Mac Developer Library Developer
Search

 

This manual page is for Mac OS X version 10.9

If you are running a different version of Mac OS X, view the documentation locally:

  • In Terminal, using the man(1) command

Reading manual pages

Manual pages are intended as a quick reference for people who already understand a technology.

  • To learn how the manual is organized or to learn about command syntax, read the manual page for manpages(5).

  • For more information about this technology, look for other documentation in the Apple Developer Library.

  • For general information about writing shell scripts, read Shell Scripting Primer.




SSHD_CONFIG(5)              BSD File Formats Manual             SSHD_CONFIG(5)

NAME
     sshd_config -- OpenSSH SSH daemon configuration file

SYNOPSIS
     /etc/ssh/sshd_config

DESCRIPTION
     sshd(8) reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the com-mand command
     mand line).  The file contains keyword-argument pairs, one per line.  Lines starting with `#' and empty
     lines are interpreted as comments.  Arguments may optionally be enclosed in double quotes (") in order
     to represent arguments containing spaces.

     The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and
     arguments are case-sensitive):

     AcceptEnv
             Specifies what environment variables sent by the client will be copied into the session's
             environ(7).  See SendEnv in ssh_config(5) for how to configure the client.  Note that environ-ment environment
             ment passing is only supported for protocol 2.  Variables are specified by name, which may con-tain contain
             tain the wildcard characters `*' and `?'.  Multiple environment variables may be separated by
             whitespace or spread across multiple AcceptEnv directives.  Be warned that some environment
             variables could be used to bypass restricted user environments.  For this reason, care should
             be taken in the use of this directive.  The default is not to accept any environment variables.

     AddressFamily
             Specifies which address family should be used by sshd(8).  Valid arguments are ``any'',
             ``inet'' (use IPv4 only), or ``inet6'' (use IPv6 only).  The default is ``any''.

     AllowAgentForwarding
             Specifies whether ssh-agent(1) forwarding is permitted.  The default is ``yes''.  Note that
             disabling agent forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access,
             as they can always install their own forwarders.

     AllowGroups
             This keyword can be followed by a list of group name patterns, separated by spaces.  If speci-fied, specified,
             fied, login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches
             one of the patterns.  Only group names are valid; a numerical group ID is not recognized.  By
             default, login is allowed for all groups.  The allow/deny directives are processed in the fol-lowing following
             lowing order: DenyUsers, AllowUsers, DenyGroups, and finally AllowGroups.

             See PATTERNS in ssh_config(5) for more information on patterns.

     AllowTcpForwarding
             Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted.  The available options are ``yes'' or ``all'' to
             allow TCP forwarding, ``no'' to prevent all TCP forwarding, ``local'' to allow local (from the
             perspective of ssh(1)) forwarding only or ``remote'' to allow remote forwarding only.  The
             default is ``yes''.  Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users
             are also denied shell access, as they can always install their own forwarders.

     AllowUsers
             This keyword can be followed by a list of user name patterns, separated by spaces.  If speci-fied, specified,
             fied, login is allowed only for user names that match one of the patterns.  Only user names are
             valid; a numerical user ID is not recognized.  By default, login is allowed for all users.  If
             the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked, restricting
             logins to particular users from particular hosts.  The allow/deny directives are processed in
             the following order: DenyUsers, AllowUsers, DenyGroups, and finally AllowGroups.

             See PATTERNS in ssh_config(5) for more information on patterns.

     AuthenticationMethods
             Specifies the authentication methods that must be successfully completed for a user to be
             granted access.  This option must be followed by one or more comma-separated lists of authenti-cation authentication
             cation method names.  Successful authentication requires completion of every method in at least
             one of these lists.

             For example, an argument of ``publickey,password publickey,keyboard-interactive'' would require
             the user to complete public key authentication, followed by either password or keyboard inter-active interactive
             active authentication.  Only methods that are next in one or more lists are offered at each
             stage, so for this example, it would not be possible to attempt password or keyboard-interac-tive keyboard-interactive
             tive authentication before public key.

