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UNVIS(3)                 BSD Library Functions Manual                 UNVIS(3)

     unvis, strunvis -- decode a visual representation of characters

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <vis.h>

     unvis(char *cp, int c, int *astate, int flag);

     strunvis(char *dst, const char *src);

     strunvisx(char *dst, const char *src, int flag);

     The unvis(), strunvis() and strunvisx() functions are used to decode a visual representation of charac-ters, characters,
     ters, as produced by the vis(3) function, back into the original form.  Unvis is called with successive
     characters in c until a valid sequence is recognized, at which time the decoded character is available
     at the character pointed to by cp.  Strunvis decodes the characters pointed to by src into the buffer
     pointed to by dst.

     The strunvis() function simply copies src to dst, decoding any escape sequences along the way, and
     returns the number of characters placed into dst, or -1 if an invalid escape sequence was detected.
     The size of dst should be equal to the size of src (that is, no expansion takes place during decoding).

     The strunvisx() function does the same as the strunvis() function, but it allows you to add a flag that
     specifies the style the string src is encoded with.  Currently, the only supported flag is

     The unvis() function implements a state machine that can be used to decode an arbitrary stream of
     bytes.  All state associated with the bytes being decoded is stored outside the unvis() function (that
     is, a pointer to the state is passed in), so calls decoding different streams can be freely intermixed.
     To start decoding a stream of bytes, first initialize an integer to zero.  Call unvis() with each suc-cessive successive
     cessive byte, along with a pointer to this integer, and a pointer to a destination character.  The
     unvis() function has several return codes that must be handled properly.  They are:

     0 (zero)         Another character is necessary; nothing has been recognized yet.

     UNVIS_VALID      A valid character has been recognized and is available at the location pointed to by

     UNVIS_VALIDPUSH  A valid character has been recognized and is available at the location pointed to by
                      cp; however, the character currently passed in should be passed in again.

     UNVIS_NOCHAR     A valid sequence was detected, but no character was produced.  This return code is
                      necessary to indicate a logical break between characters.

     UNVIS_SYNBAD     An invalid escape sequence was detected, or the decoder is in an unknown state.  The
                      decoder is placed into the starting state.

     When all bytes in the stream have been processed, call unvis() one more time with flag set to UNVIS_END
     to extract any remaining character (the character passed in is ignored).

     The flag argument is also used to specify the encoding style of the source.  If set to VIS_HTTPSTYLE,
     unvis() will decode URI strings as specified in RFC 1808.

     The following code fragment illustrates a proper use of unvis().

           int state = 0;
           char out;

           while ((ch = getchar()) != EOF) {
                   switch(unvis(&out, ch, &state, 0)) {
                   case 0:
                   case UNVIS_NOCHAR:
                   case UNVIS_VALID:
                           (void) putchar(out);
                   case UNVIS_VALIDPUSH:
                           (void) putchar(out);
                           goto again;
                   case UNVIS_SYNBAD:
                           (void)fprintf(stderr, "bad sequence!\n");
           if (unvis(&out, (char)0, &state, UNVIS_END) == UNVIS_VALID)
                   (void) putchar(out);

     vis(1), vis(3)

     R. Fielding, Relative Uniform Resource Locators, RFC1808.

     The unvis() function first appeared in 4.4BSD.

BSD                            December 11, 1993                           BSD

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