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terminfo(5)                                     File Formats                                     terminfo(5)



NAME
       terminfo - terminal capability data base

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/share/terminfo/*/*

DESCRIPTION
       Terminfo  is  a  data  base  describing  terminals,  used by screen-oriented programs such as nvi(1),
       rogue(1) and libraries such as curses(3X).  Terminfo describes terminals by giving a set of capabili-ties capabilities
       ties  which  they  have,  by  specifying  how to perform screen operations, and by specifying padding
       requirements and initialization sequences.  This describes ncurses version 5.7 (patch 20081102).

       Entries in terminfo consist of a sequence of `,' separated fields (embedded  commas  may  be  escaped
       with  a  backslash  or  notated as \054).  White space after the `,' separator is ignored.  The first
       entry for each terminal gives the names which are known for the terminal, separated  by  `|'  charac-ters. characters.
       ters.   The  first  name  given is the most common abbreviation for the terminal, the last name given
       should be a long name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood as  synonyms  for
       the  terminal  name.   All names but the last should be in lower case and contain no blanks; the last
       name may well contain upper case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated as  comments.   While  comment  lines  are
       legal  at  any  point,  the output of captoinfo and infotocap (aliases for tic) will move comments so
       they occur only between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for readability.  These are removed from
       parsed  entries.  The infocmp -f option relies on this to format if-then-else expressions: the result
       can be read by tic.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen using the following conventions.
       The  particular  piece  of  hardware making up the terminal should have a root name, thus ``hp2621''.
       This name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user preferences, should
       be  indicated  by  appending  a  hyphen and a mode suffix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be
       vt100-w.  The following suffixes should be used where possible:


                           Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
                           -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
                           -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
                           -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
                           -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
                           -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
                           -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
                           -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
                           -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
                           -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
                           -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
                           -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
                           -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
                           -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Capabilities
       The following is a complete table of the capabilities included in a terminfo  description  block  and
       available to terminfo-using code.  In each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at the terminfo level) accesses the capability.

       The  capname is the short name used in the text of the database, and is used by a person updating the
       database.  Whenever possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979
       standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or very similar names).  Semantics are also
       intended to match those of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities are new, and have names  which
       termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5 characters has been adopted to
       keep them short and to allow the tabs in the source file Caps to line up nicely.

       Finally, the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the capability.  You may find some
       codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is passed through tparm with parms as given
              (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.


       These are the boolean capabilities:


               Variable                        Cap-                 TCap                    Description
               Booleans                        name                 Code
       auto_left_margin                        bw                   bw                  cub1 wraps from col-umn column
                                                                                        umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin                       am                   am                  terminal has auto-matic automatic
                                                                                        matic margins
       back_color_erase                        bce                  ut                  screen erased with
                                                                                        background color
       can_change                              ccc                  cc                  terminal can re-define redefine
                                                                                        define existing col-ors colors
                                                                                        ors
       ceol_standout_glitch                    xhp                  xs                  standout not erased
                                                                                        by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch                         xhpa                 YA                  only positive motion
                                                                                        for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res                         cpix                 YF                  changing character
                                                                                        pitch changes reso-lution resolution
                                                                                        lution
       cr_cancels_micro_mode                   crxm                 YB                  using cr turns off
                                                                                        micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso                    xt                   xt                  tabs destructive,
                                                                                        magic so char
                                                                                        (t1061)
       eat_newline_glitch                      xenl                 xn                  newline ignored
                                                                                        after 80 cols (con-cept) (concept)
                                                                                        cept)
       erase_overstrike                        eo                   eo                  can erase over-strikes overstrikes
                                                                                        strikes with a blank
       generic_type                            gn                   gn                  generic line type
       hard_copy                               hc                   hc                  hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                             chts                 HC                  cursor is hard to
                                                                                        see
       has_meta_key                            km                   km                  Has a meta key
                                                                                        (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel                         daisy                YC                  printer needs opera-tor operator
                                                                                        tor to change char-acter character
                                                                                        acter set
       has_status_line                         hs                   hs                  has extra status
                                                                                        line
       hue_lightness_saturation                hls                  hl                  terminal uses only
                                                                                        HLS color notation
                                                                                        (Tektronix)

       insert_null_glitch                      in                   in                  insert mode distin-guishes distinguishes
                                                                                        guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res                         lpix                 YG                  changing line pitch
                                                                                        changes resolution
       memory_above                            da                   da                  display may be
                                                                                        retained above the
                                                                                        screen
       memory_below                            db                   db                  display may be
                                                                                        retained below the
                                                                                        screen
       move_insert_mode                        mir                  mi                  safe to move while
                                                                                        in insert mode
       move_standout_mode                      msgr                 ms                  safe to move while
                                                                                        in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                          nxon                 nx                  padding will not
                                                                                        work, xon/xoff
                                                                                        required
       no_esc_ctlc                             xsb                  xb                  beehive (f1=escape,
                                                                                        f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                             npc                  NP                  pad character does
                                                                                        not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region                  ndscr                ND                  scrolling region is
                                                                                        non-destructive
       non_rev_rmcup                           nrrmc                NR                  smcup does not
                                                                                        reverse rmcup
       over_strike                             os                   os                  terminal can over-strike overstrike
                                                                                        strike
       prtr_silent                             mc5i                 5i                  printer will not
                                                                                        echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch                         xvpa                 YD                  only positive motion
                                                                                        for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin                  sam                  YE                  printing in last
                                                                                        column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok                      eslok                es                  escape can be used
                                                                                        on the status line
       tilde_glitch                            hz                   hz                  cannot print ~'s
                                                                                        (hazeltine)
       transparent_underline                   ul                   ul                  underline character
                                                                                        overstrikes
       xon_xoff                                xon                  xo                  terminal uses
                                                                                        xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:


            Variable                       Cap-                   TCap                      Description
             Numeric                       name                   Code
       columns                             cols                   co                    number of columns in
                                                                                        a line
       init_tabs                           it                     it                    tabs initially every
                                                                                        # spaces
       label_height                        lh                     lh                    rows in each label
       label_width                         lw                     lw                    columns in each
                                                                                        label
       lines                               lines                  li                    number of lines on
                                                                                        screen or page
       lines_of_memory                     lm                     lm                    lines of memory if >
                                                                                        line. 0 means varies
       magic_cookie_glitch                 xmc                    sg                    number of blank
                                                                                        characters left by
                                                                                        smso or rmso
       max_attributes                      ma                     ma                    maximum combined
                                                                                        attributes terminal
                                                                                        can handle


       max_colors                          colors                 Co                    maximum number of
                                                                                        colors on screen
       max_pairs                           pairs                  pa                    maximum number of
                                                                                        color-pairs on the
                                                                                        screen
       maximum_windows                     wnum                   MW                    maximum number of
                                                                                        defineable windows
       no_color_video                      ncv                    NC                    video attributes
                                                                                        that cannot be used
                                                                                        with colors
       num_labels                          nlab                   Nl                    number of labels on
                                                                                        screen
       padding_baud_rate                   pb                     pb                    lowest baud rate
                                                                                        where padding needed
       virtual_terminal                    vt                     vt                    virtual terminal
                                                                                        number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line                   wsl                    ws                    number of columns in
                                                                                        status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but are not yet docu-mented documented
       mented in the man page.  They came in with SVr4's printer support.


             Variable                       Cap-                   TCap                     Description
             Numeric                        name                   Code
       bit_image_entwining                  bitwin                 Yo                   number of passes for
                                                                                        each bit-image row
       bit_image_type                       bitype                 Yp                   type of bit-image
                                                                                        device
       buffer_capacity                      bufsz                  Ya                   numbers of bytes
                                                                                        buffered before
                                                                                        printing
       buttons                              btns                   BT                   number of buttons on
                                                                                        mouse
       dot_horz_spacing                     spinh                  Yc                   spacing of dots hor-izontally horizontally
                                                                                        izontally in dots
                                                                                        per inch
       dot_vert_spacing                     spinv                  Yb                   spacing of pins ver-tically vertically
                                                                                        tically in pins per
                                                                                        inch
       max_micro_address                    maddr                  Yd                   maximum value in
                                                                                        micro_..._address
       max_micro_jump                       mjump                  Ye                   maximum value in
                                                                                        parm_..._micro
       micro_col_size                       mcs                    Yf                   character step size
                                                                                        when in micro mode
       micro_line_size                      mls                    Yg                   line step size when
                                                                                        in micro mode
       number_of_pins                       npins                  Yh                   numbers of pins in
                                                                                        print-head
       output_res_char                      orc                    Yi                   horizontal resolu-tion resolution
                                                                                        tion in units per
                                                                                        line
       output_res_horz_inch                 orhi                   Yk                   horizontal resolu-tion resolution
                                                                                        tion in units per
                                                                                        inch
       output_res_line                      orl                    Yj                   vertical resolution
                                                                                        in units per line
       output_res_vert_inch                 orvi                   Yl                   vertical resolution
                                                                                        in units per inch
       print_rate                           cps                    Ym                   print rate in char-acters characters
                                                                                        acters per second
       wide_char_size                       widcs                  Yn                   character step size
                                                                                        when in double wide
                                                                                        mode