             This option is only available for SSH protocol 2 and will yield a fatal error if enabled if
             protocol 1 is also enabled.  Note that each authentication method listed should also be explic-itly explicitly
             itly enabled in the configuration.  The default is not to require multiple authentication; suc-cessful successful
             cessful completion of a single authentication method is sufficient.

     AuthorizedKeysCommand
             Specifies a program to be used to look up the user's public keys.  The program will be invoked
             with a single argument of the username being authenticated, and should produce on standard out-put output
             put zero or more lines of authorized_keys output (see AUTHORIZED_KEYS in sshd(8)).  If a key
             supplied by AuthorizedKeysCommand does not successfully authenticate and authorize the user
             then public key authentication continues using the usual AuthorizedKeysFile files.  By default,
             no AuthorizedKeysCommand is run.

     AuthorizedKeysCommandUser
             Specifies the user under whose account the AuthorizedKeysCommand is run.  It is recommended to
             use a dedicated user that has no other role on the host than running authorized keys commands.

     AuthorizedKeysFile
             Specifies the file that contains the public keys that can be used for user authentication.  The
             format is described in the AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT section of sshd(8).  AuthorizedKeysFile
             may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connection setup.  The following
             tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%', %h is replaced by the home directory of
             the user being authenticated, and %u is replaced by the username of that user.  After expan-sion, expansion,
             sion, AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home
             directory.  Multiple files may be listed, separated by whitespace.  The default is
             ``.ssh/authorized_keys .ssh/authorized_keys2''.

     AuthorizedPrincipalsFile
             Specifies a file that lists principal names that are accepted for certificate authentication.
             When using certificates signed by a key listed in TrustedUserCAKeys, this file lists names, one
             of which must appear in the certificate for it to be accepted for authentication.  Names are
             listed one per line preceded by key options (as described in AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT in
             sshd(8)).  Empty lines and comments starting with `#' are ignored.

             AuthorizedPrincipalsFile may contain tokens of the form %T which are substituted during connec-tion connection
             tion setup.  The following tokens are defined: %% is replaced by a literal '%', %h is replaced
             by the home directory of the user being authenticated, and %u is replaced by the username of
             that user.  After expansion, AuthorizedPrincipalsFile is taken to be an absolute path or one
             relative to the user's home directory.

             The default is ``none'', i.e. not to use a principals file - in this case, the username of the
             user must appear in a certificate's principals list for it to be accepted.  Note that
             AuthorizedPrincipalsFile is only used when authentication proceeds using a CA listed in
             TrustedUserCAKeys and is not consulted for certification authorities trusted via
             ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, though the principals= key option offers a similar facility (see
             sshd(8) for details).

     Banner  The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is
             allowed.  If the argument is ``none'' then no banner is displayed.  This option is only avail-able available
             able for protocol version 2.  By default, no banner is displayed.

     ChallengeResponseAuthentication
             Specifies whether challenge-response authentication is allowed (e.g. via PAM or though authen-tication authentication
             tication styles supported in login.conf(5)) The default is ``yes''.

     ChrootDirectory
             Specifies the pathname of a directory to chroot(2) to after authentication.  All components of
             the pathname must be root-owned directories that are not writable by any other user or group.
             After the chroot, sshd(8) changes the working directory to the user's home directory.

             The pathname may contain the following tokens that are expanded at runtime once the connecting
             user has been authenticated: %% is replaced by a literal '%', %h is replaced by the home direc-tory directory
             tory of the user being authenticated, and %u is replaced by the username of that user.

             The ChrootDirectory must contain the necessary files and directories to support the user's ses-sion. session.
             sion.  For an interactive session this requires at least a shell, typically sh(1), and basic
             /dev nodes such as null(4), zero(4), stdin(4), stdout(4), stderr(4), arandom(4) and tty(4)
             devices.  For file transfer sessions using ``sftp'', no additional configuration of the envi-ronment environment
             ronment is necessary if the in-process sftp server is used, though sessions which use logging
             do require /dev/log inside the chroot directory (see sftp-server(8) for details).

             The default is not to chroot(2).

