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GROFF_MM(7)                                                                                      GROFF_MM(7)

       groff_mm - groff mm macros

       groff -mm [ options...  ] [ files...  ]

       The  groff  mm macros are intended to be compatible with the DWB mm macros with the following limita-tions: limitations:

       •      no Bell Labs localisms implemented.

       •      the macros OK and PM are not implemented.

       •      groff mm does not support cut marks

       mm is intended to be international.  Therefore it is possible  to  write  short  national  macrofiles
       which change all english text to the preferred language.  Use mmse as an example.

       A  file  called  locale  or  lang_locale is read after the initiation of the global variables.  It is
       therefore possible to localize the macros with companyname and so on.

       In this manual square brackets is used to show optional arguments.

       Number registers and strings
       Many macros can be controlled by number registers and strings.  A number register  is  assigned  with
       the nr command:
       .nr XXX [+-]n [i]
       XXX  is  the  name of the register, n is the value to be assigned, and i is increment value for auto-increment. autoincrement.
       increment.  n can have a plus or minus sign as prefix if an increment or  decrement  of  the  current
       value  is  wanted.  (Auto-increment or decrement occurs if the number register is used with a plus or
       minus sign, \n+[XXX] or \n-[XXX].)

       Strings is defined with ds.
       .ds YYY string
       The string is assigned everything to the end of the line, even  blanks.   Initial  blanks  in  string
       should be prefixed with a double-quote.  (Strings are used in the text as \*[YYY].)

       Special formatting of number registers
       A number register is printed with normal digits if no format has been given.  Set the format with af:
       .af R c
       R is the name of the register, c is the format.
       Form Sequence
       1    0, 1, 2, 3, ...
       001  000, 001, 002, 003, ...
       i    0, i, ii, iii, iv, ...
       I    0, I, II, III, IV, ...
       a    0, a, b, c, ..., z, aa, ab, ...
       A    0, A, B, C, ..., Z, AA, AB, ...


       )E level text
              Adds text (heading-text) to the table of contents with level either 0  or  between  1-7.   See
              also .H.  This macro is used for customized table of contents.

       1C [1] Begin  one  column processing.  An 1 as argument disables the page-break.  Use wide footnotes,
              small footnotes may be overprinted.

       2C     Begin two column processing.  Splits the page in two columns.  It is a  special  case  of  MC.
              See also 1C.

       AE     Abstract end, see AS.

       AF [name of firm]
              Authors firm, should be called before AU, see also COVER.

       AL [type [text-indent [1]]]
              Start  autoincrement  list.   Items are numbered beginning on one.  The type argument controls
              the type of numbers.
              Arg  Description
              1    Arabic (the default)
              A    Upper-case letters (A-Z)
              a    Lower-case letters (a-z)
              I    Upper-case roman
              i    Lower-case roman
              Text-indent sets the indent and overrides Li.  A third argument will prohibit  printing  of  a
              blank line before each item.

       APP name text
              Begin  an  appendix  with  name  name.  Automatic naming occurs if name is "".  The appendixes
              starts with A if auto is used.  An new page is ejected, and a header is also produced  if  the
              number  variable  Aph  is  non-zero.   This is the default.  The appendix always appear in the
              'List of contents' with correct pagenumber.  The name APPENDIX can be changed by  setting  the
              string App to the desired text.  The string Apptxt contains the current appendix text.

       APPSK name pages text
              Same  as  .APP, but the pagenr is incremented with pages.  This is used when diagrams or other
              non-formatted documents are included as appendixes.

       AS [arg [indent]]
              Abstract start.  Indent is specified in 'ens', but scaling is allowed.  Argument arg  controls
              where the abstract is printed.
              Arg  Placement
              0    Abstract  will  be printed on page 1 and on the cover sheet if used in the released-paper
                   style (MT 4), otherwise it will be printed on page 1 without a cover sheet.
              1    Abstract will only be printed on the cover sheet (MT 4 only).
              2    Abstract will be printed only on the cover sheet (other than MT 4 only).  The cover sheet
                   is printed without need for CS.
              Abstract  is  not printed at all in external letters (MT 5).  The indent controls the indenta-tion indentation
              tion of both margins, otherwise will normal text indent be used.

       AST [title]
              Abstract title.  Default is ABSTRACT.  Sets the text above the abstract text.

       AT title1 [title2 ...]
              Authors title.  AT must appear just after each AU.  The title will show up after the  name  in
              the signature block.

       AU [name [initials [loc [dept [ext [room [arg [arg [arg]]]]]]]]]
              Author  information,  specifies  the  author  of the memo or paper, and will be printed on the
              cover sheet and on other similar places.  AU must not appear before TL.  The  author  informa-tion information
              tion  can contain initials, location, department, telephone extension, room number or name and
              up to three extra arguments.

       AV [name [1]]
              Approval signature, generates an approval line with place for signature and date.  The  string
              APPROVED: can be changed with variable Letapp, and the string Date in Letdate.

       AVL [name]
              Letter signature, generates a line with place for signature.

       B [bold-text [prev-font-text [bold...]]]
              Begin  boldface.   No limit on the number of arguments.  All arguments will be concatenated to
              one word, the first, third and so on will be printed in boldface.

       B1     Begin box (as the ms macro).  Draws a box around the text.  The  text  will  be  indented  one
              character, and the right margin will be one character shorter.

       B2     End box.  Finish the box started by B1.

       BE     End bottom block, see BS.

       BI [bold-text [italic-text [bold-text [...]]]]
              Bold-italic.  No limit on the number of arguments, see B.

       BL [text-indent [1]]
              Start  bullet  list, initialize a list with a bullet and a space in the beginning of each list
              item (see LI).  Text-indent overrides the default indentation of the list items set by  number
              register Pi.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.

       BR [bold-text [roman-text [bold-text [...]]]]
              Bold-roman.  No limit on the number of arguments.

       BS     Bottom  block  start.  Begins the definition of a text block which is printed at the bottom of
              each page.  Block ends with BE.

       BVL text-indent [mark-indent [1]]
              Start of broken variable-item list.  Broken variable-item list has no fixed mark,  it  assumes
              that every LI has a mark instead.  The text will always begin at the next line after the mark.
              Text-indent sets the indent to the text, and mark-indent the distance from the current  indent
              to the mark.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.

