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DIRECTORY(3)             BSD Library Functions Manual             DIRECTORY(3)

     closedir, dirfd, opendir, readdir, readdir_r, rewinddir, seekdir, telldir -- directory operations

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <dirent.h>

     closedir(DIR *dirp);

     dirfd(DIR *dirp);

     DIR *
     opendir(const char *dirname);

     struct dirent *
     readdir(DIR *dirp);

     readdir_r(DIR *restrict dirp, struct dirent *restrict entry, struct dirent **restrict result);

     rewinddir(DIR *dirp);

     seekdir(DIR *dirp, long loc);

     telldir(DIR *dirp);

     The opendir() function opens the directory named by dirname, associates a directory stream with it, and
     returns a pointer to be used to identify the directory stream in subsequent operations.  In the event
     of an error, NULL is returned and errno will be set to reflect if dirname cannot be accessed or if it
     cannot malloc(3) enough memory to hold the whole thing.

     The readdir() function returns a pointer to the next directory entry.  It returns NULL upon reaching
     the end of the directory or on error.  In the event of an error, errno will be set to any of the values
     documented for the getdirentries(2) system call.

     The readdir_r() function provides the same functionality as readdir(), but the caller must provide a
     directory entry buffer to store the results in.  If the read succeeds, result is pointed at the entry;
     upon reaching the end of the directory, result is set to NULL.  The readdir_r() function returns 0 on
     success or an error number to indicate failure.

     The telldir() function returns the current location associated with the named directory stream.  Values
     returned by telldir() are good only for the lifetime of the DIR pointer (e.g., dirp) from which they
     are derived.  If the directory is closed and then reopened, prior values returned by telldir() will no
     longer be valid.

     The seekdir() function sets the position of the next readdir() operation on the directory stream.  The
     new position reverts to the one associated with the directory stream when the telldir() operation was

     The rewinddir() function resets the position of the named directory stream to the beginning of the

     The closedir() function closes the named directory stream and frees the structure associated with the
     dirp pointer, returning 0 on success.  On failure, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set
     to indicate the error.

     The dirfd() function returns the integer file descriptor associated with the named directory stream on
     success, see open(2).  On failure, -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the

     Sample code which searches a directory for entry ``name'' is:

           dirp = opendir(".");
           if (dirp == NULL)
                   return (ERROR);
           len = strlen(name);
           while ((dp = readdir(dirp)) != NULL) {
                   if (dp->d_namlen == len && strcmp(dp->d_name, name) == 0) {
                           return (FOUND);
           return (NOT_FOUND);

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <dirent.h>

     <sys/types.h> is necessary for these functions.

     close(2), lseek(2), open(2), read(2), compat(5), dir(5)

     The closedir(), dirfd(), opendir(), readdir(), rewinddir(), seekdir(), and telldir() functions appeared
     in 4.2BSD.

BSD                              June 4, 1993                              BSD

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