     Ciphers
             Specifies the ciphers allowed for protocol version 2.  Multiple ciphers must be comma-sepa-rated. comma-separated.
             rated.  The supported ciphers are ``3des-cbc'', ``aes128-cbc'', ``aes192-cbc'', ``aes256-cbc'',
             ``aes128-ctr'', ``aes192-ctr'', ``aes256-ctr'', ``aes128-gcm@openssh.com'',
             ``aes256-gcm@openssh.com'', ``arcfour128'', ``arcfour256'', ``arcfour'', ``blowfish-cbc'', and
             ``cast128-cbc''.  The default is:

                aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,arcfour256,arcfour128,
                aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,
                aes128-cbc,3des-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,aes192-cbc,
                aes256-cbc,arcfour

     ClientAliveCountMax
             Sets the number of client alive messages (see below) which may be sent without sshd(8) receiv-ing receiving
             ing any messages back from the client.  If this threshold is reached while client alive mes-sages messages
             sages are being sent, sshd will disconnect the client, terminating the session.  It is impor-tant important
             tant to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from TCPKeepAlive (below).
             The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be
             spoofable.  The TCP keepalive option enabled by TCPKeepAlive is spoofable.  The client alive
             mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become
             inactive.

             The default value is 3.  If ClientAliveInterval (see below) is set to 15, and
             ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default, unresponsive SSH clients will be disconnected after
             approximately 45 seconds.  This option applies to protocol version 2 only.

     ClientAliveInterval
             Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client,
             sshd(8) will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the
             client.  The default is 0, indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client.  This
             option applies to protocol version 2 only.

     Compression
             Specifies whether compression is allowed, or delayed until the user has authenticated success-fully. successfully.
             fully.  The argument must be ``yes'', ``delayed'', or ``no''.  The default is ``delayed''.

     DenyGroups
             This keyword can be followed by a list of group name patterns, separated by spaces.  Login is
             disallowed for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the pat-terns. patterns.
             terns.  Only group names are valid; a numerical group ID is not recognized.  By default, login
             is allowed for all groups.  The allow/deny directives are processed in the following order:
             DenyUsers, AllowUsers, DenyGroups, and finally AllowGroups.

             See PATTERNS in ssh_config(5) for more information on patterns.

     DenyUsers
             This keyword can be followed by a list of user name patterns, separated by spaces.  Login is
             disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns.  Only user names are valid; a numeri-cal numerical
             cal user ID is not recognized.  By default, login is allowed for all users.  If the pattern
             takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked, restricting logins to par-ticular particular
             ticular users from particular hosts.  The allow/deny directives are processed in the following
             order: DenyUsers, AllowUsers, DenyGroups, and finally AllowGroups.

             See PATTERNS in ssh_config(5) for more information on patterns.

     ForceCommand
             Forces the execution of the command specified by ForceCommand, ignoring any command supplied by
             the client and ~/.ssh/rc if present.  The command is invoked by using the user's login shell
             with the -c option.  This applies to shell, command, or subsystem execution.  It is most useful
             inside a Match block.  The command originally supplied by the client is available in the
             SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND environment variable.  Specifying a command of ``internal-sftp'' will
             force the use of an in-process sftp server that requires no support files when used with
             ChrootDirectory.

     GatewayPorts
             Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client.  By
             default, sshd(8) binds remote port forwardings to the loopback address.  This prevents other
             remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports.  GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd
             should allow remote port forwardings to bind to non-loopback addresses, thus allowing other
             hosts to connect.  The argument may be ``no'' to force remote port forwardings to be available
             to the local host only, ``yes'' to force remote port forwardings to bind to the wildcard
             address, or ``clientspecified'' to allow the client to select the address to which the forward-ing forwarding
             ing is bound.  The default is ``no''.

     GSSAPIAuthentication
             Specifies whether user authentication based on GSSAPI is allowed.  The default is ``no''.  Note
             that this option applies to protocol version 2 only.

     GSSAPIKeyExchange
             Specifies whether key exchange based on GSSAPI is allowed. GSSAPI key exchange doesn't rely on
             ssh keys to verify host identity.  The default is ``no''.  Note that this option applies to
             protocol version 2 only.

