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ARP(4)                   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                   ARP(4)

     arp -- Address Resolution Protocol

     pseudo-device ether

     The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to dynamically map between Internet host
     addresses and 10Mb/s Ethernet addresses.  It is used by all the 10Mb/s Ethernet interface drivers.  It
     is not specific to Internet protocols or to 10Mb/s Ethernet, but this implementation currently supports
     only that combination.

     ARP caches Internet-Ethernet address mappings.  When an interface requests a mapping for an address not
     in the cache, ARP queues the message which requires the mapping and broadcasts a message on the associ-ated associated
     ated network requesting the address mapping.  If a response is provided, the new mapping is cached and
     any pending message is transmitted.  ARP will queue at most one packet while waiting for a response to
     a mapping request; only the most recently ``transmitted'' packet is kept.  If the target host does not
     respond after several requests, the host is considered to be down for a short period (normally 20 sec-onds), seconds),
     onds), allowing an error to be returned to transmission attempts during this interval.  The error is
     EHOSTDOWN for a non-responding destination host, and EHOSTUNREACH for a non-responding router.

     The ARP cache is stored in the system routing table as dynamically-created host routes.  The route to a
     directly-attached Ethernet network is installed as a ``cloning'' route (one with the RTF_CLONING flag
     set), causing routes to individual hosts on that network to be created on demand.  These routes time
     out periodically (normally 20 minutes after validated; entries are not validated when not in use).  An
     entry for a host which is not responding is a ``reject'' route (one with the RTF_REJECT flag set).

     ARP entries may be added, deleted or changed with the arp(8) utility.  Manually-added entries may be
     temporary or permanent, and may be ``published'', in which case the system will respond to ARP requests
     for that host as if it were the target of the request.

     In the past, ARP was used to negotiate the use of a trailer encapsulation.  This is no longer sup-ported. supported.

     ARP watches passively for hosts impersonating the local host (i.e. a host which responds to an ARP map-ping mapping
     ping request for the local host's address).

     duplicate IP address %x!! sent from ethernet address: %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x. ARP has discovered another
     host on the local network which responds to mapping requests for its own Internet address with a dif-ferent different
     ferent Ethernet address, generally indicating that two hosts are attempting to use the same Internet

     inet(4), route(4), arp(8), ifconfig(8), route(8)

     Plummer, D., "RFC826", An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol.

     Leffler, S.J.  and Karels, M.J., "RFC893", Trailer Encapsulations.

4th Berkeley Distribution       April 18, 1994       4th Berkeley Distribution

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