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GROFF_CHAR(7)                                                                                  GROFF_CHAR(7)

       groff_char - groff glyph names

       This  manual  page  lists the standard groff glyph names and the default input mapping, latin-1.  The
       glyphs in this document will look different depending on which output device was chosen (with  option
       -T  for the man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Glyphs not available for the device that is being
       used to print or view this manual page will be marked with `(N/A)';  the  device  currently  used  is

       In  the  actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named entities for
       further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, input character codes in the range 0 to 127 (decimal)  represent
       the  usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted as the correspond-ing corresponding
       ing characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1) code set by default.  This mapping  is  contained  in  the
       file  latin1.tmac  and  can  be changed by loading a different input encoding.  Note that some of the
       input characters are reserved by groff, either for internal use or for special  input  purposes.   On
       EBCDIC  platforms, only code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same characters as Latin-1;
       the input encoding file is called cp1047.tmac).  Again, some input characters are reserved for inter-nal internal
       nal  and  special  purposes.  It is rather straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other
       8-bit encodings like Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major version,  no  additional
       encodings are provided.

       All  roff  systems  provide  the concept of named glyphs.  In traditional roff systems, only names of
       length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names.   It  is  strongly  suggested
       that  only  named  glyphs  are  used for all character representations outside of the printable 7-bit
       ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also  produce  single  charac-ters; characters;
       ters;  these  exist for historical reasons or are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They
       include `\\', `\'', `\`', `\-', `\.', and `\e'; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters and glyphs can be  tested  positively  with  the
       `.if c' conditional.

       In this section, the glyphs in groff are specified in tabular form.  The meaning of the columns is as

       Output shows how the glyph is printed for the current device; although this can have quite a  differ-ent different
              ent shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies  how  the  glyph  is  input  either directly by a key on the keyboard, or by a groff
              escape sequence.

       Input code
              applies to glyphs which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO Latin-1  deci-mal decimal
              mal code of that input character.  Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Unicode
              characters, including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127.

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the glyph.

       Unicode decomposed
              is the glyph name used in composite glyph names.

   7-bit Character Codes 32-126
       These are the basic glyphs having 7-bit ASCII code values assigned.  They are identical to the print-able printable
       able  characters  of  the character standards ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C_ Controls and
       Basic Latin).  The glyph names used in composite glyph names are `u0020' up to `u007E'.

       Note that input characters in the range 0-31 and character 127 are not printable characters.  Most of
       them  are  invalid  input  characters for groff anyway, and the valid ones have special meaning.  For
       EBCDIC, the printable characters are in the range 66-255.

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       Most of the remaining characters not in the just described  ranges  print  as  themselves;  the  only
       exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO Latin-1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left single quotation mark; the origi-nal original
              nal character can be obtained with `\`'.

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right single quotation mark; the  origi-nal original
              nal character can be obtained with `\(aq'.

       -      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45)  prints  as a hyphen; a minus sign can be
              obtained with `\-'.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 `Tilde' (code 126) is reduced in size to be usable as a  diacritic;  a  larger
              glyph can be obtained with `\(ti'.

       ^      the  ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94) is reduced in size to be usable as a diacritic;
              a larger glyph can be obtained with `\(ha'.

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript    Unicode     Notes
               name   code   name          decomposed

       !       !      33     exclam        u0021
       "       "      34     quotedbl      u0022
       #       #      35     numbersign    u0023
       $       $      36     dollar        u0024
       %       %      37     percent       u0025
       &       &      38     ampersand     u0026
       '       '      39     quoteright    u0027
       (       (      40     parenleft     u0028
       )       )      41     parenright    u0029
       *       *      42     asterisk      u002A
       +       +      43     plus          u002B
       ,       ,      44     comma         u002C
       -       -      45     hyphen        u2010
       .       .      46     period        u002E
       /       /      47     slash         u002F
       :       :      58     colon         u003A
       ;       ;      59     semicolon     u003B
       <       <      60     less          u003C
       =       =      61     equal         u003D
       >       >      62     greater       u003E
       ?       ?      63     question      u003F
       @       @      64     at            u0040
       [       [      91     bracketleft   u005B
       \       \      92     backslash     u005C
       ]       ]      93     bracketright  u005D
       ^       ^      94     circumflex    u005E       circumflex accent
       _       _      95     underscore    u005F
       `       `      96     quoteleft     u0060
       {       {      123    braceleft     u007B
       |       |      124    bar           u007C
       }       }      125    braceright    u007D
       ~       ~      126    tilde         u007E       tilde accent

   8-bit Character Codes 160 to 255
       They are interpreted as printable characters according to the Latin-1 (iso-8859-1)  code  set,  being
       identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement.