       COVER [arg]
              COVER  begins  a coversheet definition.  It is important that .COVER appears before any normal
              text.  .COVER uses arg to build the filename /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/mm/arg.cov.   There-fore Therefore
              fore it is possible to create unlimited types of coversheets.  ms.cov is supposed to look like
              the ms coversheet.  .COVER requires a .COVEND at the end of the coverdefinition.   Always  use
              this order of the covermacros:
              However, only .TL and .AU are required.

       COVEND This finish the cover description and prints the cover-page.  It is defined in the cover file.

       DE     Display end.  Ends a block of text, display, that begins with DS or DF.

       DF [format [fill [rindent]]]
              Begin floating display (no nesting allowed).  A floating display is saved in a  queue  and  is
              printed  in  the order entered.  Format, fill and rindent is the same as in DS.  Floating dis-plays displays
              plays are controlled by the two number registers De and Df.

              De register
              0    Nothing special, this is the default.
              1    A page eject will occur after each printed display, giving only one display per page  and
                   no text following it.

              Df register
              0    Displays  are  printed at the end of each section (when section-page numbering is active)
                   or at the end of the document.
              1    A new display will be printed on the current page if there is enough space, otherwise  it
                   will be printed at the end of the document.
              2    One display will be printed at the top of each page or column (in multi-column mode).
              3    Print  one  display  if there is enough space for it, otherwise it will be printed at the
                   top of the next page or column.
              4    Print as many displays that will fit in a new page or column.  A page  break  will  occur
                   between each display if De is not zero.
              5    Fill  the  current  page  with  displays  and the rest beginning at a new page or column.
                   (This is the default.)  A page break will occur between each display if De is not zero.

       DL [text-indent [1 [1]]]
              Dash list start.  Begins a list where each item is printed after a dash.  Text-indent  changes
              the  default  indentation of the list items set by number register Pi.  A second argument pre-vents prevents
              vents the empty line between each list item to be printed.  See LI.   A  third  argument  will
              prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.

       DS [format [fill [rindent]]]
              Static  display  start.   Begins collection of text until DE.  The text is printed together on
              the same page, unless it is longer than the height of the page.  DS can be nested to a  unlim-ited unlimited
              ited depth (reasonably :-).

              ""   No indentation.
              none No indentation.
              L    No indentation.
              I    Indent text with the value of number register Si.
              C    Center each line
              CB   Center the whole display as a block.
              R    Right adjust the lines.
              RB   Right adjust the whole display as a block

              L,  I,  C  and CB can also be specified as 0, 1, 2 or 3 for compatibility reasons.  (Don't use
              it. :-)

              ""   Line-filling turned off.
              none Line-filling turned off.
              N    Line-filling turned off.
              F    Line-filling turned on.

              N and F can also be specified as 0 or 1.  An empty line will normally be  printed  before  and
              after  the  display.  Setting number register Ds to 0 will prevent this.  Rindent shortens the
              line length by that amount.

       EC [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
              Equation title.  Sets a title for an equation.  The override argument change the numbering.

              none override is a prefix to the number.
              0    override is a prefix to the number.
              1    override is a suffix to the number.
              2    override replaces the number.
              EC uses the number register Ec as counter.  It is possible to use .af to change the format  of
              the number.  If number register Of is 1, then the format of title will use a dash instead of a
              dot after the number.
              The string Le controls the title of the List of Equations, default is LIST OF EQUATIONS.   The
              List of Equations will only be printed if number register Le is 1, default 0.  The string Liec
              contains the word Equation, wich is printed before the number.  If refname is used,  then  the
              equation number is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
              Special  handling  of the title will occur if EC is used inside DS/DE, it will not be affected
              by the format of DS.

       EF [arg]
              Even-page footer, printed just above the normal page footer on even pages, see PF.

       EH [arg]
              Even-page header, printed just below the normal page header on even pages, see PH.

       EN     Equation end, see EQ.

       EOP    End of page user-defined macro.  This macro will be called instead of the normal  printing  of
              the  footer.   The  macro will be executed in a separate environment, without any trap active.
              See TP.

              Strings available to EOP
              EOPf Argument from PF.
              EOPefArgument from EF.
              EOPofArgument from OF.

       EPIC [-L] width height [name]
              EPIC draws a box with the given width and height, it will  also  print  the  text  name  or  a
              default  string  if  name  is not specified..  This is used to include external pictures, just
              give the size of the picture.  -L will leftadjust  the  picture,  the  default  is  to  center
              adjust.  See PIC

       EQ [label]
              Equation start.  EQ/EN are the delimiters for equations written for eqn.  EQ/EN must be inside
              a DS/DE-pair, except when EQ is only used to set options in eqn.  The label will appear at the
              right  margin  of the equation, unless number register Eq is 1.  Then the label will appear at
              the left margin.

       EX [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
              Exhibit title, arguments are the same as for EC.  EX uses the number register Ex  as  counter.
              The  string  Lx  controls the title of the List of Exhibits, default is LIST OF EXHIBITS.  The
              List of Exhibits will only be printed if number register Lx is 1, default 1.  The string  Liex
              contains  the  word Exhibit, which is printed before the number.  If refname is used, then the
              exhibit number is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
              Special handling of the title will occur if EX is used inside DS/DE, it will not  be  affected
              by the format of DS.

       FC [closing]
              Prints Yours very truly, as a formal closing of a letter or memorandum.  The argument replaces
              the defualt string.  The default is stored in string variable Letfc.

       FD [arg [1]]
              Footnote default format.   Controls  the  hyphenation  (hyphen),  right  margin  justification
              (adjust),  indentation  of footnote text (indent).  It can also change the label justification

              arg  hyphen  adjust  indent  ljust
              0    no      yes     yes     left
              1    yes     yes     yes     left
              2    no      no      yes     left
              3    yes     no      yes     left
              4    no      yes     no      left
              5    yes     yes     no      left
              6    no      no      no      left
              7    yes     no      no      left
              8    no      yes     yes     right
              9    yes     yes     yes     right
              10   no      no      yes     right
              11   yes     no      yes     right

              Argument greater than or equal to 11 is considered as arg 0.  Default for mm is 10.

       FE     Footnote end.