       These are the string capabilities:


               Variable                        Cap-                 TCap                    Description
                String                         name                 Code
       acs_chars                               acsc                 ac                  graphics charset
                                                                                        pairs, based on
                                                                                        vt100
       back_tab                                cbt                  bt                  back tab (P)
       bell                                    bel                  bl                  audible signal
                                                                                        (bell) (P)
       carriage_return                         cr                   cr                  carriage return (P*)
                                                                                        (P*)
       change_char_pitch                       cpi                  ZA                  Change number of
                                                                                        characters per inch
                                                                                        to #1
       change_line_pitch                       lpi                  ZB                  Change number of
                                                                                        lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz                         chr                  ZC                  Change horizontal
                                                                                        resolution to #1
       change_res_vert                         cvr                  ZD                  Change vertical res-olution resolution
                                                                                        olution to #1
       change_scroll_region                    csr                  cs                  change region to
                                                                                        line #1 to line #2
                                                                                        (P)
       char_padding                            rmp                  rP                  like ip but when in
                                                                                        insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                          tbc                  ct                  clear all tab stops
                                                                                        (P)
       clear_margins                           mgc                  MC                  clear right and left
                                                                                        soft margins
       clear_screen                            clear                cl                  clear screen and
                                                                                        home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                                 el1                  cb                  Clear to beginning
                                                                                        of line
       clr_eol                                 el                   ce                  clear to end of line
                                                                                        (P)
       clr_eos                                 ed                   cd                  clear to end of
                                                                                        screen (P*)
       column_address                          hpa                  ch                  horizontal position
                                                                                        #1, absolute (P)
       command_character                       cmdch                CC                  terminal settable
                                                                                        cmd character in
                                                                                        prototype !?
       create_window                           cwin                 CW                  define a window #1
                                                                                        from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                          cup                  cm                  move to row #1 col-umns columns
                                                                                        umns #2
       cursor_down                             cud1                 do                  down one line
       cursor_home                             home                 ho                  home cursor (if no
                                                                                        cup)
       cursor_invisible                        civis                vi                  make cursor invisi-ble invisible
                                                                                        ble
       cursor_left                             cub1                 le                  move left one space
       cursor_mem_address                      mrcup                CM                  memory relative cur-sor cursor
                                                                                        sor addressing, move
                                                                                        to row #1 columns #2
       cursor_normal                           cnorm                ve                  make cursor appear
                                                                                        normal (undo
                                                                                        civis/cvvis)
       cursor_right                            cuf1                 nd                  non-destructive
                                                                                        space (move right
                                                                                        one space)
       cursor_to_ll                            ll                   ll                  last line, first
                                                                                        column (if no cup)

       cursor_up                               cuu1                 up                  up one line
       cursor_visible                          cvvis                vs                  make cursor very
                                                                                        visible
       define_char                             defc                 ZE                  Define a character
                                                                                        #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                                                        descender #3
       delete_character                        dch1                 dc                  delete character
                                                                                        (P*)
       delete_line                             dl1                  dl                  delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                              dial                 DI                  dial number #1
       dis_status_line                         dsl                  ds                  disable status line
       display_clock                           dclk                 DK                  display clock
       down_half_line                          hd                   hd                  half a line down
       ena_acs                                 enacs                eA                  enable alternate
                                                                                        char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode                  smacs                as                  start alternate
                                                                                        character set (P)
       enter_am_mode                           smam                 SA                  turn on automatic
                                                                                        margins
       enter_blink_mode                        blink                mb                  turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode                         bold                 md                  turn on bold (extra
                                                                                        bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                           smcup                ti                  string to start pro-grams programs
                                                                                        grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode                       smdc                 dm                  enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                          dim                  mh                  turn on half-bright
                                                                                        mode
       enter_doublewide_mode                   swidm                ZF                  Enter double-wide
                                                                                        mode
       enter_draft_quality                     sdrfq                ZG                  Enter draft-quality
                                                                                        mode
       enter_insert_mode                       smir                 im                  enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode                      sitm                 ZH                  Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode                     slm                  ZI                  Start leftward car-riage carriage
                                                                                        riage motion
       enter_micro_mode                        smicm                ZJ                  Start micro-motion
                                                                                        mode
       enter_near_letter_quality               snlq                 ZK                  Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality                    snrmq                ZL                  Enter normal-quality
                                                                                        mode
       enter_protected_mode                    prot                 mp                  turn on protected
                                                                                        mode
       enter_reverse_mode                      rev                  mr                  turn on reverse
                                                                                        video mode
       enter_secure_mode                       invis                mk                  turn on blank mode
                                                                                        (characters invisi-ble) invisible)
                                                                                        ble)
       enter_shadow_mode                       sshm                 ZM                  Enter shadow-print
                                                                                        mode
       enter_standout_mode                     smso                 so                  begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode                    ssubm                ZN                  Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode                  ssupm                ZO                  Enter superscript
                                                                                        mode
       enter_underline_mode                    smul                 us                  begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode                       sum                  ZP                  Start upward car-riage carriage
                                                                                        riage motion
       enter_xon_mode                          smxon                SX                  turn on xon/xoff
                                                                                        handshaking
       erase_chars                             ech                  ec                  erase #1 characters
                                                                                        (P)
       exit_alt_charset_mode                   rmacs                ae                  end alternate char-acter character
                                                                                        acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode                            rmam                 RA                  turn off automatic
                                                                                        margins


       exit_attribute_mode                     sgr0                 me                  turn off all
                                                                                        attributes
       exit_ca_mode                            rmcup                te                  strings to end pro-grams programs
                                                                                        grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode                        rmdc                 ed                  end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode                    rwidm                ZQ                  End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode                        rmir                 ei                  exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode                       ritm                 ZR                  End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode                      rlm                  ZS                  End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode                         rmicm                ZT                  End micro-motion
                                                                                        mode
       exit_shadow_mode                        rshm                 ZU                  End shadow-print
                                                                                        mode
       exit_standout_mode                      rmso                 se                  exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode                     rsubm                ZV                  End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode                   rsupm                ZW                  End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode                     rmul                 ue                  exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode                        rum                  ZX                  End reverse charac-ter character
                                                                                        ter motion
       exit_xon_mode                           rmxon                RX                  turn off xon/xoff
                                                                                        handshaking
       fixed_pause                             pause                PA                  pause for 2-3 sec-onds seconds
                                                                                        onds
       flash_hook                              hook                 fh                  flash switch hook
       flash_screen                            flash                vb                  visible bell (may
                                                                                        not move cursor)
       form_feed                               ff                   ff                  hardcopy terminal
                                                                                        page eject (P*)
       from_status_line                        fsl                  fs                  return from status
                                                                                        line
       goto_window                             wingo                WG                  go to window #1
       hangup                                  hup                  HU                  hang-up phone
       init_1string                            is1                  i1                  initialization
                                                                                        string
       init_2string                            is2                  is                  initialization
                                                                                        string
       init_3string                            is3                  i3                  initialization
                                                                                        string
       init_file                               if                   if                  name of initializa-tion initialization
                                                                                        tion file
       init_prog                               iprog                iP                  path name of program
                                                                                        for initialization
       initialize_color                        initc                Ic                  initialize color #1
                                                                                        to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair                         initp                Ip                  Initialize color
                                                                                        pair #1 to
                                                                                        fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                                                                        bg=(#5,#6,#7)
       insert_character                        ich1                 ic                  insert character (P)
       insert_line                             il1                  al                  insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                          ip                   ip                  insert padding after
                                                                                        inserted character
       key_a1                                  ka1                  K1                  upper left of keypad
       key_a3                                  ka3                  K3                  upper right of key-pad keypad
                                                                                        pad
       key_b2                                  kb2                  K2                  center of keypad
       key_backspace                           kbs                  kb                  backspace key
       key_beg                                 kbeg                 @1                  begin key
       key_btab                                kcbt                 kB                  back-tab key
       key_c1                                  kc1                  K4                  lower left of keypad
       key_c3                                  kc3                  K5                  lower right of key-pad keypad
                                                                                        pad
       key_cancel                              kcan                 @2                  cancel key
       key_catab                               ktbc                 ka                  clear-all-tabs key


