Mac Developer Library Developer
Search

 

This manual page is for Mac OS X version 10.9

If you are running a different version of Mac OS X, view the documentation locally:

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.




TERMIOS(4)               BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual               TERMIOS(4)

NAME
     termios -- general terminal line discipline

SYNOPSIS
     #include <termios.h>

DESCRIPTION
     This describes a general terminal line discipline that is supported on tty asynchronous communication
     ports.

   Opening a Terminal Device File
     When a terminal file is opened, it normally causes the process to wait until a connection is estab-lished. established.
     lished.  For most hardware, the presence of a connection is indicated by the assertion of the hardware
     CARRIER line. If the termios structure associated with the terminal file has the CLOCAL flag set in the
     cflag, or if the O_NONBLOCK flag is set in the open(2) call, then the open will succeed even without a
     connection being present.  In practice, applications seldom open these files; they are opened by spe-cial special
     cial programs, such as getty(2) or rlogind(2), and become an application's standard input, output, and
     error files.

   Job Control in a Nutshell
     Every process is associated with a particular process group and session.  The grouping is hierarchical:
     every member of a particular process group is a member of the same session.  This structuring is used
     in managing groups of related processes for purposes of job control; that is, the ability from the key-board keyboard
     board (or from program control) to simultaneously stop or restart a complex command (a command composed
     of one or more related processes).  The grouping into process groups allows delivering of signals that
     stop or start the group as a whole, along with arbitrating which process group has access to the single
     controlling terminal.  The grouping at a higher layer into sessions is to restrict the job control
     related signals and system calls to within processes resulting from a particular instance of a "login".
     Typically, a session is created when a user logs in, and the login terminal is setup to be the control-ling controlling
     ling terminal; all processes spawned from that login shell are in the same session, and inherit the
     controlling terminal.  A job control shell operating interactively (that is, reading commands from a
     terminal) normally groups related processes together by placing them into the same process group.  A
     set of processes in the same process group is collectively referred to as a "job". When the foreground
     process group of the terminal is the same as the process group of a particular job, that job is said to
     be in the "foreground".  When the process group of the terminal is different than the process group of
     a job (but is still the controlling terminal), that job is said to be in the "background".  Normally
     the shell reads a command and starts the job that implements that command.  If the command is to be
     started in the foreground (typical), it sets the process group of the terminal to the process group of
     the started job, waits for the job to complete, and then sets the process group of the terminal back to
     its own process group (it puts itself into the foreground).  If the job is to be started in the back-ground background
     ground (as denoted by the shell operator "&"), it never changes the process group of the terminal and
     doesn't wait for the job to complete (that is, it immediately attempts to read the next command).  If
     the job is started in the foreground, the user may type a key (usually `^Z') which generates the termi-nal terminal
     nal stop signal (SIGTSTP) and has the affect of stopping the entire job.  The shell will notice that
     the job stopped, and will resume running after placing itself in the foreground.  The shell also has
     commands for placing stopped jobs in the background, and for placing stopped or background jobs into
     the foreground.

   Orphaned Process Groups
     An orphaned process group is a process group that has no process whose parent is in a different process
     group, yet is in the same session.  Conceptually it means a process group that doesn't have a parent
     that could do anything if it were to be stopped.  For example, the initial login shell is typically in
     an orphaned process group.  Orphaned process groups are immune to keyboard generated stop signals and
     job control signals resulting from reads or writes to the controlling terminal.

   The Controlling Terminal
     A terminal may belong to a process as its controlling terminal.  Each process of a session that has a
     controlling terminal has the same controlling terminal.  A terminal may be the controlling terminal for
     at most one session.  The controlling terminal for a session is allocated by the session leader by
     issuing the TIOCSCTTY ioctl.  A controlling terminal is never acquired by merely opening a terminal
     device file.  When a controlling terminal becomes associated with a session, its foreground process
     group is set to the process group of the session leader.