     GSSAPICleanupCredentials
             Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's credentials cache on logout.  The default
             is ``yes''.  Note that this option applies to protocol version 2 only.

     GSSAPIStrictAcceptorCheck
             Determines whether to be strict about the identity of the GSSAPI acceptor a client authenti-cates authenticates
             cates against. If ``yes'' then the client must authenticate against the host service on the
             current hostname. If ``no'' then the client may authenticate against any service key stored in
             the machine's default store. This facility is provided to assist with operation on multi homed
             machines.  The default is ``yes''.  Note that this option applies only to protocol version 2
             GSSAPI connections, and setting it to ``no'' may only work with recent Kerberos GSSAPI
             libraries.

     GSSAPIStoreCredentialsOnRekey
             Controls whether the user's GSSAPI credentials should be updated following a successful connec-tion connection
             tion rekeying. This option can be used to accepted renewed or updated credentials from a com-patible compatible
             patible client. The default is ``no''.

     HostbasedAuthentication
             Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts.equiv authentication together with successful public key
             client host authentication is allowed (host-based authentication).  This option is similar to
             RhostsRSAAuthentication and applies to protocol version 2 only.  The default is ``no''.

     HostbasedUsesNameFromPacketOnly
             Specifies whether or not the server will attempt to perform a reverse name lookup when matching
             the name in the ~/.shosts, ~/.rhosts, and /etc/hosts.equiv files during
             HostbasedAuthentication.  A setting of ``yes'' means that sshd(8) uses the name supplied by the
             client rather than attempting to resolve the name from the TCP connection itself.  The default
             is ``no''.

     HostCertificate
             Specifies a file containing a public host certificate.  The certificate's public key must match
             a private host key already specified by HostKey.  The default behaviour of sshd(8) is not to
             load any certificates.

     HostKey
             Specifies a file containing a private host key used by SSH.  The default is
             /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key for protocol version 1, and /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key,
             /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key and /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key for protocol version 2.  Note that
             sshd(8) will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible.  It is possible to have mul-tiple multiple
             tiple host key files.  ``rsa1'' keys are used for version 1 and ``dsa'', ``ecdsa'' or ``rsa''
             are used for version 2 of the SSH protocol.

     IgnoreRhosts
             Specifies that .rhosts and .shosts files will not be used in RhostsRSAAuthentication or
             HostbasedAuthentication.

             /etc/hosts.equiv and /etc/shosts.equiv are still used.  The default is ``yes''.

     IgnoreUserKnownHosts
             Specifies whether sshd(8) should ignore the user's ~/.ssh/known_hosts during
             RhostsRSAAuthentication or HostbasedAuthentication.  The default is ``no''.

     IPQoS   Specifies the IPv4 type-of-service or DSCP class for the connection.  Accepted values are
             ``af11'', ``af12'', ``af13'', ``af21'', ``af22'', ``af23'', ``af31'', ``af32'', ``af33'',
             ``af41'', ``af42'', ``af43'', ``cs0'', ``cs1'', ``cs2'', ``cs3'', ``cs4'', ``cs5'', ``cs6'',
             ``cs7'', ``ef'', ``lowdelay'', ``throughput'', ``reliability'', or a numeric value.  This
             option may take one or two arguments, separated by whitespace.  If one argument is specified,
             it is used as the packet class unconditionally.  If two values are specified, the first is
             automatically selected for interactive sessions and the second for non-interactive sessions.
             The default is ``lowdelay'' for interactive sessions and ``throughput'' for non-interactive
             sessions.

     KerberosAuthentication
             Specifies whether the password provided by the user for PasswordAuthentication will be vali-dated validated
             dated through the Kerberos KDC.  To use this option, the server needs a Kerberos servtab which
             allows the verification of the KDC's identity.  The default is ``no''.

     KerberosOrLocalPasswd
             If password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any
             additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd.  The default is ``yes''.

     KerberosTicketCleanup
             Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout.  The default
             is ``yes''.