       FG [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
              Figure title, arguments are the same as for EC.  FG uses the number register  Fg  as  counter.
              The string Lf controls the title of the List of Figures, default is LIST OF FIGURES.  The List
              of Figures will only be printed if number register Lf is 1, default 1.  The string  Lifg  con-tains contains
              tains the word Figure, wich is printed before the number.  If refname is used, then the figure
              number is saved with .SETR, and can be retrieved with .GETST refname.
              Special handling of the title will occur if FG is used inside DS/DE, it will not  be  affected
              by the format of DS.

       FS [label]
              Footnote  start.   The footnote is ended by FE.  Footnotes is normally automatically numbered,
              the number is available in string F.  Just add \*F in the text.  By adding label, it is possi-ble possible
              ble  to  have  other number or names on the footnotes.  Footnotes in displays is now possible.
              An empty line separates footnotes, the height of the line is controlled by number register Fs,
              default value is 1.

       GETHN refname [varname]
              Includes  the headernumber where the corresponding SETR refname was placed.  Will be X.X.X. in
              pass 1.  See INITR.  If varname is used, GETHN sets the stringvariable varname to the  header-number. headernumber.

       GETPN refname [varname]
              Includes  the  pagenumber  where  the  corresponding SETR refname was placed.  Will be 9999 in
              pass 1.  See INITR.  If varname is used, GETPN sets the stringvariable varname to the pagenum-ber. pagenumber.

       GETR refname
              Combines  GETHN  and  GETPN with the text 'chapter' and ', page'.  The string Qrf contains the
              text for reference:
                   .ds Qrf See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\*[Qrfp].
              Qrf may be changed to support other languages.  Strings Qrfh and Qrfp are set by GETR and con-tains contains
              tains the page and headernumber.

       GETST refname [varname]
              Includes  the  string saved with the second argument to .SETR.  Will be dummystring in pass 1.
              If varname is used, GETST sets the stringvariable varname to the saved string.  See INITR.

       H level [heading-text [heading-suffix]]
              Numbered section heading.  Section headers can have a level between 1 and 14, level 1  is  the
              top  level.   The text is given in heading-text, and must be surrounded by double quotes if it
              contains spaces.  Heading-suffix is added to the header in the text but not in  the  table  of
              contents.   This  is  normally  used  for footnote marks and similar things.  Don't use \*F in
              heading-suffix, it won't work.  A manual label must be used, see FS.

              An eventual paragraph, P, directly after H will be ignored, H is taking care  of  spacing  and

              Page ejection before heading
              Number  register  Ej controls page ejection before the heading.  Normally, a level one heading
              gets two blank lines before it, higher levels gets only one.  A new  page  is  ejected  before
              each  first-level  heading if number register Ej is 1.  All levels below or equal the value of
              Ej gets a new page.  Default value for Ej is 0.

              Heading break level
              A line break occurs after the heading if the heading level is less or equal to number register
              Hb.  Default value 2.

              Heading space level
              A  blank  line  is  inserted after the heading if the heading level is less or equal to number
              register Hs.  Default value 2.

              Text will follow the heading on the same line if the level is greater than both Hb and Hs.

              Post-heading indent
              Indentation of the text after the heading is controlled by number register Hi,  default  value

              0    The text will be left-justified.
              1    Indentation of the text will follow the value of number register Pt, see P.
              2    The text will be lined up with the first word of the heading.

              Centered section headings
              All  headings  whose level is equal or below number register Hc and also less than or equal to
              Hb or Hs is centerered.

              Font control of the heading
              The font of each heading level is controlled by string HF.  It contains a fontnumber or  font-name fontname
              name  for each level.  Default is 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (all headings in italic).  Could
              also be written as I I I I I I I I I I I I I I.  Note  that  some  other  implementations  use
              3 3 2 2 2 2 2 as the default value.  All omitted values are presumed to be a 1.

              Point size control.
              String  HP controls the pointsize of each heading, in the same way as HF controls the font.  A
              value of 0 selects the default point  size.   Default  value  is  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.
              Beware that only the point size changes, not the vertical size.  That can be controlled by the
              user specified macro HX and/or HZ.

              Heading counters
              Fourteen number registers, named H1 thru H14 contains the counter for each heading level.  The
              values  are  printed using arabic numerals, this can be changed with the macro HM (see below).
              All marks are concatenated before printing.  To avoid this, set number register Ht to 1.  That
              will only print the current heading counter at each heading.

              Automatic table of contents
              All  headings  whose  level is equal or below number register Cl is saved to be printed in the
              table of contents.  Default value is 2.

              Special control of the heading, user-defined macros.
              These macros can be defined by the user to get a finer control of vertical spacing,  fonts  or
              other features.  Argument level is the level-argument to H, but 0 for unnumbered headings (see
              HU).  Argument rlevel is the real level, it is set to number register Hu for unnumbered  head-ings. headings.
              ings.  Argument heading-text is the text argument to H and HU.

              HX level rlevel heading-text
              HX is called just before the printing of the heading.  The following register is available for
              HX.  HX may alter }0, }2 and ;3.
              string }0
                   Contains the heading mark plus two spaces if rlevel is non-zero, otherwise empty.
              register ;0
                   Contains the position of the text after the heading.  0 means that the text should follow
                   the  heading on the same line, 1 means that a line break should occur before the text and
                   2 means that a blank line should separate the heading and the text.
              string }2
                   Contains two spaces if register ;0 is 0.  It is used to separate  the  heading  from  the
                   text.  The string is empty if ;0 is non-zero.
              register ;3
                   Contains the needed space in units after the heading.  Default is 2v.

                   Can  be  used  to change things like numbering (}0), vertical spacing (}2) and the needed
                   space after the heading.

              HY dlevel rlevel heading-text
              HY is called after size and font calculations and might be used to change indentation.

              HZ dlevel rlevel heading-text
              HZ is called after the printing of the heading, just before H or HU exits.  Could be  used  to
              change the page header according to the section heading.

       HC [hyphenation-character]
              Set  hyphenation  character.   Default  value  is \%.  Resets to the default if called without
              argument.  Hyphenation can be turned off by setting number register Hy to 0 in  the  beginning
              of the file.

       HM [arg1 [arg2 [... [arg14]]]]
              Heading  mark  style.   Controls  the  type  of  marking for printing of the heading counters.
              Default is 1 for all levels.