     The controlling terminal is inherited by a child process during a fork(2) function call.  A process
     relinquishes its controlling terminal when it creates a new session with the setsid(2) function; other
     processes remaining in the old session that had this terminal as their controlling terminal continue to
     have it.  A process does not relinquish its controlling terminal simply by closing all of its file
     descriptors associated with the controlling terminal if other processes continue to have it open.

     When a controlling process terminates, the controlling terminal is disassociated from the current ses-sion, session,
     sion, allowing it to be acquired by a new session leader.  Subsequent access to the terminal by other
     processes in the earlier session will be denied, with attempts to access the terminal treated as if
     modem disconnect had been sensed.

   Terminal Access Control
     If a process is in the foreground process group of its controlling terminal, read operations are
     allowed.  Any attempts by a process in a background process group to read from its controlling terminal
     causes a SIGTTIN signal to be sent to the process's group unless one of the following special cases
     apply:  If the reading process is ignoring or blocking the SIGTTIN signal, or if the process group of
     the reading process is orphaned, the read(2) returns -1 with errno set to EIO and no signal is sent.
     The default action of the SIGTTIN signal is to stop the process to which it is sent.

     If a process is in the foreground process group of its controlling terminal, write operations are
     allowed.  Attempts by a process in a background process group to write to its controlling terminal will
     cause the process group to be sent a SIGTTOU signal unless one of the following special cases apply:
     If TOSTOP is not set, or if TOSTOP is set and the process is ignoring or blocking the SIGTTOU signal,
     the process is allowed to write to the terminal and the SIGTTOU signal is not sent.  If TOSTOP is set,
     and the process group of the writing process is orphaned, and the writing process is not ignoring or
     blocking SIGTTOU, the write returns -1 with errno set to EIO and no signal is sent.

     Certain calls that set terminal parameters are treated in the same fashion as write, except that TOSTOP
     is ignored; that is, the effect is identical to that of terminal writes when TOSTOP is set.

   Input Processing and Reading Data
     A terminal device associated with a terminal device file may operate in full-duplex mode, so that data
     may arrive even while output is occurring.  Each terminal device file has associated with it an input
     queue, into which incoming data is stored by the system before being read by a process.  The system
     imposes a limit, {MAX_INPUT}, on the number of bytes that may be stored in the input queue.  The behav-ior behavior
     ior of the system when this limit is exceeded depends on the setting of the IMAXBEL flag in the termios
     c_iflag.  If this flag is set, the terminal is sent an ASCII BEL character each time a character is
     received while the input queue is full.  Otherwise, the input queue is flushed upon receiving the char-acter. character.
     acter.

     Two general kinds of input processing are available, determined by whether the terminal device file is
     in canonical mode or noncanonical mode. Additionally, input characters are processed according to the
     c_iflag and c_lflag fields.  Such processing can include echoing, which in general means transmitting
     input characters immediately back to the terminal when they are received from the terminal.  This is
     useful for terminals that can operate in full-duplex mode.

     The manner in which data is provided to a process reading from a terminal device file is dependent on
     whether the terminal device file is in canonical or noncanonical mode.

     Another dependency is whether the O_NONBLOCK flag is set by open() or fcntl().  If the O_NONBLOCK flag
     is clear, then the read request is blocked until data is available or a signal has been received.  If
     the O_NONBLOCK flag is set, then the read request is completed, without blocking, in one of three ways:

           1.   If there is enough data available to satisfy the entire request, and the read completes suc-cessfully successfully
                cessfully the number of bytes read is returned.

           2.   If there is not enough data available to satisfy the entire request, and the read completes
                successfully, having read as much data as possible, the number of bytes read is returned.

           3.   If there is no data available, the read returns -1, with errno set to EAGAIN.

     When data is available depends on whether the input processing mode is canonical or noncanonical.