     KexAlgorithms
             Specifies the available KEX (Key Exchange) algorithms.  Multiple algorithms must be comma-sepa-rated. comma-separated.
             rated.  The default is ``ecdh-sha2-nistp256'', ``ecdh-sha2-nistp384'', ``ecdh-sha2-nistp521'',
             ``diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256'', ``diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1'',
             ``diffie-hellman-group14-sha1'', ``diffie-hellman-group1-sha1''.

     KeyRegenerationInterval
             In protocol version 1, the ephemeral server key is automatically regenerated after this many
             seconds (if it has been used).  The purpose of regeneration is to prevent decrypting captured
             sessions by later breaking into the machine and stealing the keys.  The key is never stored
             anywhere.  If the value is 0, the key is never regenerated.  The default is 3600 (seconds).

     ListenAddress
             Specifies the local addresses sshd(8) should listen on.  The following forms may be used:

                   ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr|IPv6_addr
                   ListenAddress host|IPv4_addr:port
                   ListenAddress [host|IPv6_addr]:port

             If port is not specified, sshd will listen on the address and all prior Port options specified.
             The default is to listen on all local addresses.  Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted.
             Additionally, any Port options must precede this option for non-port qualified addresses.

             On Mac OS X, sshd is started on demand by launchd(8).  The specification of the address on
             which sshd will listen is given in the launchd.plist(5) file
             /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/ssh.plist.  The values of ListenAddress and Port are only used
             when sshd is run from the command line.  Use launchctl(1) to unload and load the plist file.
             The port number on which sshd listens can be set by changing the value of the SockServiceName
             key in the plist file.

     LoginGraceTime
             The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in.  If the
             value is 0, there is no time limit.  The default is 120 seconds.

     LogLevel
             Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd(8).  The possible values
             are: QUIET, FATAL, ERROR, INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG, DEBUG1, DEBUG2, and DEBUG3.  The default is
             INFO.  DEBUG and DEBUG1 are equivalent.  DEBUG2 and DEBUG3 each specify higher levels of debug-ging debugging
             ging output.  Logging with a DEBUG level violates the privacy of users and is not recommended.

     MACs    Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms.  The MAC algorithm is
             used in protocol version 2 for data integrity protection.  Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. commaseparated.
             separated.  The algorithms that contain ``-etm'' calculate the MAC after encryption (encrypt-then-mac). (encryptthen-mac).
             then-mac).  These are considered safer and their use recommended.  The default is:

                   hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,
                   umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-ripemd160-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-md5-96-etm@openssh.com,
                   hmac-md5,hmac-sha1,umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,
                   hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-ripemd160,
                   hmac-sha1-96,hmac-md5-96

     Match   Introduces a conditional block.  If all of the criteria on the Match line are satisfied, the
             keywords on the following lines override those set in the global section of the config file,
             until either another Match line or the end of the file.

             The arguments to Match are one or more criteria-pattern pairs.  The available criteria are
             User, Group, Host, LocalAddress, LocalPort, and Address.  The match patterns may consist of
             single entries or comma-separated lists and may use the wildcard and negation operators
             described in the PATTERNS section of ssh_config(5).

             The patterns in an Address criteria may additionally contain addresses to match in CIDR
             address/masklen format, e.g. ``192.0.2.0/24'' or ``3ffe:ffff::/32''.  Note that the mask length
             provided must be consistent with the address - it is an error to specify a mask length that is
             too long for the address or one with bits set in this host portion of the address.  For exam-ple, example,
             ple, ``192.0.2.0/33'' and ``192.0.2.0/8'' respectively.

             Only a subset of keywords may be used on the lines following a Match keyword.  Available key-words keywords
             words are AcceptEnv, AllowAgentForwarding, AllowGroups, AllowTcpForwarding, AllowUsers,
             AuthenticationMethods, AuthorizedKeysCommand, AuthorizedKeysCommandUser, AuthorizedKeysFile,
             AuthorizedPrincipalsFile, Banner, ChrootDirectory, DenyGroups, DenyUsers, ForceCommand,
             GatewayPorts, GSSAPIAuthentication, HostbasedAuthentication, HostbasedUsesNameFromPacketOnly,
             KbdInteractiveAuthentication, KerberosAuthentication, MaxAuthTries, MaxSessions,
             PasswordAuthentication, PermitEmptyPasswords, PermitOpen, PermitRootLogin, PermitTunnel,
             PubkeyAuthentication, RhostsRSAAuthentication, RSAAuthentication, X11DisplayOffset,
             X11Forwarding and X11UseLocalHost.