       Input characters in range 128-159 (on non-EBCDIC hosts) are not printable characters.

       160    the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to `\~', the stretchable space character.

       173    the  soft  hyphen  control  character.  groff never uses this character for output (thus it is
              omitted in the table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto `\%'.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255) are printable characters that print as themselves.   Although
       they can be specified directly with the keyboard on systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to
       use their glyph names; see next section.

       Output  Input  Input  PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name   code   name            decomposed

       ,       ,      161    exclamdown      u00A1       inverted exclamation mark
       /       /      162    cent            u00A2
       -       -      163    sterling        u00A3
       o       o      164    currency        u00A4
       =       =      165    yen             u00A5
       |       |      166    brokenbar       u00A6
       S       S      167    section         u00A7
       "       "      168    dieresis        u00A8
       (C)     (C)    169    copyright       u00A9
       a       a      170    ordfeminine     u00AA
       <<      <<     171    guillemotleft   u00AB
       ~       ~      172    logicalnot      u00AC
       (R)     (R)    174    registered      u00AE
       _       _
                      175    macron          u00AF
       o       o      176    degree          u00B0
       +-      +-     177    plusminus       u00B1
       2       2      178    twosuperior     u00B2
       3       3      179    threesuperior   u00B3
       '       '      180    acute           u00B4       acute accent
       ,       ,      181    mu              u00B5       micro sign
       9|      9|     182    paragraph       u00B6
       .       .      183    periodcentered  u00B7
       ,       ,      184    cedilla         u00B8
       1       1      185    onesuperior     u00B9
       o       o      186    ordmasculine    u00BA
       >>      >>     187    guillemotright  u00BB
       1/4     1/4    188    onequarter      u00BC
       1/2     1/2    189    onehalf         u00BD
       3/4     3/4    190    threequarters   u00BE
       '       '      191    questiondown    u00BF
       `       `      192    Agrave          u0041_0300
       '       '      193    Aacute          u0041_0301
       ^       ^      194    Acircumflex     u0041_0302
       ~       ~      195    Atilde          u0041_0303
       "       "      196    Adieresis       u0041_0308
       o       o      197    Aring           u0041_030A
       AE      AE     198    AE              u00C6
       ,       ,      199    Ccedilla        u0043_0327
       `       `      200    Egrave          u0045_0300
       '       '      201    Eacute          u0045_0301
       ^       ^      202    Ecircumflex     u0045_0302
       "       "      203    Edieresis       u0045_0308
       `       `      204    Igrave          u0049_0300
       '       '      205    Iacute          u0049_0301
       ^       ^      206    Icircumflex     u0049_0302
       "       "      207    Idieresis       u0049_0308
       -       -      208    Eth             u00D0
       ~       ~      209    Ntilde          u004E_0303
       `       `      210    Ograve          u004F_0300
       '       '      211    Oacute          u004F_0301
       ^       ^      212    Ocircumflex     u004F_0302
       ~       ~      213    Otilde          u004F_0303
       "       "      214    Odieresis       u004F_0308
       x       x      215    multiply        u00D7
       /       /      216    Oslash          u00D8
       `       `      217    Ugrave          u0055_0300
       '       '      218    Uacute          u0055_0301
       ^       ^      219    Ucircumflex     u0055_0302
       "       "      220    Udieresis       u0055_0308
       '       '      221    Yacute          u0059_0301
       I       I      222    Thorn           u00DE
       B       B      223    germandbls      u00DF
       `       `      224    agrave          u0061_0300
       '       '      225    aacute          u0061_0301
       ^       ^      226    acircumflex     u0061_0302
       ~       ~      227    atilde          u0061_0303
       "       "      228    adieresis       u0061_0308
       o       o      229    aring           u0061_030A
       ae      ae     230    ae              u00E6
       ,       ,      231    ccedilla        u0063_0327
       `       `      232    egrave          u0065_0300
       '       '      233    eacute          u0065_0301
       ^       ^      234    ecircumflex     u0065_0302
       "       "      235    edieresis       u0065_0308
       `       `      236    igrave          u0069_0300
       '       '      237    iacute          u0069_0301
       ^       ^      238    icircumflex     u0069_0302
       "       "      239    idieresis       u0069_0308
       `       `      240    eth             u00F0
       ~       ~      241    ntilde          u006E_0303
       `       `      242    ograve          u006F_0300
       '       '      243    oacute          u006F_0301
       ^       ^      244    ocircumflex     u006F_0302
       ~       ~      245    otilde          u006F_0303
       "       "      246    odieresis       u006F_0308
       -:-     -:-    247    divide          u00F7
       /       /      248    oslash          u00F8
       `       `      249    ugrave          u0075_0300
       '       '      250    uacute          u0075_0301
       ^       ^      251    ucircumflex     u0075_0302
       "       "      252    udieresis       u0075_0308
       '       '      253    yacute          u0079_0301
       p       p      254    thorn           u00FE
       "       "      255    ydieresis       u0079_0308