              1    Arabic numerals.
              0001 Arabic numerals with leading zeroes, one or more.
              A    Upper-case alphabetic
              a    Lower-case alphabetic
              I    Upper-case roman numerals
              i    lower-case roman numerals
                   Arabic numerals.

       HU heading-text
              Unnumbered section header.  HU behavies like H at the level in number register Hu.  See H.

       HX dlevel rlevel heading-text
              Userdefined heading exit.  Called just before printing the header.  See H.

       HY dlevel rlevel heading-text
              Userdefined heading exit.  Called just before printing the header.  See H.

       HZ dlevel rlevel heading-text
              Userdefined heading exit.  Called just after printing the header.  See H.

       I [italic-text [prev-font-text [italic-text [...]]]]
              Italic.  Changes the font to italic if called without arguments.  With one  argument  it  will
              set  the word in italic.  With two argument it will concatenate them and set the first word in
              italic and the second in the previous font.  There is no limit on the number of argument,  all
              will be concatenated.

       IA [addressee-name [title]]
              Begins  specification of the addressee and addressee's address in letter style.  Several names
              can be specified with empty IA/IE-pairs, but only one address.  See LT.

       IB [italic-text [bold-text [italic-text [...]]]]
              Italic-bold.  Even arguments is printed in italic, odd in boldface.  See I.

       IE     Ends the address-specification after IA.

       INITI type filename [macro]
              Initialize the new index system, sets the filename to collect index lines in with IND.   Argu-ment Argument
              ment type selects the type of index, page number, header marks or both.  The default is N.

              It  is  also  possible to create a macro that is responsible for formatting each row.  Add the
              name of the macro as argument 3.  The macro will be called with the index as argument(s).

              N    Page numbers
              H    Header marks
              B    Both page numbers and header marks, tab separated

       INITR filename
              Initialize the refencemacros.  References will be written to stderr  and  is  supposed  to  be
              written  to  filename.qrf.  Requires two passes with groff, this is handled by a separate pro-gram program
              gram called mmroff, the reason is that groff is often installed without the unsafe  operations
              that  INITR  requiered.  The first pass looks for references and the second one includes them.
              INITR can be used several times, but it is only the first occurrence of INITR that is  active.

              See also SETR, GETPN and GETHN.

       IND arg1 [arg2 [...]]
              IND  writes  a line in the index file selected by INITI with all arguments and the page number
              or header mark separated by tabs.
                   arg1\tpage number
                   arg1\targ2\tpage number
                   arg1\theader mark
                   arg1\tpage number\theader mark

       INDP   INDP prints the index by running the command specified by  string  variable  Indcmd,  normally
              sort -t\t.   INDP reads the output from the command to form the index, normally in two columns
              (can be changed by defining TYIND).  The index  is  printed  with  string  variable  Index  as
              header,  default  is INDEX.  One-column processing is returned after the list.  INDP will call
              the user-defined macros TXIND, TYIND and TZIND if defined.  TXIND is  called  before  printing
              INDEX,  TYIND  is  called  instead  of printing INDEX.  TZIND is called after the printing and
              should take care of restoring to normal operation again.

       ISODATE [0]
              ISODATE changes the predefined date string in DT to ISO-format, ie YYYY-MM-DD.  This can  also
              be done by adding -rIso=1 on the command line.  Reverts to old date format if argument is 0.

       IR [italic-text [roman-text [italic-text [...]]]]
              Italic-roman.  Even arguments is printed in italic, odd in roman.  See I.

       LB text-indent mark-indent pad type [mark [LI-space [LB-space]]]
              List  begin macro.  This is the common macro used for all lists.  Text-indent is the number of
              spaces to indent the text from the current indent.

              Pad and mark-indent controls where to put the mark.  The mark is placed within the mark  area,
              and  mark-indent sets the number of spaces before this area.  It is normally 0.  The mark area
              ends where the text begins.  The start of the text is still controlled by text-indent.

              The mark is left justified whitin the mark area if pad is 0.  If pad is greater than  0,  then
              mark-indent  is  ignored,  and the mark is placed pad spaces before the text.  This will right
              justify the mark.

              If type is 0 the list will have either a hanging indent or, if argument  mark  is  given,  the
              string mark as mark.

              If  type  is greater than 0 automatic numbering will occur, arabic if mark is empty.  Mark can
              then be any of 1, A, a, I or i.

              Type selects one of six possible ways to display the mark.
               1    x.
               2    x)
               3    (x)
               4    [x]
               5    <x>
               6    {x}

              Every item in the list will get LI-space number of blank lines before them.  Default is 1.

              LB itself will print LB-space blank lines.  Default is 0.

       LC [list-level]
              List-status clear.  Terminates all current active  lists  down  to  list-level,  or  0  if  no
              argmuent is given.  This is used by H to clear any active list.

       LE [1] List end.  Terminate the current list.  LE outputs a blank line if an argument is given.

       LI [mark [1]]
              List  item  precedes every item in a list.  Without argument LI will print the mark determined
              by the current list type.  By giving LI one argument, it will use that as  the  mark  instead.
              Two  arguments to LI will make mark a prefix to the current mark.  There will be no separating
              space between the prefix and the mark if the second argument is 2 instead of 1.   This  behav-iour behaviour
              iour  can  also be achieved by setting number register Limsp to zero.  A zero length mark will
              make a hanging indent instead.

              A blank line is normally printed before the list item.  This behaviour can  be  controlled  by
              number  register  Ls.   Pre-spacing  will  occur for each list-level less than or equal to Ls.
              Default value is 99.  (Nesting of lists is unlimited. :-)

              The indentation can be changed thru number register Li.  Default is 6.

              All lists begins with a list initialization macro, LB.  There are, however,  seven  predefined
              listtypes to make lists easier to use.  They all call LB with different default values.
              AL   Automatically Incremented List
              ML   Marked List
              VL   Variable-Item List
              BL   Bullet List
              DL   Dash List
              RL   Reference List
                   Broken Varable List.
              These lists are described at other places in this manual.  See also LB.