     MaxAuthTries
             Specifies the maximum number of authentication attempts permitted per connection.  Once the
             number of failures reaches half this value, additional failures are logged.  The default is 6.

     MaxSessions
             Specifies the maximum number of open sessions permitted per network connection.  The default is
             10.

             Has no effect if sshd is run from inetd(8).

     MaxStartups
             Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the SSH daemon.
             Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime
             expires for a connection.  The default is 10:30:100.

             Has no effect if sshd is run from inetd(8).

             Alternatively, random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values
             ``start:rate:full'' (e.g. "10:30:60").  sshd(8) will refuse connection attempts with a proba-bility probability
             bility of ``rate/100'' (30%) if there are currently ``start'' (10) unauthenticated connections.
             The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of
             unauthenticated connections reaches ``full'' (60).

     PasswordAuthentication
             Specifies whether password authentication is allowed.  The default is ``no''.

     PermitEmptyPasswords
             When password authentication is allowed, it specifies whether the server allows login to
             accounts with empty password strings.  The default is ``no''.

     PermitOpen
             Specifies the destinations to which TCP port forwarding is permitted.  The forwarding specifi-cation specification
             cation must be one of the following forms:

                   PermitOpen host:port
                   PermitOpen IPv4_addr:port
                   PermitOpen [IPv6_addr]:port

             Multiple forwards may be specified by separating them with whitespace.  An argument of ``any''
             can be used to remove all restrictions and permit any forwarding requests.  An argument of
             ``none'' can be used to prohibit all forwarding requests.  By default all port forwarding
             requests are permitted.

     PermitRootLogin
             Specifies whether root can log in using ssh(1).  The argument must be ``yes'',
             ``without-password'', ``forced-commands-only'', or ``no''.  The default is ``yes''.

             If this option is set to ``without-password'', password authentication is disabled for root.

             If this option is set to ``forced-commands-only'', root login with public key authentication
             will be allowed, but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for
             taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed).  All other authentication
             methods are disabled for root.

             If this option is set to ``no'', root is not allowed to log in.

     PermitTunnel
             Specifies whether tun(4) device forwarding is allowed.  The argument must be ``yes'',
             ``point-to-point'' (layer 3), ``ethernet'' (layer 2), or ``no''.  Specifying ``yes'' permits
             both ``point-to-point'' and ``ethernet''.  The default is ``no''.

     PermitUserEnvironment
             Specifies whether ~/.ssh/environment and environment= options in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys are
             processed by sshd(8).  The default is ``no''.  Enabling environment processing may enable users
             to bypass access restrictions in some configurations using mechanisms such as LD_PRELOAD.

     PidFile
             Specifies the file that contains the process ID of the SSH daemon.  The default is
             /var/run/sshd.pid.

     Port    Specifies the port number that sshd(8) listens on.  The default is 22.  Multiple options of
             this type are permitted.  See also ListenAddress.

             On Mac OS X, see ListenAddress for information on setting the port number.

     PrintLastLog
             Specifies whether sshd(8) should print the date and time of the last user login when a user
             logs in interactively.  The default is ``yes''.

     PrintMotd
             Specifies whether sshd(8) should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively.  (On some
             systems it is also printed by the shell, /etc/profile, or equivalent.)  The default is ``yes''.

     Protocol
             Specifies the protocol versions sshd(8) supports.  The possible values are `1' and `2'.  Multi-ple Multiple
             ple versions must be comma-separated.  The default is `2'.  Note that the order of the protocol
             list does not indicate preference, because the client selects among multiple protocol versions
             offered by the server.  Specifying ``2,1'' is identical to ``1,2''.