       key_clear                               kclr                 kC                  clear-screen or
                                                                                        erase key
       key_close                               kclo                 @3                  close key
       key_command                             kcmd                 @4                  command key
       key_copy                                kcpy                 @5                  copy key
       key_create                              kcrt                 @6                  create key
       key_ctab                                kctab                kt                  clear-tab key
       key_dc                                  kdch1                kD                  delete-character key
       key_dl                                  kdl1                 kL                  delete-line key
       key_down                                kcud1                kd                  down-arrow key
       key_eic                                 krmir                kM                  sent by rmir or smir
                                                                                        in insert mode
       key_end                                 kend                 @7                  end key
       key_enter                               kent                 @8                  enter/send key
       key_eol                                 kel                  kE                  clear-to-end-of-line
                                                                                        key
       key_eos                                 ked                  kS                  clear-to-end-of-screen clear-to-end-ofscreen
                                                                                        screen key
       key_exit                                kext                 @9                  exit key
       key_f0                                  kf0                  k0                  F0 function key
       key_f1                                  kf1                  k1                  F1 function key
       key_f10                                 kf10                 k;                  F10 function key
       key_f11                                 kf11                 F1                  F11 function key
       key_f12                                 kf12                 F2                  F12 function key
       key_f13                                 kf13                 F3                  F13 function key
       key_f14                                 kf14                 F4                  F14 function key
       key_f15                                 kf15                 F5                  F15 function key
       key_f16                                 kf16                 F6                  F16 function key
       key_f17                                 kf17                 F7                  F17 function key
       key_f18                                 kf18                 F8                  F18 function key
       key_f19                                 kf19                 F9                  F19 function key
       key_f2                                  kf2                  k2                  F2 function key
       key_f20                                 kf20                 FA                  F20 function key
       key_f21                                 kf21                 FB                  F21 function key
       key_f22                                 kf22                 FC                  F22 function key
       key_f23                                 kf23                 FD                  F23 function key
       key_f24                                 kf24                 FE                  F24 function key
       key_f25                                 kf25                 FF                  F25 function key
       key_f26                                 kf26                 FG                  F26 function key
       key_f27                                 kf27                 FH                  F27 function key
       key_f28                                 kf28                 FI                  F28 function key
       key_f29                                 kf29                 FJ                  F29 function key
       key_f3                                  kf3                  k3                  F3 function key
       key_f30                                 kf30                 FK                  F30 function key
       key_f31                                 kf31                 FL                  F31 function key
       key_f32                                 kf32                 FM                  F32 function key
       key_f33                                 kf33                 FN                  F33 function key
       key_f34                                 kf34                 FO                  F34 function key
       key_f35                                 kf35                 FP                  F35 function key
       key_f36                                 kf36                 FQ                  F36 function key
       key_f37                                 kf37                 FR                  F37 function key
       key_f38                                 kf38                 FS                  F38 function key
       key_f39                                 kf39                 FT                  F39 function key
       key_f4                                  kf4                  k4                  F4 function key
       key_f40                                 kf40                 FU                  F40 function key
       key_f41                                 kf41                 FV                  F41 function key
       key_f42                                 kf42                 FW                  F42 function key
       key_f43                                 kf43                 FX                  F43 function key
       key_f44                                 kf44                 FY                  F44 function key
       key_f45                                 kf45                 FZ                  F45 function key
       key_f46                                 kf46                 Fa                  F46 function key
       key_f47                                 kf47                 Fb                  F47 function key
       key_f48                                 kf48                 Fc                  F48 function key
       key_f49                                 kf49                 Fd                  F49 function key
       key_f5                                  kf5                  k5                  F5 function key

       key_f50                                 kf50                 Fe                  F50 function key
       key_f51                                 kf51                 Ff                  F51 function key
       key_f52                                 kf52                 Fg                  F52 function key
       key_f53                                 kf53                 Fh                  F53 function key
       key_f54                                 kf54                 Fi                  F54 function key
       key_f55                                 kf55                 Fj                  F55 function key
       key_f56                                 kf56                 Fk                  F56 function key
       key_f57                                 kf57                 Fl                  F57 function key
       key_f58                                 kf58                 Fm                  F58 function key
       key_f59                                 kf59                 Fn                  F59 function key
       key_f6                                  kf6                  k6                  F6 function key
       key_f60                                 kf60                 Fo                  F60 function key
       key_f61                                 kf61                 Fp                  F61 function key
       key_f62                                 kf62                 Fq                  F62 function key
       key_f63                                 kf63                 Fr                  F63 function key
       key_f7                                  kf7                  k7                  F7 function key
       key_f8                                  kf8                  k8                  F8 function key
       key_f9                                  kf9                  k9                  F9 function key
       key_find                                kfnd                 @0                  find key
       key_help                                khlp                 %1                  help key
       key_home                                khome                kh                  home key
       key_ic                                  kich1                kI                  insert-character key
       key_il                                  kil1                 kA                  insert-line key
       key_left                                kcub1                kl                  left-arrow key
       key_ll                                  kll                  kH                  lower-left key (home
                                                                                        down)
       key_mark                                kmrk                 %2                  mark key
       key_message                             kmsg                 %3                  message key
       key_move                                kmov                 %4                  move key
       key_next                                knxt                 %5                  next key
       key_npage                               knp                  kN                  next-page key
       key_open                                kopn                 %6                  open key
       key_options                             kopt                 %7                  options key
       key_ppage                               kpp                  kP                  previous-page key
       key_previous                            kprv                 %8                  previous key
       key_print                               kprt                 %9                  print key
       key_redo                                krdo                 %0                  redo key
       key_reference                           kref                 &1                  reference key
       key_refresh                             krfr                 &2                  refresh key
       key_replace                             krpl                 &3                  replace key
       key_restart                             krst                 &4                  restart key
       key_resume                              kres                 &5                  resume key
       key_right                               kcuf1                kr                  right-arrow key
       key_save                                ksav                 &6                  save key
       key_sbeg                                kBEG                 &9                  shifted begin key
       key_scancel                             kCAN                 &0                  shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                            kCMD                 *1                  shifted command key
       key_scopy                               kCPY                 *2                  shifted copy key
       key_screate                             kCRT                 *3                  shifted create key
       key_sdc                                 kDC                  *4                  shifted delete-char-acter delete-character
                                                                                        acter key
       key_sdl                                 kDL                  *5                  shifted delete-line
                                                                                        key
       key_select                              kslt                 *6                  select key
       key_send                                kEND                 *7                  shifted end key
       key_seol                                kEOL                 *8                  shifted clear-to-end-of-line clear-toend-of-line
                                                                                        end-of-line key
       key_sexit                               kEXT                 *9                  shifted exit key
       key_sf                                  kind                 kF                  scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                               kFND                 *0                  shifted find key
       key_shelp                               kHLP                 #1                  shifted help key
       key_shome                               kHOM                 #2                  shifted home key
       key_sic                                 kIC                  #3                  shifted insert-char-acter insert-character
                                                                                        acter key


       key_sleft                               kLFT                 #4                  shifted left-arrow
                                                                                        key
       key_smessage                            kMSG                 %a                  shifted message key
       key_smove                               kMOV                 %b                  shifted move key
       key_snext                               kNXT                 %c                  shifted next key
       key_soptions                            kOPT                 %d                  shifted options key
       key_sprevious                           kPRV                 %e                  shifted previous key
       key_sprint                              kPRT                 %f                  shifted print key
       key_sr                                  kri                  kR                  scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                               kRDO                 %g                  shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                            kRPL                 %h                  shifted replace key
       key_sright                              kRIT                 %i                  shifted right-arrow
                                                                                        key
       key_srsume                              kRES                 %j                  shifted resume key
       key_ssave                               kSAV                 !1                  shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                            kSPD                 !2                  shifted suspend key
       key_stab                                khts                 kT                  set-tab key
       key_sundo                               kUND                 !3                  shifted undo key
       key_suspend                             kspd                 &7                  suspend key
       key_undo                                kund                 &8                  undo key
       key_up                                  kcuu1                ku                  up-arrow key
       keypad_local                            rmkx                 ke                  leave 'key-board_transmit' 'keyboard_transmit'
                                                                                        board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit                             smkx                 ks                  enter 'key-board_transmit' 'keyboard_transmit'
                                                                                        board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0                                  lf0                  l0                  label on function
                                                                                        key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                                  lf1                  l1                  label on function
                                                                                        key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                                 lf10                 la                  label on function
                                                                                        key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                                  lf2                  l2                  label on function
                                                                                        key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                                  lf3                  l3                  label on function
                                                                                        key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                                  lf4                  l4                  label on function
                                                                                        key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                                  lf5                  l5                  label on function
                                                                                        key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                                  lf6                  l6                  label on function
                                                                                        key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                                  lf7                  l7                  label on function
                                                                                        key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                                  lf8                  l8                  label on function
                                                                                        key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                                  lf9                  l9                  label on function
                                                                                        key f9 if not f9
       label_format                            fln                  Lf                  label format
       label_off                               rmln                 LF                  turn off soft labels
       label_on                                smln                 LO                  turn on soft labels
       meta_off                                rmm                  mo                  turn off meta mode
       meta_on                                 smm                  mm                  turn on meta mode
                                                                                        (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address                    mhpa                 ZY                  Like column_address
                                                                                        in micro mode
       micro_down                              mcud1                ZZ                  Like cursor_down in
                                                                                        micro mode
       micro_left                              mcub1                Za                  Like cursor_left in
                                                                                        micro mode
       micro_right                             mcuf1                Zb                  Like cursor_right in
                                                                                        micro mode
       micro_row_address                       mvpa                 Zc                  Like row_address #1
                                                                                        in micro mode
       micro_up                                mcuu1                Zd                  Like cursor_up in
                                                                                        micro mode