   Named Glyphs
       Glyph names can be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences.  groff(7) describes how
       these escape sequences look.  Glyph names can consist of quite arbitrary characters from the ASCII or
       Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.  Here some examples:

       \c     A glyph having the name c, which consists of a single character (length 1).

       \(ch   A glyph having the 2-character name ch.

              A glyph having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       \[base_glyph composite_1 composite_2 ...]
              A composite glyph; see below for a more detailed description.

       In groff, each 8-bit input character can also referred to by the construct `\[charn]' where n is  the
       decimal  code  of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros (those entities are
       not glyph names).  They are normally mapped onto glyphs using the  .trin  request.   Another  special
       convention  is  the handling of glyphs with names directly derived from a Unicode code point; this is
       discussed below.  Moreover, new glyph names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       In the following, a plus sign in the `Notes' column indicates that this particular glyph name appears
       in the PS version of the original troff documentation, CSTR 54.

       Output  Input  PostScript   Unicode          Notes
               name   name         decomposed

       -       \[-D]  Eth          u00D0            uppercase eth
       `       \[Sd]  eth          u00F0            lowercase eth
       I       \[TP]  Thorn        u00DE            uppercase thorn
       p       \[Tp]  thorn        u00FE            lowercase thorn
       B       \[ss]  germandbls   u00DF            German sharp s

       Ligatures and Other Latin Glyphs

       ff      \[ff]  ff           u0066_0066       ff ligature +
       fi      \[fi]  fi           u0066_0069       fi ligature +
       fl      \[fl]  fl           u0066_006C       fl ligature +
       ffi     \[Fi]  ffi          u0066_0066_0069  ffi ligature +
       ffl     \[Fl]  ffl          u0066_0066_006C  ffl ligature +
       /       \[/L]  Lslash       u0141            (Polish)
       /       \[/l]  lslash       u0142            (Polish)
       /       \[/O]  Oslash       u00D8            (Scandinavic)
       /       \[/o]  oslash       u00F8            (Scandinavic)
       AE      \[AE]  AE           u00C6
       ae      \[ae]  ae           u00E6
       OE      \[OE]  OE           u0152
       oe      \[oe]  oe           u0153
       IJ      \[IJ]  IJ           u0132            (Dutch)
       ij      \[ij]  ij           u0133            (Dutch)
       i       \[.i]  dotlessi     u0131            (Turkish)
       (N/A)   \[.j]  dotlessj     ---              j without a dot