   Canonical Mode Input Processing
     In canonical mode input processing, terminal input is processed in units of lines.  A line is delimited
     by a newline `\n' character, an end-of-file (EOF) character, or an end-of-line (EOL) character.  See
     the Special Characters section for more information on EOF and EOL.  This means that a read request
     will not return until an entire line has been typed, or a signal has been received.  Also, no matter
     how many bytes are requested in the read call, at most one line is returned.  It is not, however, nec-essary necessary
     essary to read a whole line at once; any number of bytes, even one, may be requested in a read without
     losing information.

     {MAX_CANON} is a limit on the number of bytes in a line.  The behavior of the system when this limit is
     exceeded is the same as when the input queue limit {MAX_INPUT}, is exceeded.

     Erase and kill processing occur when either of two special characters, the ERASE and KILL characters
     (see the Special Characters section), is received.  This processing affects data in the input queue
     that has not yet been delimited by a newline NL, EOF, or EOL character.  This un-delimited data makes
     up the current line.  The ERASE character deletes the last character in the current line, if there is
     any.  The KILL character deletes all data in the current line, if there is any.  The ERASE and KILL
     characters have no effect if there is no data in the current line.  The ERASE and KILL characters them-selves themselves
     selves are not placed in the input queue.

   Noncanonical Mode Input Processing
     In noncanonical mode input processing, input bytes are not assembled into lines, and erase and kill
     processing does not occur.  The values of the MIN and TIME members of the c_cc array are used to deter-mine determine
     mine how to process the bytes received.

     MIN represents the minimum number of bytes that should be received when the read function successfully
     returns.  TIME is a timer of 0.1 second granularity that is used to time out bursty and short term data
     transmissions.  If MIN is greater than { MAX_INPUT}, the response to the request is undefined.  The
     four possible values for MIN and TIME and their interactions are described below.

   Case A: MIN > 0, TIME > 0
     In this case TIME serves as an inter-byte timer and is activated after the first byte is received.
     Since it is an inter-byte timer, it is reset after a byte is received.  The interaction between MIN and
     TIME is as follows:  as soon as one byte is received, the inter-byte timer is started.  If MIN bytes
     are received before the inter-byte timer expires (remember that the timer is reset upon receipt of each
     byte), the read is satisfied.  If the timer expires before MIN bytes are received, the characters
     received to that point are returned to the user.  Note that if TIME expires at least one byte is
     returned because the timer would not have been enabled unless a byte was received.  In this case (MIN >
     0, TIME > 0) the read blocks until the MIN and TIME mechanisms are activated by the receipt of the
     first byte, or a signal is received.  If data is in the buffer at the time of the read(), the result is
     as if data had been received immediately after the read().

   Case B: MIN > 0, TIME = 0
     In this case, since the value of TIME is zero, the timer plays no role and only MIN is significant.  A
     pending read is not satisfied until MIN bytes are received (i.e., the pending read blocks until MIN
     bytes are received), or a signal is received.  A program that uses this case to read record-based ter-minal terminal
     minal I/O may block indefinitely in the read operation.

   Case C: MIN = 0, TIME > 0
     In this case, since MIN = 0, TIME no longer represents an inter-byte timer.  It now serves as a read
     timer that is activated as soon as the read function is processed.  A read is satisfied as soon as a
     single byte is received or the read timer expires.  Note that in this case if the timer expires, no
     bytes are returned.  If the timer does not expire, the only way the read can be satisfied is if a byte
     is received.  In this case the read will not block indefinitely waiting for a byte; if no byte is
     received within TIME*0.1 seconds after the read is initiated, the read returns a value of zero, having
     read no data.  If data is in the buffer at the time of the read, the timer is started as if data had
     been received immediately after the read.

   Case D: MIN = 0, TIME = 0
     The minimum of either the number of bytes requested or the number of bytes currently available is
     returned without waiting for more bytes to be input.  If no characters are available, read returns a
     value of zero, having read no data.

   Writing Data and Output Processing
     When a process writes one or more bytes to a terminal device file, they are processed according to the
     c_oflag field (see the Output Modes section).  The implementation may provide a buffering mechanism; as
     such, when a call to write() completes, all of the bytes written have been scheduled for transmission
     to the device, but the transmission will not necessarily have been completed.