       newline                                 nel                  nw                  newline (behave like
                                                                                        cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                           porder               Ze                  Match software bits
                                                                                        to print-head pins
       orig_colors                             oc                   oc                  Set all color pairs
                                                                                        to the original ones
       orig_pair                               op                   op                  Set default pair to
                                                                                        its original value
       pad_char                                pad                  pc                  padding char
                                                                                        (instead of null)
       parm_dch                                dch                  DC                  delete #1 characters
                                                                                        (P*)
       parm_delete_line                        dl                   DL                  delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor                        cud                  DO                  down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro                         mcud                 Zf                  Like parm_down_cur-sor parm_down_cursor
                                                                                        sor in micro mode
       parm_ich                                ich                  IC                  insert #1 characters
                                                                                        (P*)
       parm_index                              indn                 SF                  scroll forward #1
                                                                                        lines (P)
       parm_insert_line                        il                   AL                  insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor                        cub                  LE                  move #1 characters
                                                                                        to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro                         mcub                 Zg                  Like parm_left_cur-sor parm_left_cursor
                                                                                        sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor                       cuf                  RI                  move #1 characters
                                                                                        to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro                        mcuf                 Zh                  Like parm_right_cur-sor parm_right_cursor
                                                                                        sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex                             rin                  SR                  scroll back #1 lines
                                                                                        (P)
       parm_up_cursor                          cuu                  UP                  up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                           mcuu                 Zi                  Like parm_up_cursor
                                                                                        in micro mode
       pkey_key                                pfkey                pk                  program function key
                                                                                        #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                              pfloc                pl                  program function key
                                                                                        #1 to execute string
                                                                                        #2
       pkey_xmit                               pfx                  px                  program function key
                                                                                        #1 to transmit
                                                                                        string #2
       plab_norm                               pln                  pn                  program label #1 to
                                                                                        show string #2
       print_screen                            mc0                  ps                  print contents of
                                                                                        screen
       prtr_non                                mc5p                 pO                  turn on printer for
                                                                                        #1 bytes
       prtr_off                                mc4                  pf                  turn off printer
       prtr_on                                 mc5                  po                  turn on printer
       pulse                                   pulse                PU                  select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                              qdial                QD                  dial number #1 with-out without
                                                                                        out checking
       remove_clock                            rmclk                RC                  remove clock
       repeat_char                             rep                  rp                  repeat char #1 #2
                                                                                        times (P*)
       req_for_input                           rfi                  RF                  send next input char
                                                                                        (for ptys)
       reset_1string                           rs1                  r1                  reset string
       reset_2string                           rs2                  r2                  reset string
       reset_3string                           rs3                  r3                  reset string
       reset_file                              rf                   rf                  name of reset file
       restore_cursor                          rc                   rc                  restore cursor to
                                                                                        position of last
                                                                                        save_cursor

       row_address                             vpa                  cv                  vertical position #1
                                                                                        absolute (P)
       save_cursor                             sc                   sc                  save current cursor
                                                                                        position (P)
       scroll_forward                          ind                  sf                  scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                          ri                   sr                  scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set                         scs                  Zj                  Select character
                                                                                        set, #1
       set_attributes                          sgr                  sa                  define video
                                                                                        attributes #1-#9
                                                                                        (PG9)
       set_background                          setb                 Sb                  Set background color
                                                                                        #1
       set_bottom_margin                       smgb                 Zk                  Set bottom margin at
                                                                                        current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm                  smgbp                Zl                  Set bottom margin at
                                                                                        line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                                                        is not given) #2
                                                                                        lines from bottom
       set_clock                               sclk                 SC                  set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                                                        mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                          scp                  sp                  Set current color
                                                                                        pair to #1
       set_foreground                          setf                 Sf                  Set foreground color
                                                                                        #1
       set_left_margin                         smgl                 ML                  set left soft margin
                                                                                        at current col-umn. column.
                                                                                        umn.      See smgl.
                                                                                        (ML is not in BSD
                                                                                        termcap).
       set_left_margin_parm                    smglp                Zm                  Set left (right)
                                                                                        margin at column #1
       set_right_margin                        smgr                 MR                  set right soft mar-gin margin
                                                                                        gin at current col-umn column
                                                                                        umn
       set_right_margin_parm                   smgrp                Zn                  Set right margin at
                                                                                        column #1
       set_tab                                 hts                  st                  set a tab in every
                                                                                        row, current columns
       set_top_margin                          smgt                 Zo                  Set top margin at
                                                                                        current line
       set_top_margin_parm                     smgtp                Zp                  Set top (bottom)
                                                                                        margin at row #1
       set_window                              wind                 wi                  current window is
                                                                                        lines #1-#2 cols
                                                                                        #3-#4
       start_bit_image                         sbim                 Zq                  Start printing bit
                                                                                        image graphics
       start_char_set_def                      scsd                 Zr                  Start character set
                                                                                        definition #1, with
                                                                                        #2 characters in the
                                                                                        set
       stop_bit_image                          rbim                 Zs                  Stop printing bit
                                                                                        image graphics
       stop_char_set_def                       rcsd                 Zt                  End definition of
                                                                                        character set #1
       subscript_characters                    subcs                Zu                  List of subscript-able subscriptable
                                                                                        able characters
       superscript_characters                  supcs                Zv                  List of superscript-able superscriptable
                                                                                        able characters
       tab                                     ht                   ta                  tab to next 8-space
                                                                                        hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                          docr                 Zw                  Printing any of
                                                                                        these characters
                                                                                        causes CR

       to_status_line                          tsl                  ts                  move to status line,
                                                                                        column #1
       tone                                    tone                 TO                  select touch tone
                                                                                        dialing
       underline_char                          uc                   uc                  underline char and
                                                                                        move past it
       up_half_line                            hu                   hu                  half a line up
       user0                                   u0                   u0                  User string #0
       user1                                   u1                   u1                  User string #1
       user2                                   u2                   u2                  User string #2
       user3                                   u3                   u3                  User string #3
       user4                                   u4                   u4                  User string #4
       user5                                   u5                   u5                  User string #5
       user6                                   u6                   u6                  User string #6
       user7                                   u7                   u7                  User string #7
       user8                                   u8                   u8                  User string #8
       user9                                   u9                   u9                  User string #9
       wait_tone                               wait                 WA                  wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                          xoffc                XF                  XOFF character
       xon_character                           xonc                 XN                  XON character
       zero_motion                             zerom                Zx                  No motion for subse-quent subsequent
                                                                                        quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but were  originally  not
       documented in the man page.