       Accented Characters

       '       \['A]  Aacute       u0041_0301
       (N/A)   \['C]  Cacute       u0043_0301
       '       \['E]  Eacute       u0045_0301
       '       \['I]  Iacute       u0049_0301
       '       \['O]  Oacute       u004F_0301
       '       \['U]  Uacute       u0055_0301
       '       \['Y]  Yacute       u0059_0301
       '       \['a]  aacute       u0061_0301
       (N/A)   \['c]  cacute       u0063_0301
       '       \['e]  eacute       u0065_0301
       '       \['i]  iacute       u0069_0301
       '       \['o]  oacute       u006F_0301
       '       \['u]  uacute       u0075_0301
       '       \['y]  yacute       u0079_0301
       "       \[:A]  Adieresis    u0041_0308       A with umlaut
       "       \[:E]  Edieresis    u0045_0308
       "       \[:I]  Idieresis    u0049_0308
       "       \[:O]  Odieresis    u004F_0308
       "       \[:U]  Udieresis    u0055_0308
       (N/A)   \[:Y]  Ydieresis    u0059_0308
       "       \[:a]  adieresis    u0061_0308
       "       \[:e]  edieresis    u0065_0308
       "       \[:i]  idieresis    u0069_0308
       "       \[:o]  odieresis    u006F_0308
       "       \[:u]  udieresis    u0075_0308
       "       \[:y]  ydieresis    u0079_0308
       ^       \[^A]  Acircumflex  u0041_0302
       ^       \[^E]  Ecircumflex  u0045_0302
       ^       \[^I]  Icircumflex  u0049_0302
       ^       \[^O]  Ocircumflex  u004F_0302
       ^       \[^U]  Ucircumflex  u0055_0302
       ^       \[^a]  acircumflex  u0061_0302
       ^       \[^e]  ecircumflex  u0065_0302
       ^       \[^i]  icircumflex  u0069_0302
       ^       \[^o]  ocircumflex  u006F_0302
       ^       \[^u]  ucircumflex  u0075_0302
       `       \[`A]  Agrave       u0041_0300
       `       \[`E]  Egrave       u0045_0300
       `       \[`I]  Igrave       u0049_0300
       `       \[`O]  Ograve       u004F_0300
       `       \[`U]  Ugrave       u0055_0300
       `       \[`a]  agrave       u0061_0300
       `       \[`e]  egrave       u0065_0300
       `       \[`i]  igrave       u0069_0300
       `       \[`o]  ograve       u006F_0300
       `       \[`u]  ugrave       u0075_0300
       ~       \[~A]  Atilde       u0041_0303
       ~       \[~N]  Ntilde       u004E_0303
       ~       \[~O]  Otilde       u004F_0303
       ~       \[~a]  atilde       u0061_0303
       ~       \[~n]  ntilde       u006E_0303
       ~       \[~o]  otilde       u006F_0303
       (N/A)   \[vS]  Scaron       u0053_030C
       (N/A)   \[vs]  scaron       u0073_030C
       (N/A)   \[vZ]  Zcaron       u005A_030C
       (N/A)   \[vz]  zcaron       u007A_030C
       ,       \[,C]  Ccedilla     u0043_0327
       ,       \[,c]  ccedilla     u0063_0327
       o       \[oA]  Aring        u0041_030A
       o       \[oa]  aring        u0061_030A


       The composite request is used to map most of the accents to non-spacing glyph names; the values given
       in parentheses are the original (spacing) ones.

       Output  Input  PostScript       Unicode        Notes
               name   name             decomposed

       "       \[a"]  hungarumlaut     u030B (u02DD)  (Hungarian)
               \[a-]  macron           u0304 (u00AF)
       (N/A)   \[a.]  dotaccent        u0307 (u02D9)
       ^       \[a^]  circumflex       u0302 (u005E)
       '       \[aa]  acute            u0301 (u00B4)  +
       `       \[ga]  grave            u0300 (u0060)  +
       '       \[ab]  breve            u0306 (u02D8)
       ,       \[ac]  cedilla          u0327 (u00B8)
       "       \[ad]  dieresis         u0308 (u00A8)  umlaut
       v       \[ah]  caron            u030C (u02C7)  h'vek
       o       \[ao]  ring             u030A (u02DA)  circle
       ~       \[a~]  tilde            u0303 (u007E)
       ,       \[ho]  ogonek           u0328 (u02DB)  hook
       ^       \[ha]  asciicircum      u005E          (spacing)
       ~       \[ti]  asciitilde       u007E          (spacing)


       ,,      \[Bq]  quotedblbase     u201E          low double comma quote
       ,       \[bq]  quotesinglbase   u201A          low single comma quote
       "       \[lq]  quotedblleft     u201C
       "       \[rq]  quotedblright    u201D
       `       \[oq]  quoteleft        u2018          single open quote
       '       \[cq]  quoteright       u2019          single closing quote
       '       \[aq]  quotesingle      u0027          apostrophe quote (ASCII 39)
       "       \[dq]  quotedbl         u0022          double quote (ASCII 34)
       <<      \[Fo]  guillemotleft    u00AB
       >>      \[Fc]  guillemotright   u00BB
       <       \[fo]  guilsinglleft    u2039
       >       \[fc]  guilsinglright   u203A


       ,       \[r!]  exclamdown       u00A1
       '       \[r?]  questiondown     u00BF
       --      \[em]  emdash           u2014          +
       -       \[en]  endash           u2013
       -       \[hy]  hyphen           u2010          +


       The extensible bracket pieces are font-invariant glyphs.  In  classical  troff  only  one  glyph  was
       available to vertically extend brackets, braces, and parentheses: `bv'.  We map it rather arbitrarily
       to u23AA.