     PubkeyAuthentication
             Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed.  The default is ``yes''.  Note that
             this option applies to protocol version 2 only.

     RevokedKeys
             Specifies revoked public keys.  Keys listed in this file will be refused for public key authen-tication. authentication.
             tication.  Note that if this file is not readable, then public key authentication will be
             refused for all users.  Keys may be specified as a text file, listing one public key per line,
             or as an OpenSSH Key Revocation List (KRL) as generated by ssh-keygen(1).  For more information
             on KRLs, see the KEY REVOCATION LISTS section in ssh-keygen(1).

     RhostsRSAAuthentication
             Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts.equiv authentication together with successful RSA host
             authentication is allowed.  The default is ``no''.  This option applies to protocol version 1
             only.

     RSAAuthentication
             Specifies whether pure RSA authentication is allowed.  The default is ``yes''.  This option
             applies to protocol version 1 only.

     SACLSupport
             Deprecated in favor of SACL enforcement in the PAM stack (/etc/pam.d/sshd). Option has no
             effect.

     ServerKeyBits
             Defines the number of bits in the ephemeral protocol version 1 server key.  The minimum value
             is 512, and the default is 1024.

     StrictModes
             Specifies whether sshd(8) should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home
             directory before accepting login.  This is normally desirable because novices sometimes acci-dentally accidentally
             dentally leave their directory or files world-writable.  The default is ``yes''.  Note that
             this does not apply to ChrootDirectory, whose permissions and ownership are checked uncondi-tionally. unconditionally.
             tionally.

     Subsystem
             Configures an external subsystem (e.g. file transfer daemon).  Arguments should be a subsystem
             name and a command (with optional arguments) to execute upon subsystem request.

             The command sftp-server(8) implements the ``sftp'' file transfer subsystem.

             Alternately the name ``internal-sftp'' implements an in-process ``sftp'' server.  This may sim-plify simplify
             plify configurations using ChrootDirectory to force a different filesystem root on clients.

             By default no subsystems are defined.  Note that this option applies to protocol version 2
             only.

     SyslogFacility
             Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd(8).  The possible values
             are: DAEMON, USER, AUTH, LOCAL0, LOCAL1, LOCAL2, LOCAL3, LOCAL4, LOCAL5, LOCAL6, LOCAL7.  The
             default is AUTH.

     TCPKeepAlive
             Specifies whether the system should send TCP keepalive messages to the other side.  If they are
             sent, death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed.  How-ever, However,
             ever, this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily, and some people
             find it annoying.  On the other hand, if TCP keepalives are not sent, sessions may hang indefi-nitely indefinitely
             nitely on the server, leaving ``ghost'' users and consuming server resources.

             The default is ``yes'' (to send TCP keepalive messages), and the server will notice if the net-work network
             work goes down or the client host crashes.  This avoids infinitely hanging sessions.

             To disable TCP keepalive messages, the value should be set to ``no''.

     TrustedUserCAKeys
             Specifies a file containing public keys of certificate authorities that are trusted to sign
             user certificates for authentication.  Keys are listed one per line; empty lines and comments
             starting with `#' are allowed.  If a certificate is presented for authentication and has its
             signing CA key listed in this file, then it may be used for authentication for any user listed
             in the certificate's principals list.  Note that certificates that lack a list of principals
             will not be permitted for authentication using TrustedUserCAKeys.  For more details on certifi-cates, certificates,
             cates, see the CERTIFICATES section in ssh-keygen(1).

     UseDNS  Specifies whether sshd(8) should look up the remote host name and check that the resolved host
             name for the remote IP address maps back to the very same IP address.  The default is ``yes''.

     UseLogin
             Specifies whether login(1) is used for interactive login sessions.  The default is ``no''.
             Note that login(1) is never used for remote command execution.  Note also, that if this is
             enabled, X11Forwarding will be disabled because login(1) does not know how to handle xauth(1)
             cookies.  If UsePrivilegeSeparation is specified, it will be disabled after authentication.