       LT [arg]
              Formats  a  letter in one of four different styles depending on the argument.  See also INTER-NALS. INTERNALS.
              Arg  Style
              BL   Blocked.  Date line, return address, writer's address and closing begins at the center of
                   the line.  All other lines begin at the left margin.
              SB   Semi-blocked.  Same as blocked, except that the first line in every paragraph is indented
                   five spaces.
              FB   Full-blocked.  All lines begin at the left margin.
              SP   Simplified.  Almost the same as the full-blocked style.  Subject and the writer's identi-fication identification
                   fication are printed in all-capital.

       LO type [arg]
              Specify options in letter (see .LT).  This is a list of the standard options:
              CN   Confidential  notation.  Prints CONFIDENTIAL on the second line below the date line.  Any
                   argument replaces CONFIDENTIAL.  See also string variable LetCN.
              RN   Reference notation.  Prints In reference to: and the argument two lines  below  the  date
                   line.  See also string variable LetRN.
              AT   Attention.  Prints ATTENTION: and the argument below the inside address.  See also string
                   variable LetAT.
              SA   Salutation.  Prints To Whom It May Concern: or the argument if it was present.  The salu-tation salutation
                   tation is printed two lines below the inside address.  See also string variable LetSA.
              SJ   Subject  line.  Prints the argument as subject prefixed with SUBJECT: two lines below the
                   inside address, except in letter type SP.  Then the subject  is  printed  in  all-captial
                   without any prefix.  See also string variable LetSJ.

       MC column-size [column-separation]
              Begin multiple columns.  Return to normal with 1C.  MC will create as many columns as the cur-rent current
              rent line length permits.  Column-size is the width of each column, and  column-separation  is
              the space between two columns.  Default separation is the column-size/15.  See also 1C.

       ML mark [text-indent [1]]
              Marked list start.  The mark argument will be printed before each list item.  Text-indent sets
              the indent and overrides Li.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank  line  before
              each item.

       MT [arg [addressee]]
              Memorandum type.  The arg is part of a filename in /usr/share/groff/1.19.2/tmac/mm/*.MT.  Mem-orandum Memorandum
              orandum type 0 thru 5 are supported, including "string".  Addressee just sets a variable, used
              in the AT&T macros.
              0    Normal memorandum, no type printed
              1    Memorandum with MEMORANDUM FOR FILE printed
              2    Memorandum with PROGRAMMER'S NOTES printed
              3    Memorandum with ENGINEER'S NOTES printed
              4    Released paper style
              5    External letter style
              See also COVER/COVEND, a more flexible type of front page.

       MOVE y-pos [x-pos [line-length]]
              Move  to  a  position,  pageoffset  set to x-pos.  If line-length is not given, the difference
              between current and new pageoffset is used.  Use PGFORM without arguments to return to normal.

       MULB cw1 space1 [cw2 space2 [cw3 ...]]
              Begin  a  special  multi-column  mode.  Every columns width must be specified.  Also the space
              between the columns must be specified.  The last column does not  need  any  space-definition.
              MULB  starts  a  diversion  and  MULE ends the diversion and prints the columns.  The unit for
              width and space is 'n', but MULB accepts all normal unitspecifications like 'c' and 'i'.  MULB
              operates in a separate environment.

       MULN   Begin the next column.  This is the only way to switch column.

       MULE   End the multi-column mode and print the columns.

       nP [type]
              Print numbered paragraph with header level two.  See .P.

       NCOL   Force printing to the next column, don't use this together with the MUL* macros, see 2C.

       NS [arg [1]]
              Prints  different  types  of  notations.   The argument selects between the predefined type of
              notations.  If the second argument is available, then the argument becomes  the  entire  nota-tion. notation.
              tion.   If  the argument doesn't exist in the predefined, it will be printed as Copy (arg) to.
              It is possible to add more standard notations, see the string variable Letns and Letnsdef.
              Arg  Notation
              none Copy To
              ""   Copy To
              1    Copy To (with att.) to
              2    Copy To (without att.) to
              3    Att.
              4    Atts.
              5    Enc.
              6    Encs.
              7    Under separate cover
              8    Letter to
              9    Memorandum to
              10   Copy (with atts.) to
              11   Copy (without atts.) to
              12   Abstract Only to
              13   Complete Memorandum to
              14   CC

       ND new-date
              New date.  Override the current date.  Date is not printed if new-date is an empty string.

       OF [arg]
              Odd-page footer, a line printed just above the normal footer.  See EF and PF.

       OH [arg]
              Odd-page header, a line printed just below the normal header.  See EH and PH.

       OP     Make sure that the following text is printed at the top of an  odd-numbered  page.   Will  not
              output an empty page if currently at the top of an odd page.

       P [type]
              Begin new paragraph.  P without argument will produce left justified text, even the first line
              of the paragraph.  This is the same as setting type to 0.  If  the  argument  is 1,  then  the
              first line of text following P will be indented by the number of spaces in number register Pi,
              normally 5.

              Instead of giving 1 as argument to P it is possible to set the paragraph type in number regis-ter register
              ter  Pt.   Using 0 and 1 will be the same as adding that value to P.  A value of 2 will indent
              all paragraphs, except after headings, lists and displays.

              The space between two paragraphs is controlled by number register Ps, and is 1 by default (one
              blank line).

       PGFORM [linelength [pagelength [pageoffset [1]]]]
              Sets linelength, pagelength and/or pageoffset.  This macro can be used for special formatting,
              like letterheads and other.  It is normally the first command in a file, though it's not  nec-essary. necessary.
              essary.   PGFORM can be used without arguments to reset everything after a MOVE.  A line-break
              is done unless the fourth argument is given.  This can be used to avoid the pagenumber on  the
              first  page  while setting new width and length.  (It seems as if this macro sometimes doesn't
              work too well.  Use the command line arguments to change linelength, pagelength and pageoffset
              instead.  Sorry.)

       PGNH   No header is printed on the next page.  Used to get rid of the header in letters or other spe-cial special
              cial texts.  This macro must be used before any text to inhibit the pageheader  on  the  first

       PIC [-L] [-C] [-R] [-I n] filename [width [height]]
              PIC  includes  a Postscript file in the document.  The macro depends on mmroff and INITR.  -L,
              -C, -R and -I n adjusts the picture or indents it.  The optionally width and height  can  also
              be given to resize the picture.

       PE     Picture end.  Ends a picture for pic, see the manual for pic.