   Special Characters
     Certain characters have special functions on input or output or both.  These functions are summarized
     as follows:

     INTR    Special character on input and is recognized if the ISIG flag (see the Local Modes section) is
             enabled.  Generates a SIGINT signal which is sent to all processes in the foreground process
             group for which the terminal is the controlling terminal.  If ISIG is set, the INTR character
             is discarded when processed.

     QUIT    Special character on input and is recognized if the ISIG flag is enabled.  Generates a SIGQUIT
             signal which is sent to all processes in the foreground process group for which the terminal is
             the controlling terminal.  If ISIG is set, the QUIT character is discarded when processed.

     ERASE   Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Erases the last char-acter character
             acter in the current line; see Canonical Mode Input Processing.  It does not erase beyond the
             start of a line, as delimited by an NL, EOF, or EOL character.  If ICANON is set, the ERASE
             character is discarded when processed.

     KILL    Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Deletes the entire
             line, as delimited by a NL, EOF, or EOL character.  If ICANON is set, the KILL character is
             discarded when processed.

     EOF     Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  When received, all the
             bytes waiting to be read are immediately passed to the process, without waiting for a newline,
             and the EOF is discarded.  Thus, if there are no bytes waiting (that is, the EOF occurred at
             the beginning of a line), a byte count of zero is returned from the read(), representing an
             end-of-file indication.  If ICANON is set, the EOF character is discarded when processed.  NL
             Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  It is the line delim-iter delimiter
             iter `\n'.

     EOL     Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Is an additional line
             delimiter, like NL.

     SUSP    If the ISIG flag is enabled, receipt of the SUSP character causes a SIGTSTP signal to be sent
             to all processes in the foreground process group for which the terminal is the controlling ter-minal, terminal,
             minal, and the SUSP character is discarded when processed.

     STOP    Special character on both input and output and is recognized if the IXON (output control) or
             IXOFF (input control) flag is set.  Can be used to temporarily suspend output.  It is useful
             with fast terminals to prevent output from disappearing before it can be read.  If IXON is set,
             the STOP character is discarded when processed.

     START   Special character on both input and output and is recognized if the IXON (output control) or
             IXOFF (input control) flag is set.  Can be used to resume output that has been suspended by a
             STOP character.  If IXON is set, the START character is discarded when processed.  CR Special
             character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set; it is the `\r', as denoted in
             the C Standard {2}.  When ICANON and ICRNL are set and IGNCR is not set, this character is
             translated into a NL, and has the same effect as a NL character.

     The following special characters are extensions defined by this system and are not a part of 1003.1
     termios.

     EOL2    Secondary EOL character.  Same function as EOL.

     WERASE  Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Erases the last word
             in the current line according to one of two algorithms.  If the ALTWERASE flag is not set,
             first any preceding whitespace is erased, and then the maximal sequence of non-whitespace char-acters. characters.
             acters.  If ALTWERASE is set, first any preceding whitespace is erased, and then the maximal
             sequence of alphabetic/underscores or non alphabetic/underscores.  As a special case in this
             second algorithm, the first previous non-whitespace character is skipped in determining whether
             the preceding word is a sequence of alphabetic/undercores.  This sounds confusing but turns out
             to be quite practical.

     REPRINT
             Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Causes the current
             input edit line to be retyped.

     DSUSP   Has similar actions to the SUSP character, except that the SIGTSTP signal is delivered when one
             of the processes in the foreground process group issues a read() to the controlling terminal.

     LNEXT   Special character on input and is recognized if the IEXTEN flag is set.  Receipt of this char-acter character
             acter causes the next character to be taken literally.

     DISCARD
             Special character on input and is recognized if the IEXTEN flag is set.  Receipt of this char-acter character
             acter toggles the flushing of terminal output.