     UsePAM  Enables the Pluggable Authentication Module interface.  If set to ``yes'' this will enable PAM
             authentication using ChallengeResponseAuthentication and PasswordAuthentication in addition to
             PAM account and session module processing for all authentication types.

             Because PAM challenge-response authentication usually serves an equivalent role to password
             authentication, you should disable either PasswordAuthentication or
             ChallengeResponseAuthentication.

             If UsePAM is enabled, you will not be able to run sshd(8) as a non-root user.  The default is
             ``yes''.

     UsePrivilegeSeparation
             Specifies whether sshd(8) separates privileges by creating an unprivileged child process to
             deal with incoming network traffic.  After successful authentication, another process will be
             created that has the privilege of the authenticated user.  The goal of privilege separation is
             to prevent privilege escalation by containing any corruption within the unprivileged processes.
             If UsePrivilegeSeparation is set to ``sandbox'' then the pre-authentication unprivileged
             process is subject to additional restrictions.  The default is ``sandbox''.

     VersionAddendum
             Optionally specifies additional text to append to the SSH protocol banner sent by the server
             upon connection.  The default is ``none''.

     X11DisplayOffset
             Specifies the first display number available for sshd(8)'s X11 forwarding.  This prevents sshd
             from interfering with real X11 servers.  The default is 10.

     X11Forwarding
             Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted.  The argument must be ``yes'' or ``no''.  The
             default is ``no''.

             When X11 forwarding is enabled, there may be additional exposure to the server and to client
             displays if the sshd(8) proxy display is configured to listen on the wildcard address (see
             X11UseLocalhost below), though this is not the default.  Additionally, the authentication
             spoofing and authentication data verification and substitution occur on the client side.  The
             security risk of using X11 forwarding is that the client's X11 display server may be exposed to
             attack when the SSH client requests forwarding (see the warnings for ForwardX11 in
             ssh_config(5)).  A system administrator may have a stance in which they want to protect clients
             that may expose themselves to attack by unwittingly requesting X11 forwarding, which can war-rant warrant
             rant a ``no'' setting.

             Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not prevent users from forwarding X11 traffic, as users
             can always install their own forwarders.  X11 forwarding is automatically disabled if UseLogin
             is enabled.

     X11UseLocalhost
             Specifies whether sshd(8) should bind the X11 forwarding server to the loopback address or to
             the wildcard address.  By default, sshd binds the forwarding server to the loopback address and
             sets the hostname part of the DISPLAY environment variable to ``localhost''.  This prevents
             remote hosts from connecting to the proxy display.  However, some older X11 clients may not
             function with this configuration.  X11UseLocalhost may be set to ``no'' to specify that the
             forwarding server should be bound to the wildcard address.  The argument must be ``yes'' or
             ``no''.  The default is ``yes''.

     XAuthLocation
             Specifies the full pathname of the xauth(1) program.  The default is xauth (which causes sshd
             to search $PATH, possibly set by launchd(8)).

TIME FORMATS
     sshd(8) command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using
     a sequence of the form: time[qualifier], where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of
     the following:

           <none>  seconds
           s | S   seconds
           m | M   minutes
           h | H   hours
           d | D   days
           w | W   weeks

     Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value.

     Time format examples:

           600     600 seconds (10 minutes)
           10m     10 minutes
           1h30m   1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes)

FILES
     /etc/ssh/sshd_config
             Contains configuration data for sshd(8).  This file should be writable by root only, but it is
             recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.

SEE ALSO
     sshd(8)

AUTHORS
     OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by Tatu Ylonen.  Aaron Campbell,
     Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo de Raadt and Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer
     features and created OpenSSH.  Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol versions 1.5 and
     2.0.  Niels Provos and Markus Friedl contributed support for privilege separation.

BSD                            October 11, 2013                            BSD

Reporting Problems

The way to report a problem with this manual page depends on the type of problem:

Content errors
Report errors in the content of this documentation to the OpenSSH project.
Bug reports
Report bugs in the functionality of the described tool or API to Apple through Bug Reporter and to the OpenSSH project through their bug reporting page.
Formatting problems
Report formatting mistakes in the online version of these pages with the feedback links below.

Feedback