       PF [arg]
              Page footer.  PF sets the line to be printed at the bottom of each page.  Normally empty.  See
              PH for the argument specification.

       PH [arg]
              Page header, a line printed at the top of each page.  The  argument  should  be  specified  as
              "'left-part'center-part'right-part'", where left-, center- and right-part is printed left-jus-tified, left-justified,
              tified, centered and right justified.  The character % is changed to the current page  number.
              The default page-header is "''- % -''", the page number between two dashes.

       PS     Picture start (from pic).  Begins a picture for pic, see the manual.

       PX     Page-header user-defined exit.  PX is called just after the printing of the page header in no-space nospace
              space mode.

       R      Roman.  Return to roman font, see also I.

       RB [roman-text [bold-text [roman-text [...]]]]
              Roman-bold.  Even arguments is printed in roman, odd in boldface.  See I.

       RD [prompt [diversion [string]]]
              Read from standard input to diversion and/or string.  The text will be saved  in  a  diversion
              named diversion.  Recall the text by writing the name of the diversion after a dot on an empty
              line.  A string will also be defined if string is given.  Diversion and/or prompt can be empty

       RF     Reference end.  Ends a reference definition and returns to normal processing.  See RS.

       RI [roman-text [italic-text [roman-text [...]]]]
              Even arguments are printed in roman, odd in italic.  See I.

       RL [text-indent [1]]
              Reference  list  start.  Begins a list where each item is preceded with a automatically incre-mented incremented
              mented number between square brackets.  Text-indent changes the default indentation.

       RP [arg1 [arg2]]
              Produce reference page.  RP can be used if a reference page is wanted somewhere in  the  docu-ment. document.
              ment.   It is not needed if TC is used to produce a table of content.  The reference page will
              then be printed automatically.

              The reference counter will not be reset if arg1 is 1.

              Arg2 tells RP whether to eject a page or not.
              0    The reference page will be printed on a separate page.  This is the default.
              1    Do not eject page after the list.
              2    Do not eject page before the list.
              3    Do not eject page before and after the list.
              The reference items will be separated by a blank line.  Setting number register Ls to  0  will
              suppress the line.

              The string Rp contains the reference page title and is normally set to REFERENCES.

       RS [string-name]
              RS begins an automatically numbered reference definition.  Put the string \*(Rf where the ref-erence reference
              erence mark should be and write the reference between RS/RF at next new line after the  refer-ence reference
              ence  mark.  The reference number is stored in number register :R.  If string-name is given, a
              string with that name will be defined and contain the current reference mark.  The string  can
              be referenced as \*[string-name] later in the text.

       S [size [spacing]]
              Set point size and vertical spacing.  If any argument is equal 'P', then the previous value is
              used.  A 'C' means current value, and 'D' default value.  If '+' or '-'  is  used  before  the
              value, then increment or decrement of the current value will be done.

       SA [arg]
              Set  right-margin  justification.   Justification  is  normally turned on.  No argumenent or 0
              turns off justification, a 1 turns on justification.

       SETR refname [string]
              Remember the current header and page-number as refname.  Saves string if  string  is  defined.
              string is retrieved with .GETST.  See INITR.

       SG [arg [1]]
              Signature  line.   Prints  the authors name(s) after the formal closing.  The argument will be
              appended to the reference data, printed at either the first or  last  author.   The  reference
              data  is  the location, department and initials specified with .AU.  It will be printed at the
              first author if the second argument is given, otherwise at the last.  No reference  data  will
              be printed if the author(s) is specifed thru .WA/.WE.  See INTERNALS.

       SK [pages]
              Skip pages.  If pages is 0 or omitted, a skip to the next page will occur unless it is already
              at the top of a page.  Otherwise it will skip pages pages.

       SM string1 [string2 [string3]]
              Make a string smaller.  If string2 is given, string1 will be smaller and string2 normal,  con-catenated concatenated
              catenated  with  string1.   With three argument, all is concatenated, but only string2 is made

       SP [lines]
              Space vertically.  lines can have any scalingfactor, like 3i or 8v.  Several SP in a line will
              only  produce  the  maximum  number  of lines, not the sum.  SP will also be ignored until the
              first textline in a page.  Add a \& before SP to avoid this.

       TAB    reset tabs to every 5n.  Normally used to reset any previous tabpositions.

       TB [title [override [flag [refname]]]]
              Table title, arguments are the same as for EC.  TB uses the number  register  Tb  as  counter.
              The  string  Lt controls the title of the List of Tables, default is LIST OF TABLES.  The List
              of Tables will only be printed if number register Lt is 1, default 1.  The  string  Litb  con-tains contains
              tains the word TABLE, wich is printed before the number.
              Special  handling  of the title will occur if TB is used inside DS/DE, it will not be affected
              by the format of DS.

       TC [slevel [spacing [tlevel [tab [h1 [h2 [h3 [h4 [h5]]]]]]]]]
              Table of contents.  This macro is normally used at the last line of the document.   It  gener-ates generates
              ates a table of contents with headings up to the level controlled by number register Cl.  Note
              that Cl controls the saving of headings, it has nothing to do with TC.   Headings  with  level
              less  than  or  equal  to  slevel will get spacing number of lines before them.  Headings with
              level less than or equal to tlevel will have their page numbers right justified with  dots  or
              spaces  separating  the text and the page number.  Spaces is used if tab is greater than zero,
              otherwise dots.  Other headings will have the page number directly at the end of  the  heading
              text (ragged right).

              The rest of the arguments will be printed, centered, before the table of contents.

              The user-defined macros TX and TY are used if TC is called with at most four arguments.  TX is
              called before the printing of CONTENTS, and TY is called instead of printing CONTENTS.

              Equivalent macros can be defined for list of figures, tables, equations and excibits by defin-ing defining
              ing TXxx or TYxx, where xx is Fg, TB, EC or EX.

              String  Ci  can be set to control the indentations for each heading-level.  It must be scaled,
              like .ds Ci .25i .5i .75i 1i 1i.  The indentation is normally controlled by the  maxlength  of
              headings in each level.

              All texts can be redefined, new stringvariables Lifg, Litb, Liex, Liec and Licon contain "Fig-ure", "Figure",
              ure", "TABLE", "Exhibit", "Equation" and "CONTENTS".  These can be  redefined  to  other  lan-guages. languages.