               Variable                        Cap-                   TCap                   Description
                String                         name                   Code
       alt_scancode_esc                        scesa                  S8                  Alternate escape
                                                                                          for scancode emu-lation emulation
                                                                                          lation
       bit_image_carriage_return               bicr                   Yv                  Move to beginning
                                                                                          of same row
       bit_image_newline                       binel                  Zz                  Move to next row
                                                                                          of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat                        birep                  Xy                  Repeat bit image
                                                                                          cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                          csnm                   Zy                  Produce #1'th item
                                                                                          from list of char-acter character
                                                                                          acter set names
       code_set_init                           csin                   ci                  Init sequence for
                                                                                          multiple codesets
       color_names                             colornm                Yw                  Give name for
                                                                                          color #1
       define_bit_image_region                 defbi                  Yx                  Define rectan-gualar rectangualar
                                                                                          gualar bit image
                                                                                          region
       device_type                             devt                   dv                  Indicate lan-guage/codeset language/codeset
                                                                                          guage/codeset sup-port support
                                                                                          port
       display_pc_char                         dispc                  S1                  Display PC charac-ter character
                                                                                          ter #1
       end_bit_image_region                    endbi                  Yy                  End a bit-image
                                                                                          region
       enter_pc_charset_mode                   smpch                  S2                  Enter PC character
                                                                                          display mode
       enter_scancode_mode                     smsc                   S4                  Enter PC scancode
                                                                                          mode
       exit_pc_charset_mode                    rmpch                  S3                  Exit PC character
                                                                                          display mode
       exit_scancode_mode                      rmsc                   S5                  Exit PC scancode
                                                                                          mode



       get_mouse                               getm                   Gm                  Curses should get
                                                                                          button events,
                                                                                          parameter #1 not
                                                                                          documented.
       key_mouse                               kmous                  Km                  Mouse event has
                                                                                          occurred
       mouse_info                              minfo                  Mi                  Mouse status
                                                                                          information
       pc_term_options                         pctrm                  S6                  PC terminal
                                                                                          options
       pkey_plab                               pfxl                   xl                  Program function
                                                                                          key #1 to type
                                                                                          string #2 and show
                                                                                          string #3
       req_mouse_pos                           reqmp                  RQ                  Request mouse
                                                                                          position
       scancode_escape                         scesc                  S7                  Escape for scan-code scancode
                                                                                          code emulation
       set0_des_seq                            s0ds                   s0                  Shift to codeset 0
                                                                                          (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                            s1ds                   s1                  Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                            s2ds                   s2                  Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                            s3ds                   s3                  Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background                        setab                  AB                  Set background
                                                                                          color to #1, using
                                                                                          ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground                        setaf                  AF                  Set foreground
                                                                                          color to #1, using
                                                                                          ANSI escape
       set_color_band                          setcolor               Yz                  Change to ribbon
                                                                                          color #1
       set_lr_margin                           smglr                  ML                  Set both left and
                                                                                          right margins to
                                                                                          #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                                                          not in BSD term-cap). termcap).
                                                                                          cap).
       set_page_length                         slines                 YZ                  Set page length to
                                                                                          #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                           smgtb                  MT                  Sets both top and
                                                                                          bottom margins to
                                                                                          #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these.  They are some post-4.1 versions  of  System  V  curses,  e.g.,
        Solaris  2.5  and  IRIX  6.x.  The ncurses termcap names for them are invented; according to the XSI
        Curses standard, they have no termcap names.  If your compiled terminfo entries use these, they  may
        not be binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!


                Variable                       Cap-                  TCap                   Description
                 String                        name                  Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode               ehhlm                 Xh                 Enter horizontal
                                                                                        highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode                     elhlm                 Xl                 Enter left highlight
                                                                                        mode
        enter_low_hl_mode                      elohlm                Xo                 Enter low highlight
                                                                                        mode
        enter_right_hl_mode                    erhlm                 Xr                 Enter right high-light highlight
                                                                                        light mode
        enter_top_hl_mode                      ethlm                 Xt                 Enter top highlight
                                                                                        mode
        enter_vertical_hl_mode                 evhlm                 Xv                 Enter vertical high-light highlight
                                                                                        light mode
        set_a_attributes                       sgr1                  sA                 Define second set of
                                                                                        video attributes
                                                                                        #1-#6

        set_pglen_inch                         slength               sL                 YI Set page length
                                                                                        to #1 hundredth of
                                                                                        an inch

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is representative of what a terminfo entry
       for a modern terminal typically looks like.

     ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
             mc5i,
             colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
             cub=\E[%p1%dD, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,
             cuu=\E[%p1%dA, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dl=\E[%p1%dM,
             ech=\E[%p1%dX, el1=\E[1K, hpa=\E[%p1%dG, ht=\E[I,
             ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, indn=\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\E[%p1%dT,
             kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
             kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kf1=\E[M, kf10=\E[V,
             kf11=\E[W, kf12=\E[X, kf2=\E[N, kf3=\E[O, kf4=\E[P,
             kf5=\E[Q, kf6=\E[R, kf7=\E[S, kf8=\E[T, kf9=\E[U,
             kich1=\E[L, mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S,
             op=\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
             rin=\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B,
             s3ds=\E+B, setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
             setb=\E[4%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
             setf=\E[3%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
             sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p3%t;7%;%?%p4%t;5%;%?%p6%t;1%;%?%p7%t;8%;%?%p8%t;11%;%?%p9%t;12%;m,
             sgr0=\E[0;10m, tbc=\E[2g, u6=\E[%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
             u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%p1%dd,

       Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the beginning of each line  except
       the  first.  Comments may be included on lines beginning with ``#''.  Capabilities in terminfo are of
       three types: Boolean capabilities which indicate that  the  terminal  has  some  particular  feature,
       numeric  capabilities  giving  the  size of the terminal or the size of particular delays, and string
       capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to perform particular terminal operations.


   Types of Capabilities
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard terminals have automatic mar-gins margins
       gins  (i.e., an automatic return and line-feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the
       capability am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.  Numeric capabilities are followed by  the
       character `#' and then a positive value.  Thus cols, which indicates the number of columns the termi-nal terminal
       nal has, gives the value `80' for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal,
       octal  or  hexadecimal,  using  the  C  programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or
       0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line sequence) are given by the two-character twocharacter
       character code, an `=', and then a string ending at the next following `,'.

       A  number  of  escape  sequences  are provided in the string valued capabilities for easy encoding of
       characters there.  Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a control-x for  any  appro-priate appropriate
       priate  x,  and the sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s give a newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace,
       form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include \^ for ^, \\ for \, \, for comma, \: for :, and  \0  for
       null.   (\0  will  produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves as a null character on
       most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).)  Finally, characters may be given as three
       octal digits after a \.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability, enclosed in $<..> brackets, as in
       el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters are supplied by tputs to provide this delay.  The delay must be  a
       number  with  at  most  one  decimal place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes `*' or '/' or
       both.  A `*' indicates that the padding required is proportional to the number of lines  affected  by
       the  operation,  and  the  amount  given  is the per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of
       insert character, the factor is still the number of lines affected.)  Normally, padding  is  advisory
       if the device has the xon capability; it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.  A
       `/' suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a delay of the  given  number  of  mil-liseconds milliseconds
       liseconds even on devices for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put a period before the capa-bility capability
       bility name.  For example, see the second ind in the example above.


   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the pathname of  a  directory  con-taining containing
       taining the compiled description you are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       If  TERMINFO  is  not  set,  the ncurses version of the terminfo reader code will instead look in the
       directory $HOME/.terminfo for a compiled description.  If it fails to find one there, and  the  envi-ronment environment
       ronment  variable  TERMINFO_DIRS is set, it will interpret the contents of that variable as a list of
       colon- separated directories to be searched (an empty entry is interpreted as  a  command  to  search
       /usr/share/terminfo).   If no description is found in any of the TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the fetch
       fails.

       If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will be the system terminfo direc-tory, directory,
       tory, /usr/share/terminfo.

       (Neither  the $HOME/.terminfo lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are supported under stock System V
       terminfo/curses.)


   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most effective way to prepare a  termi-nal terminal
       nal  description  is by imitating the description of a similar terminal in terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or some other  screen-oriented  program  to
       check  that  they  are correct.  Be aware that a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the
       ability of the terminfo file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test  program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer did not document it) a severe
       test is to edit a large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen,  then
       hit the `u' key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding is usually needed.  A
       similar test can be used for insert character.


   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the cols numeric capability.  If  the
       terminal  is  a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen is given by the lines capability.  If the
       terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when it reaches the  right  margin,  then  it
       should  have the am capability.  If the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home
       position, then this is given by the clear string capability.  If  the  terminal  overstrikes  (rather
       than  clearing a position when a character is struck over) then it should have the os capability.  If
       the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os applies  to
       storage  scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If
       there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as  cr.   (Normally
       this  will  be  carriage  return, control M.)  If there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell,
       beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as  backspace)  that  capability
       should  be  given  as  cub1.   Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and down should be given as
       cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass over, for exam-ple, example,
       ple, you would not normally use `cuf1= ' because the space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in terminfo are undefined at the
       left and top edges of a CRT terminal.  Programs should never attempt to  backspace  around  the  left
       edge,  unless  bw  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order to scroll text
       up, a program will go to the bottom left corner of the screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and sends  the  ri  (reverse
       index)  string.   The  strings  ind  and ri are undefined when not on their respective corners of the
       screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are indn and rin which have the same  semantics  as
       ind  and ri except that they take one parameter, and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined
       except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of the screen when text  is  out-put, output,
       put, but this does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last column.  The only local motion which
       is defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from the left  edge  will  move  to  the
       right  edge  of  the  previous row.  If bw is not given, the effect is undefined.  This is useful for
       drawing a box around the edge of the screen, for example.  If  the  terminal  has  switch  selectable
       automatic  margins, the terminfo file usually assumes that this is on; i.e., am.  If the terminal has
       a command which moves to the first column of the next line, that command can be given  as  nel  (new-line). (newline).
       line).   It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if the termi-nal terminal
       nal has no cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" terminals.  Thus the model 33  tele-type teletype
       type is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
            bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
            am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
            ind=^J, lines#24,


