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STRTOL(3)                BSD Library Functions Manual                STRTOL(3)

     strtoimax, strtol, strtoll, strtoq -- convert a string value to a long, long long, intmax_t or quad_t

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <inttypes.h>

     strtoimax(const char *restrict str, char **restrict endptr, int base);

     #include <stdlib.h>

     strtol(const char *restrict str, char **restrict endptr, int base);

     long long
     strtoll(const char *restrict str, char **restrict endptr, int base);

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <stdlib.h>
     #include <limits.h>

     strtoq(const char *str, char **endptr, int base);

     The strtol() function converts the string in str to a long value.  The strtoll() function converts the
     string in str to a long long value.  The strtoimax() function converts the string in str to an intmax_t
     value.  The strtoq() function converts the string in str to a quad_t value.  The conversion is done
     according to the given base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

     The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as determined by isspace(3)) followed by
     a single optional `+' or `-' sign.  If base is zero or 16, the string may then include a ``0x'' prefix,
     and the number will be read in base 16; otherwise, a zero base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next
     character is `0', in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).

     The remainder of the string is converted to a long, long long, intmax_t or quad_t value in the obvious
     manner, stopping at the first character which is not a valid digit in the given base.  (In bases above
     10, the letter `A' in either upper or lower case represents 10, `B' represents 11, and so forth, with
     `Z' representing 35.)

     If endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the address of the first invalid character in *endptr.  If there
     were no digits at all, however, strtol() stores the original value of str in *endptr.  (Thus, if *str
     is not `\0' but **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string was valid.)

     Extended locale versions of these functions are documented in strtol_l(3).  See xlocale(3) for more

     The strtol(), strtoll(), strtoimax(), and strtoq() functions return the result of the conversion,
     unless the value would underflow or overflow.  If no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned and
     the global variable errno is set to EINVAL (the last feature is not portable across all platforms).  If
     an overflow or underflow occurs, errno is set to ERANGE and the function return value is clamped
     according to the following table.

           Function       underflow     overflow
           strtol()       LONG_MIN      LONG_MAX
           strtoll()      LLONG_MIN     LLONG_MAX
           strtoimax()    INTMAX_MIN    INTMAX_MAX
           strtoq()       LLONG_MIN     LLONG_MAX

     [EINVAL]           The value of base is not supported or no conversion could be performed (the last
                        feature is not portable across all platforms).

     [ERANGE]           The given string was out of range; the value converted has been clamped.

     #include <stdlib.h>
     #include <limits.h>

     <limits.h> is necessary for the strtol() and strtoll() functions.

     atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3), strtod(3), strtol_l(3), strtoul(3), wcstol(3), compat(5)

     The strtol() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO C90'').  The strtoll() and strtoimax() func-tions functions
     tions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999 (``ISO C99'').  The BSD strtoq() function is deprecated.

BSD                            November 28, 2001                           BSD

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