       Note that not all devices contain extensible bracket pieces which can be piled up with  `\b'  due  to
       the  restrictions  of  the  escape's  piling  algorithm.  A general solution to build brackets out of
       pieces is the following macro:

              .\" Make a pile centered vertically 0.5em
              .\" above the baseline.
              .\" The first argument is placed at the top.
              .\" The pile is returned in string `pile'
              .de pile-make
              .  nr pile-wd 0
              .  nr pile-ht 0
              .  ds pile-args
              .  nr pile-# \n[.$]
              .  while \n[pile-#] \{\
              .    nr pile-wd (\n[pile-wd] >? \w'\$[\n[pile-#]]')
              .    nr pile-ht +(\n[rst] - \n[rsb])
              .    as pile-args \v'\n[rsb]u'\"
              .    as pile-args \Z'\$[\n[pile-#]]'\"
              .    as pile-args \v'-\n[rst]u'\"
              .    nr pile-# -1
              .  \}
              .  ds pile \v'(-0.5m + (\n[pile-ht]u / 2u))'\"
              .  as pile \*[pile-args]\"
              .  as pile \v'((\n[pile-ht]u / 2u) + 0.5m)'\"
              .  as pile \h'\n[pile-wd]u'\"

       Another complication is the fact that some glyphs which represent bracket pieces  in  original  troff
       can  be used for other mathematical symbols also, for example `lf' and `rf' which provide the `floor'
       operator.  Other devices (most notably for DVI output) don't unify such glyphs.  For this reason, the
       four  glyphs  `lf',  `rf',  `lc', and `rc' are not unified with similarly looking bracket pieces.  In
       groff, only glyphs with long names are guaranteed to pile up  correctly  for  all  devices  (provided
       those glyphs exist).

       Output  Input              PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name               name            decomposed

       [       \[lB]              bracketleft     u005B
       ]       \[rB]              bracketright    u005D
       {       \[lC]              braceleft       u007B
       }       \[rC]              braceright      u007D
       <       \[la]              angleleft       u27E8       left angle bracket
       >       \[ra]              angleright      u27E9       right angle bracket
       |       \[bv]              braceex         u23AA       vertical extension *** +
       (N/A)   \[braceex]         braceex         u23AA
       (N/A)   \[bracketlefttp]   bracketlefttp   u23A1
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftbt]   bracketleftbt   u23A3
       (N/A)   \[bracketleftex]   bracketleftex   u23A2
       (N/A)   \[bracketrighttp]  bracketrighttp  u23A4
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightbt]  bracketrightbt  u23A6
       (N/A)   \[bracketrightex]  bracketrightex  u23A5
       ,-      \[lt]              bracelefttp     u23A7       +
       (N/A)   \[bracelefttp]     bracelefttp     u23A7
       {       \[lk]              braceleftmid    u23A8       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftmid]    braceleftmid    u23A8
       `-      \[lb]              braceleftbt     u23A9       +
       (N/A)   \[braceleftbt]     braceleftbt     u23A9
       (N/A)   \[braceleftex]     braceleftex     u23AA
       -.      \[rt]              bracerighttp    u23AB       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerighttp]    bracerighttp    u23AB
       }       \[rk]              bracerightmid   u23AC       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightmid]   bracerightmid   u23AC
       -'      \[rb]              bracerightbt    u23AD       +
       (N/A)   \[bracerightbt]    bracerightbt    u23AD
       (N/A)   \[bracerightex]    bracerightex    u23AA
       (N/A)   \[parenlefttp]     parenlefttp     u239B
       (N/A)   \[parenleftbt]     parenleftbt     u239D
       (N/A)   \[parenleftex]     parenleftex     u239C
       (N/A)   \[parenrighttp]    parenrighttp    u239E
       (N/A)   \[parenrightbt]    parenrightbt    u23A0
       (N/A)   \[parenrightex]    parenrightex    u239F