     STATUS  Special character on input and is recognized if the ICANON flag is set.  Receipt of this char-acter character
             acter causes a SIGINFO signal to be sent to the foreground process group of the terminal.
             Also, if the NOKERNINFO flag is not set, it causes the kernel to write a status message to the
             terminal that displays the current load average, the name of the command in the foreground, its
             process ID, the symbolic wait channel, the number of user and system seconds used, the percent-age percentage
             age of cpu the process is getting, and the resident set size of the process.

     The NL and CR characters cannot be changed.  The values for all the remaining characters can be set and
     are described later in the document under Special Control Characters.

     Special character functions associated with changeable special control characters can be disabled indi-vidually individually
     vidually by setting their value to {_POSIX_VDISABLE}; see Special Control Characters.

     If two or more special characters have the same value, the function performed when that character is
     received is undefined.

   Modem Disconnect
     If a modem disconnect is detected by the terminal interface for a controlling terminal, and if CLOCAL
     is not set in the c_cflag field for the terminal, the SIGHUP signal is sent to the controlling process
     associated with the terminal.  Unless other arrangements have been made, this causes the controlling
     process to terminate.  Any subsequent call to the read() function returns the value zero, indicating
     end of file.  Thus, processes that read a terminal file and test for end-of-file can terminate appro-priately appropriately
     priately after a disconnect.  Any subsequent write() to the terminal device returns -1, with errno set
     to EIO, until the device is closed.

General Terminal Interface
   Closing a Terminal Device File
     The last process to close a terminal device file causes any output to be sent to the device and any
     input to be discarded.  Then, if HUPCL is set in the control modes, and the communications port sup-ports supports
     ports a disconnect function, the terminal device performs a disconnect.

   Parameters That Can Be Set
     Routines that need to control certain terminal I/O characteristics do so by using the termios structure
     as defined in the header <termios.h>.  This structure contains minimally four scalar elements of bit
     flags and one array of special characters.  The scalar flag elements are named: c_iflag, c_oflag,
     c_cflag, and c_lflag.  The character array is named c_cc, and its maximum index is NCCS.

   Input Modes
     Values of the c_iflag field describe the basic terminal input control, and are composed of following
     masks:

           IGNBRK   /* ignore BREAK condition */
           BRKINT   /* map BREAK to SIGINTR */
           IGNPAR   /* ignore (discard) parity errors */
           PARMRK   /* mark parity and framing errors */
           INPCK    /* enable checking of parity errors */
           ISTRIP   /* strip 8th bit off chars */
           INLCR    /* map NL into CR */
           IGNCR    /* ignore CR */
           ICRNL    /* map CR to NL (ala CRMOD) */
           IXON     /* enable output flow control */
           IXOFF    /* enable input flow control */
           IXANY    /* any char will restart after stop */
           IMAXBEL  /* ring bell on input queue full */
           IUCLC    /* translate upper case to lower case */

     In the context of asynchronous serial data transmission, a break condition is defined as a sequence of
     zero-valued bits that continues for more than the time to send one byte.  The entire sequence of zero-valued zerovalued
     valued bits is interpreted as a single break condition, even if it continues for a time equivalent to
     more than one byte.  In contexts other than asynchronous serial data transmission the definition of a
     break condition is implementation defined.

     If IGNBRK is set, a break condition detected on input is ignored, that is, not put on the input queue
     and therefore not read by any process.  If IGNBRK is not set and BRKINT is set, the break condition
     flushes the input and output queues and if the terminal is the controlling terminal of a foreground
     process group, the break condition generates a single SIGINT signal to that foreground process group.
     If neither IGNBRK nor BRKINT is set, a break condition is read as a single `\0', or if PARMRK is set,
     as `\377', `\0', `\0'.

     If IGNPAR is set, a byte with a framing or parity error (other than break) is ignored.