   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing  and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal are described by a parame-terized parameterized
       terized string capability, with printf(3) like escapes %x in it.  For example, to address the cursor,
       the  cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and column to address to.  (Rows and col-umns columns
       umns are numbered from zero and refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to  any  unseen
       memory.)  If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate it.  Typically a sequence will
       push one of the parameters onto the stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a
       special  case.   Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the stack.  It is noted that
       more complex operations are often necessary, e.g., in the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:


       %%   outputs `%'

       %[[:]flags][width[.precision]][doxXs]
            as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a `:' to allow the next  character  to  be  a  `-'
            flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

       %p[1-9]
            push i'th parameter

       %P[a-z]
            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[a-z]
            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

       %P[A-Z]
            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

       %g[A-Z]
            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms  "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically, these are simply two different
            sets of variables, whose values are not reset between calls to tparm.  However, that fact is not
            documented  in  other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely impact portability to other
            implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

       %{nn}
            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+ %- %* %/ %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %& %| %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %= %> %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %! %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually the %?  expr  part  pushes  a
            value  onto the stack, and %t pops it from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is
            zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the structure of if-the-else's.  Some strings,  e.g.,
            sgr  can  be  very  complicated  when written on one line.  The -f option splits the string into
            lines with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order.  That is, to get x-5  one
       would use "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g variables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the  HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be sent \E&a12c03Y padded for 6
       milliseconds.  Note that the order of the rows and columns is inverted here, and  that  the  row  and
       column are printed as two digits.  Thus its cup capability is "cup=6\E&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by a ^T, with the row and column
       simply encoded in binary, "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".  Terminals which use "%c" need to be able to  backspace
       the  cursor  (cub1),  and  to  move  the  cursor up one line on the screen (cuu1).  This is necessary
       because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as the system may  change  or  discard  them.
       (The  library  routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is
       safe to send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and  column  offset  by  a  blank  character,  thus
       "cup=\E=%p1%'  '%+%c%p2%'  '%+%c".   After sending `\E=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the
       ASCII value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of  the  two  previous
       values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same is done for the second parameter.  More
       complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.


   Cursor Motions
       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left corner of screen) then this can
       be  given  as home; similarly a fast way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll;
       this may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but a program should never do this itself
       (unless  ll does) because it can make no assumption about the effect of moving up from the home posi-
       tion.  Note that the home position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of  the
       screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If  the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can be given as single parameter
       capabilities hpa (horizontal position absolute) and  vpa  (vertical  position  absolute).   Sometimes
       these  are  shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with the hp2645) and can be used
       in preference to cup.  If there are parameterized local motions (e.g., move n spaces  to  the  right)
       these  can  be  given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to
       move.  These are primarily useful if the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that  uses  these  capabilities,
       the  codes  to  enter  and exit this mode can be given as smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for example,
       from terminals like the Concept with more than one page of memory.  If the terminal has  only  memory
       relative  cursor addressing and not screen relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must
       be fixed into the terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used  for  the  TEK-TRONIX TEKTRONIX
       TRONIX  4025,  where  smcup  sets the command character to be the one used by terminfo.  If the smcup
       sequence will not restore the screen after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state  prior  to  out-putting outputting
       putting rmcup), specify nrrmc.


   Area Clears
       If  the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the line, leaving the cursor where
       it is, this should be given as el.  If the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line  to  the
       current position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as el1.  If the ter-minal terminal
       minal can clear from the current position to the end of the display, then this should be given as ed.
       Ed  is  only  defined  from  the  first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to
       delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not available.)


   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the cursor is, this should  be  given
       as  il1;  this  is  done  only from the first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear on the
       newly blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is on, then  this  should  be
       given  as  dl1; this is done only from the first position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of il1
       and dl1 which take a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If  the  terminal  has  a  settable  scrolling region (like the vt100) the command to set this can be
       described with the csr capability, which takes two parameters:  the  top  and  bottom  lines  of  the
       scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on a properly chosen region; the
       sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands  may  be  useful  for  ensuring  that  your  synthesized
       insert/delete  string does not move the cursor.  (Note that the ncurses(3X) library does this synthe-sis synthesis
       sis automatically, so you need not compose insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combination of index with  the  mem-ory-lock memory-lock
       ory-lock  feature  found  on  some  terminals  (like  the  HP-700/90  series,  which however also has
       insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be done using ri or ind on many terminals
       without a true insert/delete line, and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The  boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling window is effectively a view port
       on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for this capability, create a scrolling region in  the  middle  of
       the  screen,  write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the region, and do ri
       followed by dl1 or ind.  If the data scrolled off the bottom of the region by the ri re-appears, then
       scrolling  is non-destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin will simu-late simulate
       late destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions you not to define csr unless this  is  true.
       This  curses  implementation  is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if ndstr is
       defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory, which all commands  affect,  it
       should  be  given  as the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are the starting and ending
       lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability should be given;  if  display
       memory  can  be  retained  below,  then  db  should be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or
       scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with ri may bring down  non-blank nonblank
       blank lines.


   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to insert/delete character which can
       be described using terminfo.  The most common insert/delete  character  operations  affect  only  the
       characters  on  the  current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.  Other termi-nals, terminals,
       nals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and  untyped
       blanks  on the screen, shifting upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which
       is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You can determine the kind of terminal  you
       have  by  clearing  the  screen  and then typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not spaces) between the "abc" and the "def".  Then  position  the  cursor
       before  the  "abc"  and put the terminal in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the
       line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your  terminal  does  not  distinguish
       between blanks and untyped positions.  If the "abc" shifts over to the "def" which then move together
       around the end of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of  ter-minal, terminal,
       minal,  and should give the capability in, which stands for "insert null".  While these are two logi-cally logically
       cally separate attributes (one line versus multi-line insert mode, and special treatment  of  untyped
       spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and terminals which send a simple
       sequence to open a blank position on the current line.  Give as smir the sequence to get into  insert
       mode.   Give  as  rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any sequence needed to be
       sent just before sending the character to be inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert  mode  will
       not give ich1; terminals which send a sequence to open a screen position should give it here.

       If  your  terminal  has both, insert mode is usually preferable to ich1.  Technically, you should not
       give both unless the terminal actually requires both to be used in  combination.   Accordingly,  some
       non-curses  applications  get  confused  if both are present; the symptom is doubled characters in an
       update using insert.  This requirement is now rare; most ich sequences do not require previous  smir,
       and  most  smir  insert  modes  do not require ich1 before each character.  Therefore, the new curses
       actually assumes this is the case and uses either rmir/smir  or  ich/ich1  as  appropriate  (but  not
       both).   If  you have to write an entry to be used under new curses for a terminal old enough to need
       both, include the rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds in ip (a string option).  Any
       other  sequence  which may need to be sent after an insert of a single character may also be given in
       ip.  If your terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert mode' and a  special  code  to  precede
       each  inserted  character, then both smir/rmir and ich1 can be given, and both will be used.  The ich
       capability, with one parameter, n, will repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert mode, give this as a  number  of
       milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to delete characters on the same
       line (e.g., if there is a tab after the insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while in
       insert  mode  you  can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in this case.  Omitting mir will
       affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably Datamedia's) must not have mir because of the  way  their
       insert mode works.

       Finally,  you  can  specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with one parameter, n, to delete n
       characters, and delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the  ter-minal terminal
       minal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A  command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks without moving the cursor) can be
       given as ech with one parameter.