       <-      \[<-]              arrowleft       u2190       +
       ->      \[->]              arrowright      u2192       +
       <->     \[<>]              arrowboth       u2194       (horizontal)
       |       \[da]              arrowdown       u2193       +
       |       \[ua]              arrowup         u2191       +
       (N/A)   \[va]              arrowupdn       u2195
       <=      \[lA]              arrowdblleft    u21D0
       =>      \[rA]              arrowdblright   u21D2
       <=>     \[hA]              arrowdblboth    u21D4       (horizontal)
       =       \[dA]              arrowdbldown    u21D3
       =       \[uA]              arrowdblup      u21D1
       (N/A)   \[vA]              uni21D5         u21D5       vertical double-headed double arrow
       -       \[an]              arrowhorizex    u23AF       horizontal arrow extension


       The  font-invariant  glyphs `br', `ul', and `rn' form corners; they can be used to build boxes.  Note
       that both the PostScript and the Unicode-derived names of these three glyphs are just rough  approxi-mations. approximations.

       `rn' also serves in classical troff as the horizontal extension of the square root sign.

       `ru' is a font-invariant glyph, namely a rule of length 0.5m.

       Output  Input        PostScript      Unicode     Notes
               name         name            decomposed

       |       \[ba]        bar             u007C
       |       \[br]        SF110000        u2502       box rule +
       _       \[ul]        underscore      u005F       +
       _                                                use `\[radicalex]' for continuation of square root +
               \[rn]        overline        u203E
       _       \[ru]        ---             ---         baseline rule +
       |       \[bb]        brokenbar       u00A6
       /       \[sl]        slash           u002F       +
       \       \[rs]        backslash       u005C       reverse solidus

       Text markers

       O       \[ci]        circle          u25CB       +
              \[bu]        bullet          u2022       +
       |       \[dd]        daggerdbl       u2021       double dagger sign +
       |       \[dg]        dagger          u2020       +
       <>      \[lz]        lozenge         u25CA
       []      \[sq]        uni25A1         u25A1       white square +
       9|      \[ps]        paragraph       u00B6
       S       \[sc]        section         u00A7       +
       <=      \[lh]        uni261C         u261C       hand pointing left +
       =>      \[rh]        a14             u261E       hand pointing right +
       @       \[at]        at              u0040
       #       \[sh]        numbersign      u0023
       _|      \[CR]        carriagereturn  u21B5
       (N/A)   \[OK]        a19             u2713       check mark, tick

       Legal Symbols

       (C)     \[co]        copyright       u00A9       +
       (R)     \[rg]        registered      u00AE       +
       tm      \[tm]        trademark       u2122
       (N/A)   \[bs]        ---             ---         AT&T Bell Labs logo (not used in groff) +

       Currency symbols

       $       \[Do]        dollar          u0024
       /       \[ct]        cent            u00A2       +
       EUR     \[eu]        ---             u20AC       official Euro symbol
       EUR     \[Eu]        Euro            u20AC       font-specific Euro glyph variant
       =       \[Ye]        yen             u00A5
       -       \[Po]        sterling        u00A3       British currency sign
       o       \[Cs]        currency        u00A4       Scandinavian currency sign
       ,       \[Fn]        florin          u0192       Dutch currency sign


       o       \[de]        degree          u00B0       +
       %o      \[%0]        perthousand     u2030       per thousand, per mille sign
       '       \[fm]        minute          u2032       footmark, prime +
       ''      \[sd]        second          u2033
       ,       \[mc]        mu              u00B5       micro sign
       a       \[Of]        ordfeminine     u00AA
       o       \[Om]        ordmasculine    u00BA

       Logical Symbols

       ^       \[AN]        logicaland      u2227
       v       \[OR]        logicalor       u2228
       ~       \[no]        logicalnot      u00AC       +
       ~       \[tno]       logicalnot      u00AC       text variant of `no'
       3       \[te]        existential     u2203       there exists, existential quantifier
       -       \[fa]        universal       u2200       for all, universal quantifier
       -)      \[st]        suchthat        u220B
       .:.     \[3d]        therefore       u2234
       .:.     \[tf]        therefore       u2234
       |       \[or]        bar             u007C       bitwise OR operator (as used in C) +

