing a recursive copy, if the source hierarchy changes while the copy is occurring, the
     results are undefined.

     fcopyfile() does not reset the seek position for either source or destination.  This can result in the
     destination file being a different size than the source file.

ERRORS
     copyfile() and fcopyfile() will fail if:

     [EINVAL]           An invalid flag was passed in with COPYFILE_RECURSIVE.

     [EINVAL]           The from or to parameter to copyfile() was a NULL pointer.

     [EINVAL]           The from or to parameter to copyfile() was a negative number.

     [ENOMEM]           A memory allocation failed.

     [ENOTSUP]          The source file was not a directory, symbolic link, or regular file.

     [ECANCELED]        The copy was cancelled by callback.
     In addition, both functions may set errno via an underlying library or system call.

EXAMPLES
           /* Initialize a state variable */
           copyfile_state_t s;
           s = copyfile_state_alloc();
           /* Copy the data and extended attributes of one file to another */
           copyfile("/tmp/f1", "/tmp/f2", s, COPYFILE_DATA | COPYFILE_XATTR);
           /* Convert a file to an AppleDouble file for serialization */
           copyfile("/tmp/f2", "/tmp/tmpfile", NULL, COPYFILE_ALL | COPYFILE_PACK);
           /* Release the state variable */
           copyfile_state_free(s);
           /* A more complex way to call copyfile() */
           s = copyfile_state_alloc();
           copyfile_state_set(s, COPYFILE_STATE_SRC_FILENAME, "/tmp/foo");
           /* One of src or dst must be set... rest can come from the state */
           copyfile(NULL, "/tmp/bar", s, COPYFILE_ALL);
           /* Now copy the same source file to another destination file */
           copyfile(NULL, "/tmp/car", s, COPYFILE_ALL);
           copyfile_state_free(s);
           /* Remove extended attributes from a file */
           copyfile("/dev/null", "/tmp/bar", NULL, COPYFILE_XATTR);

SEE ALSO
     listxattr(2), getxattr(2), setxattr(2), acl(3)

BUGS
     Both copyfile() functions lack a way to set the input or output block size.

     Recursive copies do not honor hard links.

HISTORY
     The copyfile() API was introduced in Mac OS X 10.5.

BSD                             April 27, 2006                             BSD

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation with the feedback links below.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API through Bug Reporter.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.

Feedback