       TE     Table end.  See TS.

       TH [N] Table header.  See TS.  TH ends the header of the table.  This header will be printed again if
              a page-break occurs.  Argument N isn't implemented yet.

       TL [charging-case number(s) [filing-case number(s)]]
              Begin title of memorandum.  All text up to the next AU is included in  the  title.   Charging-case Chargingcase
              case number and filing-case are saved for use in the front page processing.

       TM [num1 [num2 [...]]]
              Technical memorandumnumbers used in .MT.  Unlimited number of arguments may be given.

       TP     Top  of  page user-defined macro.  This macro is called instead of the normal page header.  It
              is possible to get complete control over the header.  Note that header and footer  is  printed
              in a separate environment.  Linelength is preserved though.

       TS [H] Table start.  This is the start of a table specification to tbl.  See separate manual for tbl.
              TS ends with TE.  Argument H tells mm that the table has a header.  See TH.

       TX     Userdefined table of contents exit.  This macro is called just before TC prints the word  CON-TENTS. CONTENTS.
              TENTS.  See TC.

       TY     Userdefined  table of contents exit (no "CONTENTS").  This macro is called instead of printing
              CONTENTS.  See TC.

       VERBON [flag [pointsize [font]]]
              Begin verbatim output using courier font.  Usually for printing programs.  All  character  has
              equal  width.  The pointsize can be changed with the second argument.  By specifying the font-argument fontargument
              argument it is possible to use another font instead of courier.  flag controls several special
              features.  It contains the sum of all wanted features.
              1    Disable the escape-character (\).  This is normally turned on during verbose output.
              2    Add an empty line before the verbose text.
              4    Add an empty line after the verbose text.
              8    Print  the  verbose  text  with  numbered lines.  This adds four digitsized spaces in the
                   beginning of each line.  Finer control is available with the string-variable Verbnm.   It
                   contains all arguments to the troff-command .nm, normally '1'.
              16   Indent  the  verbose  text  with  five  'n':s.  This is controlled by the number-variable
                   Verbin (in units).

              End verbatim output.

       VL text-indent [mark-indent [1]]
              Variable-item list has no fixed mark, it assumes that every LI have  a  mark  instead.   Text-indent Textindent
              indent  sets  the  indent to the text, and mark-indent the distance from the current indent to
              the mark.  A third argument will prohibit printing of a blank line before each item.

       VM [-T] [top [bottom]]
              Vertical margin. Adds extra vertical top and margin space.  Option  -T  set  the  total  space
              instead.   No  argument resets the margin to zero or the default (7v 5v) if -T was used. It is
              higly recommended that macro TP and/or EOP are defined if using -T and setting top and/or bot-tom bottom
              tom margin to less than the default.

       WA [writer-name [title]]
              Begins  specification of the writer and writer's address.  Several names can be specified with
              empty WA/WE-pairs, but only one address.

       WE     Ends the address-specification after .WA.

       WC [format]
              Footnote and display width control.
              N    Set default mode, -WF, -FF, -WD and FB.
              WF   Wide footnotes, wide also in two-column mode.
              -WF  Normal footnote width, follow column mode.
              FF   All footnotes gets the same width as the first footnote encountered.
              -FF  Normal footnotes, width follows WF and -WF.
              WD   Wide displays, wide also in two-column mode.
              -WD  Normal display width, follow column mode.
              FB   Floating displays generates a line break when printed on the current page.
              -FB  Floating displays does not generate line break.

       Strings used in mm:

       App    A string containing the word "APPENDIX".

       Apptxt The current appendix text.

       EM     Em dash string

       H1txt  Will be updated by .H and .HU to the current heading text.  Also updated in table of  contents
              & friends.

       HF     Fontlist for headings, normally "2 2 2 2 2 2 2".  Nonnumeric fontnames may also be used.

       HP     Pointsize list for headings.  Normally "0 0 0 0 0 0 0" which is the same as "10 10 10 10 10 10

       Index  Contains INDEX.

       Indcmd Contains the index command, sort -t\t.

       Lifg   String containing Figure.

       Litb   String containing TABLE.

       Liex   String containing Exhibit.

       Liec   String containing Equation.

       Licon  String containing CONTENTS.

       Lf     Contains "LIST OF FIGURES".

       Lt     Contains "LIST OF TABLES".

       Lx     Contains "LIST OF EXHIBITS".

       Le     Contains "LIST OF EQUATIONS".

       Letfc  Contains "Yours very truly,", used in .FC.

       Letapp Contains "APPROVED:", used in .AV.

              Contains "Date", used in .AV.

       LetCN  Contains "CONFIDENTIAL", used in .LO CN.

       LetSA  Contains "To Whom It May Concern:", used in .LO SA.

       LetAT  Contains "ATTENTION:", used in .LO AT.

       LetSJ  Contains "SUBJECT:", used in .LO SJ.

       LetRN  Contains "In reference to:", used in .LO RN.

       Letns  is an array containing the different strings used in .NS.  It is really a  number  of  string-variables stringvariables
              variables prefixed with Letns!.  If the argument doesn't exist, it will be included between ()
              with Letns!copy as prefix and Letns!to as suffix.  Observe the space after copy and before to.
              Name           Value
              Letns!0        Copy to
              Letns!1        Copy (with att.) to
              Letns!2        Copy (without att.) to
              Letns!3        Att.
              Letns!4        Atts.
              Letns!5        Enc.
              Letns!6        Encs.
              Letns!7        Under separate cover
              Letns!8        Letter to
              Letns!9        Memorandum to
              Letns!10       Copy (with atts.) to
              Letns!11       Copy (without atts.) to
              Letns!12       Abstract Only to
              Letns!13       Complete Memorandum to
              Letns!14       CC
              Letns!copy     Copy "
              Letns!to       " to

              Defines the standard-notation used when no argument is given to .NS.  Default is 0.

       MO1 - MO12
              Strings containing January thru December.

       Qrf    String containing "See chapter \\*[Qrfh], page \\n[Qrfp].".

       Rp     Contains "REFERENCES".

       Tcst   Contains  current status of table of contents and list of XXXX.  Empty outside .TC.  Useful in
              user-defined macros like .TP.
              Value          Meaning
              co             Table of contents
              fg             List of figures
              tb             List of tables
              ec             List of equations
              ex             List of exhibits
              ap             Appendix

       Tm     Contains \(tm, trade mark.