   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can be represented in a number of
       different  ways.  You should choose one display form as standout mode, representing a good, high con-trast, contrast,
       trast, easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages and other attention getters.  (If you
       have  a  choice,  reverse  video plus half-bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to
       enter and exit standout mode are given as smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into or
       out  of  standout  mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray
       1061 do, then xmc should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and rmul  respectively.   If  the
       terminal  has  a  code to underline the current character and move the cursor one space to the right,
       such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink (blinking) bold (bold  or  extra
       bright)  dim  (dim  or  half-bright) invis (blanking or invisible text) prot (protected) rev (reverse
       video) sgr0 (turn off all attribute modes) smacs (enter alternate character set mode) and rmacs (exit
       alternate  character  set  mode).  Turning on any of these modes singly may or may not turn off other
       modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this  should  be  given  as  sgr  (set
       attributes),  taking  9  parameters.   Each  parameter  is  either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding
       attribute is on or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline,  reverse,  blink,  dim,
       bold,  blank,  protect,  alternate character set.  Not all modes need be supported by sgr, only those
       for which corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:


                                tparm parameter   attribute    escape sequence

                                none              none         \E[0m
                                p1                standout     \E[0;1;7m
                                p2                underline    \E[0;4m
                                p3                reverse      \E[0;7m
                                p4                blink        \E[0;5m
                                p5                dim          not available
                                p6                bold         \E[0;1m
                                p7                invis        \E[0;8m
                                p8                protect      not used
                                p9                altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since  there  is  no  quick  way  to
       determine  whether  they  are  active.  Standout is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.
       The vt220 terminal has a protect mode, though it is not commonly used  in  sgr  because  it  protects
       characters  on the screen from the host's erasures.  The altcharset mode also is different in that it
       is either ^O or ^N, depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the  resulting
       sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences  are  common  to  different modes.  For example, ;7 is output when either p1 or p3 is
       true, that is, if either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields


                              sequence    when to output     terminfo translation

                              \E[0       always              \E[0
                              ;1         if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
                              ;4         if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
                              ;5         if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
                              ;7         if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
                              ;8         if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
                              m          always              m
                              ^N or ^O   if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

           sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
               %?%p4%t;5%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also, some implementations rely on sgr
       being  given if sgr0 is, Not all terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many ter-minfo terminfo
       minfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The only drawback to adding
       an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals  with the ``magic cookie'' glitch (xmc) deposit special ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting modesetting
       setting sequences, which affect the display algorithm rather than having extra bits for each  charac-ter. character.
       ter.   Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when they move to a new
       line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs using standout mode should exit standout mode before  mov-ing moving
       ing the cursor or sending a newline, unless the msgr capability, asserting that it is safe to move in
       standout mode, is present.

       If the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly  (a  bell  replacement)
       then this can be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If  the  cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on the bottom line (to make,
       for example, a non-blinking underline into an easier to find block or blinking underline)  give  this
       sequence  as  cvvis.   If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give that as civis.
       The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no special codes needed) even though
       it  does not overstrike, then you should give the capability ul.  If a character overstriking another
       leaves both characters on the screen, specify the capability os.  If overstrikes are erasable with  a
       blank, then this should be indicated by giving eo.


   Keypad and Function Keys
       If  the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed, this information can be
       given.  Note that it is not possible to handle terminals where the keypad only works in  local  (this
       applies,  for  example,  to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be set to transmit or not
       transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is  assumed  to  always  transmit.
       The  codes  sent  by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be given as
       kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1,  ...,
       f10,  the  codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If these keys have labels other than
       the default f0 through f10, the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.  The codes transmitted by
       certain  other  special  keys  can be given: kll (home down), kbs (backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs),
       kctab (clear the tab stop in this column), kclr (clear screen or erase key),  kdch1  (delete  charac-ter), character),
       ter),  kdl1 (delete line), krmir (exit insert mode), kel (clear to end of line), ked (clear to end of
       screen), kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode), kil1 (insert  line),  knp  (next  page),  kpp
       (previous  page),  kind (scroll forward/down), kri (scroll backward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this
       column).  In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four  arrow  keys,  the
       other  five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are useful when the effects
       of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.  A string to  program  screen
       labels should be specified as pln.  Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function key num-ber number
       ber to program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers  out  of  this
       range may program undefined keys in a terminal dependent manner.  The difference between the capabil-ities capabilities
       ities is that pfkey causes pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the given string;
       pfloc  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be
       transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable screen labels and their width  and
       height.   If  there  are commands to turn the labels on and off, give them in smln and rmln.  smln is
       normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure that the change becomes visible.


   Tabs and Initialization
       If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next tab stop can  be  given  as  ht
       (usually  control  I).   A ``back-tab'' command which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can be
       given as cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being expanded by the com-puter computer
       puter  rather  than  being  sent  to the terminal, programs should not use ht or cbt even if they are
       present, since the user may not have the tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has  hardware  tabs
       which  are  initially set every n spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is
       given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.  This is normally used by the  tset  command
       to  determine  whether  to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the tab stops.
       If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo description  can
       assume that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1,  is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal, iprog, the
       path name of a program to be run to initialize the terminal, and if, the name of  a  file  containing
       long  initialization  strings.   These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent
       with the rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent  to  the  terminal,  by  the  init
       option of the tput program, each time the user logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program
                     iprog

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file
                     if

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes  can  be  set  up  without  duplicating
       strings by putting the common sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can be given as rs1, rs2, rf
       and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if and is3 respectively.  These strings are  output  by  the  reset
       program,  which  is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in
       rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are  not  necessary  when
       logging  in.  For example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of
       is2, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally needed since the terminal  is
       usually already in 80 column mode.

       The  reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same order as the init program, using
       rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capability strings are missing,
       the reset program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capability string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as tbc (clear all tab stops) and
       hts (set a tab stop in the current column of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to set
       the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many  older  and  slower  terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, including hard
       copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs (including, for example, DEC VT100s).   These  may  require
       padding characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If  the  terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it automatically emits ^S back
       to the host when its input buffers are close to full), set xon.  This capability suppresses the emis-sion emission
       sion  of padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effectively that do not have
       a speed limit.  Padding information should still be included so that routines can make  better  deci-sions decisions
       sions about relative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If  pb  (padding  baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates below the value of pb.  If
       the entry has no padding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or not is  completely  controlled
       by xon.

       If  the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this can be given as pad.
       Only the first character of the pad string is used.


   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra `status line' which is not normally  used  by  software  (and  thus  not
       counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest  case  is  a status line which is cursor-addressable but not part of the main scrolling
       region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100  with
       a  23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated by the hs capabil-ity. capability.
       ity.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the  status  line.   These  may  be
       expressed  as a string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column
       on the status line.  The capability fsl must return to the main-screen cursor  positions  before  the
       last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of sc (save cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl
       and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width of the terminal.   If  this  is
       untrue, you can specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs, etc., work ordinarily in the sta-tus status
       tus line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.  They are documented  here  in
       case they ever become important.


   Line Graphics
       Many  terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.  Terminfo and curses build in
       support for the drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T  4410v1
       added.  This alternate character set may be specified by the acsc capability.


                Glyph                            ACS                          Ascii                    VT100
                 Name                            Name                         Default                  Name
       UK pound sign                             ACS_STERLING                 f                        }
       arrow pointing down                       ACS_DARROW                   v                        .
       arrow pointing left                       ACS_LARROW                   <                        ,
       arrow pointing right                      ACS_RARROW                   >                        +
       arrow pointing up                         ACS_UARROW                   ^                        -board ^board
       board of squares                          ACS_BOARD                    #                        h
       bullet                                    ACS_BULLET                   o                        ~
       checker board (stipple)                   ACS_CKBOARD                  :                        a
       degree symbol                             ACS_DEGREE                   \                        f
       diamond                                   ACS_DIAMOND                  +                        `
       greater-than-or-equal-to                  ACS_GEQUAL                   >                        z
       greek pi                                  ACS_PI                       *                        {
       horizontal line                           ACS_HLINE                    -                        q
       lantern symbol                            ACS_LANTERN                  #                        i
       large plus or crossover                   ACS_PLUS                     +                        n
       less-than-or-equal-to                     ACS_LEQUAL                   <                        y
       lower left corner                         ACS_LLCORNER                 +                        m
       lower right corner                        ACS_LRCORNER                 +                        j
       not-equal                                 ACS_NEQUAL                   !                        |
       plus/minus                                ACS_PLMINUS                  #                        g
       scan line 1                               ACS_S1                       ~                        o
       scan line 3                               ACS_S3                       -                        p
       scan line 7                               ACS_S7                       -                        r
       scan line 9                               ACS_S9                       _                        s
       solid square block                        ACS_BLOCK                    #                        0
       tee pointing down                         ACS_TTEE                     +                        w
       tee pointing left                         ACS_RTEE                     +                        u
       tee pointing right                        ACS_LTEE                     +                        t
       tee pointing up                           ACS_BTEE                     +                        v
       upper left corner                         ACS_ULCORNER                 +                        l
       upper right corner                        ACS_URCORNER                 +                        k
       vertical line                             ACS_VLINE                    |                        x

       The  best  way  to  define a new device's graphics set is to add a column to a copy of this table for
       your terminal, giving the character which (when emitted between smacs/rmacs switches)  will  be  ren-
       dered  as  the corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character pairs right to
       left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.