     If PARMRK is set, and IGNPAR is not set, a byte with a framing or parity error (other than break) is
     given to the application as the three-character sequence `\377', `\0', X, where `\377', `\0' is a two-character twocharacter
     character flag preceding each sequence and X is the data of the character received in error.  To avoid
     ambiguity in this case, if ISTRIP is not set, a valid character of `\377' is given to the application
     as `\377', `\377'.  If neither PARMRK nor IGNPAR is set, a framing or parity error (other than break)
     is given to the application as a single character `\0'.

     If INPCK is set, input parity checking is enabled.  If INPCK is not set, input parity checking is dis-abled, disabled,
     abled, allowing output parity generation without input parity errors.  Note that whether input parity
     checking is enabled or disabled is independent of whether parity detection is enabled or disabled (see
     Control Modes).  If parity detection is enabled but input parity checking is disabled, the hardware to
     which the terminal is connected recognizes the parity bit, but the terminal special file does not check
     whether this bit is set correctly or not.

     If ISTRIP is set, valid input bytes are first stripped to seven bits, otherwise all eight bits are pro-cessed. processed.
     cessed.

     If INLCR is set, a received NL character is translated into a CR character.  If IGNCR is set, a
     received CR character is ignored (not read).  If IGNCR is not set and ICRNL is set, a received CR char-acter character
     acter is translated into a NL character.

     If IXON is set, start/stop output control is enabled.  A received STOP character suspends output and a
     received START character restarts output. If IXANY is also set, then any character may restart output.
     When IXON is set, START and STOP characters are not read, but merely perform flow control functions.
     When IXON is not set, the START and STOP characters are read.

     If IXOFF is set, start/stop input control is enabled.  The system shall transmit one or more STOP char-acters, characters,
     acters, which are intended to cause the terminal device to stop transmitting data, as needed to prevent
     the input queue from overflowing and causing the undefined behavior described in Input Processing and
     Reading Data, and shall transmit one or more START characters, which are intended to cause the terminal
     device to resume transmitting data, as soon as the device can continue transmitting data without risk
     of overflowing the input queue.  The precise conditions under which STOP and START characters are
     transmitted are implementation defined.

     If IMAXBEL is set and the input queue is full, subsequent input shall cause an ASCII BEL character to
     be transmitted to the output queue.

     If IUCLC is set, characters will be translated from upper to lower case on input.

     The initial input control value after open() is implementation defined.

   Output Modes
     Values of the c_oflag field describe the basic terminal output control, and are composed of the follow-ing following
     ing masks:

           OPOST   /* enable following output processing */
           ONLCR   /* map NL to CR-NL (ala CRMOD) */
           OXTABS  /* expand tabs to spaces */
           ONOEOT  /* discard EOT's `^D' on output) */
           OCRNL   /* map CR to NL */
           OLCUC   /* translate lower case to upper case */
           ONOCR   /* No CR output at column 0 */
           ONLRET  /* NL performs CR function */

     If OPOST is set, the remaining flag masks are interpreted as follows; otherwise characters are trans-mitted transmitted
     mitted without change.

     If ONLCR is set, newlines are translated to carriage return, linefeeds.

     If OXTABS is set, tabs are expanded to the appropriate number of spaces (assuming 8 column tab stops).

     If ONOEOT is set, ASCII EOT NS 's are discarded on output.

     If OCRNL is set, carriage returns are translated to newlines.

     If OLCUC is set, lower case is translated to upper case on output.

     If ONOCR is set, no CR character is output when at column 0.

     If ONLRET is set, NL also performs CR on output, and reset current column to 0.

   Control Modes
     Values of the c_cflag field describe the basic terminal hardware control, and are composed of the fol-lowing following
     lowing masks.  Not all values specified are supported by all hardware.