       Verbnm Argument to .nm in .VERBON, default: 1.

       Number variables used in mm:

       Aph    Print an appendix-page for every new appendix if this numbervariable is non-zero.   No  output
              will  occur  if  Aph  is zero, but there will always be an appendix-entry in the 'List of con-tents'. contents'.

       Cl     Contents level [0:14], contents saved if heading level <= Cl, default 2.

       Cp     Eject page between LIST OF XXXX if Cp == 0, default 0.

       D      Debugflag, values >0 produces varying degree of debug.  A value of 1 gives  information  about
              the progress of formatting, default 0.

       De     Eject after floating display is output [0:1], default 0.

       Dsp    Controls the space output before and after static displays if defined.  Otherwise is the value
              of Lsp used.

       Df     Floating keep output [0:5], default 5.

       Ds     Lsp space before and after display if == 1 [0:1], default 1.

       Ej     Eject page, default 0.

       Eq     Equation lable adjust 0=left, 1=right.  Default 0.

       Fs     Footnote spacing, default 1.

       H1-H7  Heading counters

       H1dot  Append a dot after the level one heading number if > 0.  Default is 1.

       H1h    Copy of number register H1, but it is incremented just before the page break.  Useful in  user
              defined header macros.

       Hb     Heading break level [0:14], default 2.

       Hc     Heading centering level, [0:14].  Default 0.

       Hi     Heading temporary indent [0:2], default 1.
              0 -> 0 indent, left margin
              1 -> indent to right , like .P 1
              2 -> indent to line up with text part of preceding heading

       Hps    Number  variable with the heading pre-space level.  If the heading-level is less than or equal
              to Hps, then two lines will precede the section heading instead  of  one.   Default  is  first
              level only.  The real amount of lines is controlled by the variables Hps1 and Hps2.

       Hps1   This is the number of lines preceding .H when the heading-level is greater than Hps.  Value is
              in units, normally 0.5.

       Hps2   This is the number of lines preceding .H when the heading-level is less than or equal to  Hps.
              Value is in units, normally 1.

       Hs     Heading space level [0:14], default 2.

       Hss    This  is  the  number of lines that follows .H when the heading-level is less than or equal to
              Hs.  Value is in units, normally 1.

       Ht     Heading numbering type, default 0.  0 -> multiple (1.1.1 ...)
              1 -> single

       Hu     Unnumbered heading level, default 2.

       Hy     Hyphenation in body, default 0.
              0 -> no hyphenation
              1 -> hyphenation 14 on

       Iso    Set this variable to 1 on the command line to get ISO-formatted date string.   (-rIso=1)  Use-less Useless
              less inside a document.

       L      Page length, only for command line settings.

       Letwam Max lines in return-address, used in .WA/.WE.  Default 14.

       Lf, Lt, Lx, Le
              Enables  (1) or disables (0) the printing of List of figures, List of tables, List of exhibits
              and List of equations.  Default: Lf=1, Lt=1, Lx=1, Le=0.

       Li     List indent, used by .AL, default 6.

       Limsp  Flag for space between prefix and mark in automatic lists (.AL).
              0 == no space
              1 == space

       Ls     List space, if current listlevel > Ls then no spacing will occur around lists.  Default 99.

       Lsp    The size of an empty line.  Normally 0.5v, but it is 1v if n is set (.nroff).

       N      Numbering style [0:5], default 0.
              0 == (default) normal header for all pages.
              1 == header replaces footer on first page, header is empty.
              2 == page header is removed on the first page.
              3 == "section-page" numbering enabled.
              4 == page header is removed on the first page.
              5 == "section-page" and "section-figure" numbering  enabled.   See  also  the  number-register
              Sectf and Sectp.

       Np     Numbered paragraphs, default 0.
              0 == not numbered
              1 == numbered in first level headings.

       O      Page offset, only for command line settings.

       Of     Format of figure,table,exhibit,equation titles, default 0.
              0 = ". "
              1 = " - "

       P      Current page-number, normally the same as % unless "section-page" numbering is enabled.

       Pi     paragraph indent, default 5.

       Pgps   Controls  whether header and footer pointsize should follow the current setting or just change
              when the header and footer is defined.
              0    Pointsize will only change to the current setting when .PH, .PF, .OH, .EH, .OF or .OE  is
              1    Pointsize will change after every .S.  This is the default.

       Ps     paragraph spacing, default 1.

       Pt     Paragraph type, default 0.
              0 == left-justified
              1 == indented .P
              2 == indented .P except after .H, .DE or .LE.

       Sectf  Flag controlling "section-figures".  A non-zero value enables this.  See also register N.

       Sectp  Flag controlling "section-page-numbers".  A non-zero value enables this.  See also register N.

       Si     Display indent, default 5.

       Verbin Indent for .VERBON, default 5n.

       W      Line length, only for command line settings.

       .mgm   Always 1.

       The letter macros is using different submacros depending on the letter type.  The name  of  the  sub-macro submacro
       macro  has  the letter type as suffix.  It is therefore possible to define other letter types, either
       in the national macro-file, or as local additions.  .LT will set the number variables Pt and Pi to  0
       and 5.  The following strings and macros must be defined for a new letter type:

              This macro is called directly by .LT.  It is supposed to initialize variables and other stuff.

              This macro prints the letter head, and is called instead of the normal  page  header.   It  is
              supposed to remove the alias let@header, otherwise it will be called for all pages.

       let@sg_type name title n flag [arg1 [arg2 [...]]]
              .SG  is  calling  this  macro  only for letters, memorandums has its own processing.  name and
              title is specified thru .WA/.WB.  n is the counter, 1-max, and flag is true for the last name.
              Any other argument to .SG is appended.

       let@fc_type closing
              This macro is called by .FC, and has the formal closing as argument.

       .LO  is  implemented  as a general option-macro.  .LO demands that a string named Lettype is defined,
       where type is the letter type.  .LO will then assign the argument to the string variable let*lo-type.

       J~9|rgen H~ogg, Lund, Sweden <>.





       groff(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1), eqn(1)

Groff Version 1.19.2                            1 March 2013                                     GROFF_MM(7)

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