   Color Handling
       Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'.  Tektronix-like terminals have a  pre-defined predefined
       defined  set  of  N  colors (where N usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
       characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.  On HP-like terminals, the use must set
       each  color  pair  up separately (foreground and background are not independently settable).  Up to M
       color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The numeric  capabilities  colors
       and pairs specify the maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.
       The op (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their default values for the
       terminal.   The  oc string resets all colors or color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.
       Some terminals (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the current  background
       color rather than the power-up default background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To  change  the  current  foreground or background color on a Tektronix-type terminal, use setaf (set
       ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and setb (set  background).
       These  take  one parameter, the color number.  The SVr4 documentation describes only setaf/setab; the
       XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports ANSI escape sequences  to  set  background  and  fore-ground, foreground,
       ground, they should be coded as setaf and setab, respectively.  If the terminal supports other escape
       sequences to set background and foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb, respectively.  The
       vidputs() function and the refresh functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argument each.  Argument values 0-7
       of setaf/setab are portably defined as follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available
       in the header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal hardware is free to map these as it
       likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in color space.


                                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                                   red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different mapping, i.e.,

                                   Color       #define       Value       RGB
                                   black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                                   blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                                   green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                                   cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                                   red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                                   magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                                   yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0
                                   white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max
       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; otherwise red/blue will be  inter-changed interchanged
       changed on the display.

       On  an  HP-like  terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to set which color pair is cur-rent. current.
       rent.

       On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability ccc may be present to indicate that colors can be  modi-fied. modified.
       fied.   If  so, the initc capability will take a color number (0 to colors - 1)and three more parame-ters parameters
       ters which describe the color.  These three parameters default to  being  interpreted  as  RGB  (Red,
       Green,  Blue) values.  If the boolean capability hls is present, they are instead as HLS (Hue, Light-ness, Lightness,
       ness, Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a color-pair value.   It  will  take
       seven  parameters;  a  color-pair number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples describing first back-ground background
       ground and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or  (Hue,  Lightness,
       Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can register these collisions with the
       ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The corre-spondence correspondence
       spondence with the attributes understood by curses is as follows:


                                           Attribute      Bit   Decimal
                                           A_STANDOUT     0     1
                                           A_UNDERLINE    1     2
                                           A_REVERSE      2     4
                                           A_BLINK        3     8
                                           A_DIM          4     16
                                           A_BOLD         5     32
                                           A_INVIS        6     64
                                           A_PROTECT      7     128
                                           A_ALTCHARSET   8     256

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides with the foreground color blue
       and is not available in color mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes the output in favor of colors.


   Miscellaneous
       If  the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this can be given as pad.
       Only the first character of the pad string is used.  If the terminal does not have a  pad  character,
       specify npc.  Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible PC variable; though the application
       may set this value to something other than a null, ncurses will test npc first and use napms  if  the
       terminal has no pad character.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated with hu (half-line up) and hd
       (half-line down).  This is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on  hard-copy  terminals.
       If  a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as ff (usually control L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times (to save time  transmitting
       a large number of identical characters) this can be indicated with the parameterized string rep.  The
       first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to  repeat  it.
       Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.

       If  the  terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be indicated
       with cmdch.  A prototype command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This charac-ter character
       ter  is  given in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The following convention is supported on some
       UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a CC variable, and if found, all  occurrences  of
       the prototype character are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do  not  represent  a  specific kind of known terminal, such as switch,
       dialup, patch, and network, should include the gn (generic) capability so that programs can  complain
       that they do not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply to virtual termi-nal terminal
       nal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)

       If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key, setting the 8th bit  of  any  character
       transmitted, this fact can be indicated with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is
       parity and it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this ``meta mode'' on and off,  they
       can be given as smm and rmm.

       If  the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at once, the number of lines of
       memory can be indicated with lm.  A value of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines  is  not  fixed,
       but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal protocol, the terminal number
       can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal can be given as  mc0:
       print  the contents of the screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and mc5: turn on the printer.  When the
       printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It  is  undefined  whether
       the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one
       parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns
       the  printer  off.   The  parameter should not exceed 255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently
       passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.


   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap,  such  as  the  Concept  and  vt100,
       should indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing normal text on top of it), xhp
       should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks, should indicate xt  (destruc-tive (destructive
       tive  tabs).  Note: the variable indicating this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso'; in older versions, it
       was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible to position the cursor
       on  top  of a ``magic cookie'', that to erase standout mode it is instead necessary to use delete and
       insert line.  The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or control C  characters,  has
       xsb,  indicating  that  the  f1 key is used for escape and f2 for control C.  (Only certain Superbees
       have this problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions, this capability  was
       called `beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabilities of the form xx.


   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two  very  similar terminals, one (the variant) can be defined as being just like the
       other (the base) with certain exceptions.  In the definition of the variant,  the  string  capability
       use  can  be  given  with  the name of the base terminal.  The capabilities given before use override
       those in the base type named by use.  If there are multiple use  capabilities,  they  are  merged  in
       reverse  order.   That  is, the rightmost use reference is processed first, then the one to its left,
       and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override those brought  in  by  use  refer-ences. references.
       ences.

       A  capability  can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use reference that imports it, where
       xx is the capability.  For example, the entry

                   2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities, and hence does not  turn  on  the
       function  key  labels when in visual mode.  This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for
       different user preferences.


   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has even approached  terminfo's
       4096-byte  string-table maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap translations are much more strictly lim-ited limited
       ited (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of long terminfo entries can cause problems.

       The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the user to  allocate  a  1024-byte
       buffer  for  the termcap entry.  The entry gets null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes
       the maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending on what the application and
       the  termcap  library being used does, and where in the termcap file the terminal type that tgetent()
       is searching for is, several bad things can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an entry that's longer than  1023
       bytes;  others do not; others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some application programs allocate
       more than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before "tc" expansion, and after  "tc"
       expansion.  "tc" is the capability that tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one,
       to add on its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability, then of course  the
       two lengths are the same.

       The  "before  tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it affects more than just users
       of that particular terminal.  This is the length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the
       backslash-newline  pairs,  which tgetent() strips out while reading it.  Some termcap libraries strip
       off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now suppose:

       *    a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       *    and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       *    and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads  the  whole  entry  into  the
            buffer, no matter what its length, to see if it is the entry it wants,

       *    and  tgetent()  is  searching  for a terminal type that either is the long entry, appears in the
            termcap file after the long entry, or does not appear in the file at all (so that tgetent()  has
            to search the whole termcap file).

       Then  tgetent()  will  overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core dump the program.  Pro-grams Programs
       grams like telnet are particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along  values  like  the  terminal
       type  automatically.   The results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library, like SunOS 4.1.3
       and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it reads an overly long termcap entry.  If a  term-cap termcap
       cap library truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incor-rect incorrect
       rect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the above,  but  only  for  people  who
       actually  set  TERM  to that terminal type, since tgetent() only does "tc" expansion once it is found
       the terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can  cause,  on  various  combinations  of
       termcap libraries and applications, a core dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long
       even before "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other terminal types  and
       users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap entry.

       When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of tic(1M) issues warning messages
       when the pre-tc length of a termcap translation is too long.   The  -c  (check)  option  also  checks
       resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is  not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between commercial UNIX versions.
       The problem is that there are at least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which  diverged
       from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabilities to the string table that (in
       the binary format) collide with System V and XSI Curses extensions.

EXTENSIONS
       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not interpret the %A and %O  operators
       in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not  specify  whether  msgr licenses movement while in an alternate-character-set mode
       (such modes may, among other things, map CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local  motions).
       The ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This raises the possibility that an XPG4
       implementation making the opposite interpretation may need terminfo entries made for ncurses to  have
       msgr turned off.

       The  ncurses  library  handles insert-character and insert-character modes in a slightly non-standard
       way to get better update efficiency.  See the Insert/Delete Character subsection above.

       The parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not documented in  SVr4  or  the  XSI
       Curses standard.  They are deduced from the documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning the kmous capability.  The ncurses wants to interpret it as KEY_MOUSE, for use
       by terminals and emulators like xterm that can return mouse-tracking  information  in  the  keyboard-input keyboardinput
       input stream.

       Different  commercial  ports of terminfo and curses support different subsets of the XSI Curses stan-dard standard
       dard and (in some cases) different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string capability (set_pglen).

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabilities.  The  booleans  end  with
       xon_xoff; the numerics with width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX  -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics num_labels, label_height, label_width,
       plus function keys 11 through 63, plus plab_norm, label_on, and  label_off,  plus  some  incompatible
       extensions in the string table.

       AIX  --  Supports  the  SVr1  subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus a number of incompatible
       string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

FILES
       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions

SEE ALSO
       tic(1M), infocmp(1M), curses(3X), printf(3), term(5).

AUTHORS
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                                                 terminfo(5)

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