           CSIZE       /* character size mask */
           CS5         /* 5 bits (pseudo) */
           CS6         /* 6 bits */
           CS7         /* 7 bits */
           CS8         /* 8 bits */
           CSTOPB      /* send 2 stop bits */
           CREAD       /* enable receiver */
           PARENB      /* parity enable */
           PARODD      /* odd parity, else even */
           HUPCL       /* hang up on last close */
           CLOCAL      /* ignore modem status lines */
           CCTS_OFLOW  /* CTS flow control of output */
           CRTSCTS     /* same as CCTS_OFLOW */
           CRTS_IFLOW  /* RTS flow control of input */
           MDMBUF      /* flow control output via Carrier */

     The CSIZE bits specify the byte size in bits for both transmission and reception.  The c_cflag is
     masked with CSIZE and compared with the values CS5, CS6, CS7, or CS8.  This size does not include the
     parity bit, if any.  If CSTOPB is set, two stop bits are used, otherwise one stop bit.  For example, at
     110 baud, two stop bits are normally used.

     If CREAD is set, the receiver is enabled.  Otherwise, no character is received.  Not all hardware sup-ports supports
     ports this bit.  In fact, this flag is pretty silly and if it were not part of the termios specifica-tion specification
     tion it would be omitted.

     If PARENB is set, parity generation and detection are enabled and a parity bit is added to each charac-ter. character.
     ter.  If parity is enabled, PARODD specifies odd parity if set, otherwise even parity is used.

     If HUPCL is set, the modem control lines for the port are lowered when the last process with the port
     open closes the port or the process terminates.  The modem connection is broken.

     If CLOCAL is set, a connection does not depend on the state of the modem status lines.  If CLOCAL is
     clear, the modem status lines are monitored.

     Under normal circumstances, a call to the open() function waits for the modem connection to complete.
     However, if the O_NONBLOCK flag is set or if CLOCAL has been set, the open() function returns immedi-ately immediately
     ately without waiting for the connection.

     The CCTS_OFLOW (CRTSCTS) flag is currently unused.

     If MDMBUF is set then output flow control is controlled by the state of Carrier Detect.

     If the object for which the control modes are set is not an asynchronous serial connection, some of the
     modes may be ignored; for example, if an attempt is made to set the baud rate on a network connection
     to a terminal on another host, the baud rate may or may not be set on the connection between that ter-minal terminal
     minal and the machine it is directly connected to.

   Local Modes
     Values of the c_lflag field describe the control of various functions, and are composed of the follow-ing following
     ing masks.

           ECHOKE      /* visual erase for line kill */
           ECHOE       /* visually erase chars */
           ECHO        /* enable echoing */
           ECHONL      /* echo NL even if ECHO is off */
           ECHOPRT     /* visual erase mode for hardcopy */
           ECHOCTL     /* echo control chars as ^(Char) */
           ISIG        /* enable signals INTR, QUIT, [D]SUSP */
           ICANON      /* canonicalize input lines */
           ALTWERASE   /* use alternate WERASE algorithm */
           IEXTEN      /* enable DISCARD and LNEXT */
           EXTPROC     /* external processing */
           TOSTOP      /* stop background jobs from output */
           FLUSHO      /* output being flushed (state) */
           NOKERNINFO  /* no kernel output from VSTATUS */
           PENDIN      /* XXX retype pending input (state) */
           NOFLSH      /* don't flush after interrupt */

     If ECHO is set, input characters are echoed back to the terminal.  If ECHO is not set, input characters
     are not echoed.

     If ECHOE and ICANON are set, the ERASE character causes the terminal to erase the last character in the
     current line from the display, if possible.  If there is no character to erase, an implementation may
     echo an indication that this was the case or do nothing.

     If ECHOK and ICANON are set, the KILL character causes the current line to be discarded and the system
     echoes the `\n' character after the KILL character.

     If ECHOKE and ICANON are set, the KILL character causes the current line to be discarded and the system
     causes the terminal to erase the line from the display.

     If ECHOPRT and ICANON are set, the system assumes that the display is a printing device and prints a
     backslash and the erased characters when processing ERASE characters, followed by a forward slash.

     If ECHOCTL is set, the system echoes control characters in a visible fashion using a caret followed by
     the control character.

     If ALTWERASE is set, the system uses an alternative algorithm for determining what constitutes a word
     when processing WERASE characters (see WERASE).