       Mathematical Symbols

       1/2     \[12]        onehalf         u00BD       +
       1/4     \[14]        onequarter      u00BC       +
       3/4     \[34]        threequarters   u00BE       +
       1/8     \[18]        oneeighth       u215B
       3/8     \[38]        threeeighths    u215C
       5/8     \[58]        fiveeighths     u215D
       7/8     \[78]        seveneighths    u215E
       1       \[S1]        onesuperior     u00B9
       2       \[S2]        twosuperior     u00B2
       3       \[S3]        threesuperior   u00B3
       +       \[pl]        plus            u002B       plus sign in special font +
       -       \[mi]        minus           u2212       minus sign in special font +
       -+      \[-+]        uni2213         u2213
       +-      \[+-]        plusminus       u00B1       +
       +-      \[t+-]       plusminus       u00B1       text variant of `+-'
       .       \[pc]        periodcentered  u00B7
       .       \[md]        dotmath         u22C5       multiplication dot
       x       \[mu]        multiply        u00D7       +
       x       \[tmu]       multiply        u00D7       text variant of `mu'
       O       \[c*]        circlemultiply  u2297       multiply sign in a circle
       O       \[c+]        circleplus      u2295       plus sign in a circle
       -:-     \[di]        divide          u00F7       division sign +
       -:-     \[tdi]       divide          u00F7       text variant of `di'
       /       \[f/]        fraction        u2044       bar for fractions
       *       \[**]        asteriskmath    u2217       +
       <=      \[<=]        lessequal       u2264       +
       >=      \[>=]        greaterequal    u2265       +
       <<      \[<<]        uni226A         u226A       much less
       >>      \[>>]        uni226B         u226B       much greater
       =       \[eq]        equal           u003D       equals sign in special font +
       !=      \[!=]        notequal        u003D_0338  +
       ==      \[==]        equivalence     u2261       +
       !==     \[ne]        uni2262         u2261_0338
       =~      \[=~]        congruent       u2245       approx. equal
       -~      \[|=]        uni2243         u2243       asymptot. equal to +
       ~       \[ap]        similar         u223C       +
       ~~      \[~~]        approxequal     u2248       almost equal to
       ~=      \[~=]        approxequal     u2248
       oc      \[pt]        proportional    u221D       +
       {}      \[es]        emptyset        u2205       +
       E       \[mo]        element         u2208       +
       /       \[nm]        notelement      u2208_0338
       (=      \[sb]        propersubset    u2282       +
       (N/A)   \[nb]        notsubset       u2282_0338
       =)      \[sp]        propersuperset  u2283       +
       (N/A)   \[nc]        uni2285         u2283_0338  not superset
       (=      \[ib]        reflexsubset    u2286       +
       =)      \[ip]        reflexsuperset  u2287       +
       (^)     \[ca]        intersection    u2229       intersection, cap +
       U       \[cu]        union           u222A       union, cup +
       /       \[/_]        angle           u2220
       |       \[pp]        perpendicular   u22A5
       '       \[is]        integral        u222B       +
       (N/A)   \[integral]  integral        u222B       ***
       (N/A)   \[sum]       summation       u2211       ***
       (N/A)   \[product]   product         u220F       ***
       (N/A)   \[coproduct] uni2210         u2210       ***
       _                                                +
       V       \[gr]        gradient        u2207
       \/      \[sr]        radical         u221A       square root +
       (N/A)   \[sqrt]      radical         u221A       ***
       (N/A)   \[radicalex] radicalex       ---         continuation of square root
       (N/A)   \[sqrtex]    radicalex       ---         ***
       |~      \[lc]        uni2308         u2308       left ceiling +
       ~|      \[rc]        uni2309         u2309       right ceiling +
       |_      \[lf]        uni230A         u230A       left floor +
       _|      \[rf]        uni230B         u230B       right floor +
       oo      \[if]        infinity        u221E       +
       N       \[Ah]        aleph           u2135
       I       \[Im]        Ifraktur        u2111       Gothic I, imaginary
       R       \[Re]        Rfraktur        u211C       Gothic R, real
       p       \[wp]        weierstrass     u2118       Weierstrass p
       a       \[pd]        partialdiff     u2202       partial differentiation sign +
       (N/A)   \[-h]        uni210F         u210F       Planck constant over two pi
       (N/A)   \[hbar]      uni210F         u210F