     If ECHONL and ICANON are set, the `\n' character echoes even if ECHO is not set.

     If ICANON is set, canonical processing is enabled.  This enables the erase and kill edit functions, and
     the assembly of input characters into lines delimited by NL, EOF, and EOL, as described in Canonical
     Mode Input Processing.

     If ICANON is not set, read requests are satisfied directly from the input queue.  A read is not satis-fied satisfied
     fied until at least MIN bytes have been received or the timeout value TIME expired between bytes.  The
     time value represents tenths of seconds.  See Noncanonical Mode Input Processing for more details.

     If ISIG is set, each input character is checked against the special control characters INTR, QUIT, and
     SUSP (job control only).  If an input character matches one of these control characters, the function
     associated with that character is performed.  If ISIG is not set, no checking is done.  Thus these spe-cial special
     cial input functions are possible only if ISIG is set.

     If IEXTEN is set, implementation-defined functions are recognized from the input data.  How IEXTEN
     being set interacts with ICANON, ISIG, IXON, or IXOFF is implementation defined.  If IEXTEN is not set,
     then implementation-defined functions are not recognized, and the corresponding input characters are
     not processed as described for ICANON, ISIG, IXON, and IXOFF.

     If NOFLSH is set, the normal flush of the input and output queues associated with the INTR, QUIT, and
     SUSP characters are not be done.

     If ICANON is set, an upper case character is preserved on input if prefixed by a \ character.  In addi-tion, addition,
     tion, this prefix is added to upper case characters on output.

     In addition, the following special character translations are in effect:

           for:    use:
           `       \'
           |       \!
           ~       \^
           {       \(
           }       \)
           \       \\

     If TOSTOP is set, the signal SIGTTOU is sent to the process group of a process that tries to write to
     its controlling terminal if it is not in the foreground process group for that terminal.  This signal,
     by default, stops the members of the process group.  Otherwise, the output generated by that process is
     output to the current output stream.  Processes that are blocking or ignoring SIGTTOU signals are
     excepted and allowed to produce output and the SIGTTOU signal is not sent.

     If NOKERNINFO is set, the kernel does not produce a status message when processing STATUS characters
     (see STATUS).

   Special Control Characters
     The special control characters values are defined by the array c_cc.  This table lists the array index,
     the corresponding special character, and the system default value.  For an accurate list of the system
     defaults, consult the header file <ttydefaults.h>.

           Index Name    Special Character    Default Value
           VEOF          EOF                  ^D
           VEOL          EOL                  _POSIX_VDISABLE
           VEOL2         EOL2                 _POSIX_VDISABLE
           VERASE        ERASE                ^? `\177'
           VWERASE       WERASE               ^W
           VKILL         KILL                 ^U
           VREPRINT      REPRINT              ^R
           VINTR         INTR                 ^C
           VQUIT         QUIT                 ^\\ `\34'
           VSUSP         SUSP                 ^Z
           VDSUSP        DSUSP                ^Y
           VSTART        START                ^Q
           VSTOP         STOP                 ^S
           VLNEXT        LNEXT                ^V
           VDISCARD      DISCARD              ^O
           VMIN          ---                  1
           VTIME         ---                  0
           VSTATUS       STATUS               ^T

     If the value of one of the changeable special control characters (see Special Characters) is
     {_POSIX_VDISABLE}, that function is disabled; that is, no input data is recognized as the disabled spe-cial special
     cial character.  If ICANON is not set, the value of {_POSIX_VDISABLE} has no special meaning for the
     VMIN and VTIME entries of the c_cc array.

     The initial values of the flags and control characters after open() is set according to the values in
     the header <sys/ttydefaults.h>.

SEE ALSO
     tcgetattr(3), tcsetattr(3)

4th Berkeley Distribution       April 19, 1994       4th Berkeley Distribution

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation with the feedback links below.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API through Bug Reporter.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.

Feedback