       Greek characters

       These glyphs are intended for technical use, not for real Greek; normally, the uppercase letters have
       upright shape, and the lowercase ones are slanted.  There is a problem with the mapping of letter phi
       to Unicode.  Prior to Unicode version 3.0, the difference between U+03C6, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI, and
       U+03D5,  GREEK PHI SYMBOL, was not clearly described; only the glyph shapes in the Unicode book could
       be used as a reference.  Starting with Unicode 3.0, the reference  glyphs  have  been  exchanged  and
       described  verbally also: In mathematical context, U+03D5 is the stroked variant and U+03C5 the curly
       glyph.  Unfortunately, most font vendors didn't update their fonts to this (incompatible)  change  in
       Unicode.   At  the  time of this writing (February 2003), it is not clear yet whether the Adobe Glyph
       Names `phi' and `phi1' also change its meaning if used for mathematics, thus  compatibility  problems
       are  likely to happen - being conservative, groff currently assumes that `phi' in a PostScript symbol
       font is the stroked version.

       In groff, symbol `\[*f]' always denotes the stroked version of phi, and `\[+f]' the curly variant.

       A       \[*A]        Alpha           u0391       +
       B       \[*B]        Beta            u0392       +
        _                                               +
       |       \[*G]        Gamma           u0393
       /\      \[*D]        Delta           u0394       +
       E       \[*E]        Epsilon         u0395       +
       Z       \[*Z]        Zeta            u0396       +
       H       \[*Y]        Eta             u0397       +
       -       \[*H]        Theta           u0398       +
       I       \[*I]        Iota            u0399       +
       K       \[*K]        Kappa           u039A       +
       /\      \[*L]        Lambda          u039B       +
       M       \[*M]        Mu              u039C       +
       N       \[*N]        Nu              u039D       +
       H       \[*C]        Xi              u039E       +
       O       \[*O]        Omicron         u039F       +
       TT      \[*P]        Pi              u03A0       +
       P       \[*R]        Rho             u03A1       +
       _                                                +
       >       \[*S]        Sigma           u03A3
       T       \[*T]        Tau             u03A4       +
       Y       \[*U]        Upsilon         u03A5       +
       I       \[*F]        Phi             u03A6       +
       X       \[*X]        Chi             u03A7       +
       I       \[*Q]        Psi             u03A8       +
       O       \[*W]        Omega           u03A9       +
       a       \[*a]        alpha           u03B1       +
       B       \[*b]        beta            u03B2       +
       y       \[*g]        gamma           u03B3       +
       d       \[*d]        delta           u03B4       +
       e       \[*e]        epsilon         u03B5       +
       ,       \[*z]        zeta            u03B6       +
       n       \[*y]        eta             u03B7       +
       -       \[*h]        theta           u03B8       +
       i       \[*i]        iota            u03B9       +
       k       \[*k]        kappa           u03BA       +
       >       \[*l]        lambda          u03BB       +
       ,       \[*m]        mu              u03BC       +
       v       \[*n]        nu              u03BD       +
       ,       \[*c]        xi              u03BE       +
       o       \[*o]        omicron         u03BF       +
       -       \[*p]        pi              u03C0       +
       p       \[*r]        rho             u03C1       +
       s       \[ts]        sigma1          u03C2       terminal sigma +
       -       \[*s]        sigma           u03C3       +
       ~       \[*t]        tau             u03C4       +
       u       \[*u]        upsilon         u03C5       +
       |       \[*f]        phi             u03D5       (stroked glyph)+
       x       \[*x]        chi             u03C7       +
       |       \[*q]        psi             u03C8       +
       w       \[*w]        omega           u03C9       +
       -       \[+h]        theta1          u03D1       variant theta
       |       \[+f]        phi1            u03C6       variant phi (curly shape)
       -       \[+p]        omega1          u03D6       variant pi, looking like omega
       e       \[+e]        uni03F5         u03F5       variant epsilon

       Card symbols

       (N/A)   \[CL]        club            u2663       black club suit
       (N/A)   \[SP]        spade           u2660       black spade suit
       (N/A)   \[HE]        heart           u2665       black heart suit
       (N/A)   \[u2662]     uni2662         u2662       white heart suit
       (N/A)   \[DI]        diamond         u2666       black diamond suit
       (N/A)   \[u2661]     uni2661         u2661       white diamond suit

       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License) version  1.1
       or later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at
       the GNU copyleft site <>.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was written by

       James Clark <> with additions by

       Werner Lemberg <> and

       Bernd Warken <>.

              the GNU roff formatter.

              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen,  J.  Akkerhuis;  EUUG
       Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <>

Groff Version 1.19.2                           5 December 2004                                 GROFF_CHAR(7)

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