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LSOF(8)                                                                                              LSOF(8)



NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [  -?abChKlnNOPRtUvVX  ]  [  -A  A  ] [ -c c ] [ +c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-e s ] [ +|-f
       [cfgGn] ] [ -F [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ +|-m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [  -p
       s  ] [ +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] ] [ -s [p:s] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -x [fl] ] [ -z [z] ]
       [ -Z [Z] ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof revision 4.87 lists on its standard output file information about files opened by processes  for
       the following UNIX dialects:

            Apple Darwin 9 and Mac OS X 10.[567]
            FreeBSD 4.9 and 6.4 for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 8.2, 9.0 and 10.0 for AMD64-based systems
            Linux 2.1.72 and above for x86-based systems
            Solaris 9, 10 and 11

       (See  the  DISTRIBUTION  section of this manual page for information on how to obtain the latest lsof
       revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special  file,  an
       executing  text  reference,  a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX
       domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be parsed by other  programs.   See
       the -F, option description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more information.

       In  addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat mode.  In repeat mode it will
       produce output, delay, then repeat the output operation until stopped with an interrupt or quit  sig-nal. signal.
       nal.  See the +|-r [t[m<fmt>]] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files belonging to all active processes.

       If  any  list request option is specified, other list requests must be specifically requested - e.g.,
       if -U is specified for the listing of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't be listed unless -N is  also
       specified;  or if a user list is specified with the -u option, UNIX domain socket files, belonging to
       users not in the list, won't be listed unless the -U option is also specified.

       Normally list options that are specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i option  without
       an  address  and  the -ufoo option produces a listing of all network files OR files belonging to pro-cesses processes
       cesses owned by user ``foo''.  The exceptions are:

       1) the `^' (negated) login name or user ID (UID), specified with the -u option;

       2) the `^' (negated) process ID (PID), specified with the -p option;

       3) the `^' (negated) process group ID (PGID), specified with the -g option;

       4) the `^' (negated) command, specified with the -c option;

       5) the (`^') negated TCP or UDP protocol state names, specified with the -s [p:s] option.

       Since they represent exclusions, they are applied without ORing or ANDing and take effect before  any
       other selection criteria are applied.

       The  -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For example, specifying -a, -U, and -ufoo produces
       a listing of only UNIX socket files that belong to processes owned by user ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used to cause  AND-ing ANDing
       ing  of  selected  pairs  of  selection options by placing it between them, even though its placement
       there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing of all selection options.

       Items of the same selection set - command names, file descriptors, network addresses, process identi-fiers, identifiers,
       fiers,  user identifiers, zone names, security contexts - are joined in a single ORed set and applied
       before the result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example, specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd,  -a,
       and  -ufff,ggg  will  select  the listing of files that belong to either login ``fff'' OR ``ggg'' AND
       have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a -b -C'' may be
       stated  as  -abC.  However, since values are optional following +|-f, -F, -g, -i, +|-L, -o, +|-r, -s,
       -S, -T, -x and -z.  when you have no values for them be careful that the  following  character  isn't
       ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and -n options, or it might represent the n field
       identifier character following the -F option.  When ambiguity is possible, start a new option with  a
       `-'  character  -  e.g., ``-F -n''.  If the next option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous
       option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that  don't  take  on
       separate  meanings  for each prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.  Thus, for exam-ple, example,
       ple, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as  the  separate  options.   Be
       careful of prefix grouping when one or more options in the group does take on separate meanings under
       different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is not the same request as ``-i +M''.  When  in  doubt,  use
       separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h    These  two  equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays a shortened
                form of this output when it detects an error in the options supplied to  it,  after  it  has
                displayed  messages  explaining  each  error.   (Escape  the  `?'  character  as  your shell
                requires.)

       -a       causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A     is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel code is implemented via  dynamic
                modules.  It allows the lsof user to specify A as an alternate name list file where the ker-nel kernel
                nel addresses of the dynamic modules might be found.  See the  lsof  FAQ  (The  FAQ  section
                gives  its  location.)   for  more information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how
                they affect lsof.

       -b       causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might block - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).

                See  the  BLOCKS  AND  TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for information on using
                this option.

       -c c     selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that begins with the  char-acters characters
                acters  of  c.   Multiple  commands  may  be specified, using multiple -c options.  They are
                joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                If c begins with a `^', then the following characters specify a command name whose processes
                are to be ignored (excluded.)

                If  c begins and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes are interpreted
                as a regular expression.  Shell meta-characters in the regular expression must be quoted  to
                prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The closing slash may be followed by these modi-fiers: modifiers:
                fiers:

                     b    the regular expression is a basic one.
                     i    ignore the case of letters.
                     x    the regular expression is an extended one
                          (default).

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information  on  basic  and
                extended regular expressions.

                The  simple  command specification is tested first.  If that test fails, the command regular
                expression is applied.  If the simple command test succeeds, the command regular  expression
                test isn't made.  This may result in ``no command found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V
                option is specified.

       +c w     defines the maximum number of initial characters of the name, supplied by the UNIX  dialect,
                of  the  UNIX  command  associated with a process to be printed in the COMMAND column.  (The
                lsof default is nine.)

                Note that many UNIX dialects do not supply all command name characters to lsof in the  files
                and  structures  from  which  lsof obtains command name.  Often dialects limit the number of
                characters supplied in those sources.  For example, Linux 2.4.27 and Solaris  9  both  limit
                command name length to 16 characters.

                If  w  is  zero  ('0'),  all command characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect will be
                printed.

                If w is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will  be  raised  to  that
                length.

       -C       disables  the  reporting  of any path name components from the kernel's name cache.  See the
                KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.

       +d s     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s and the files and directories it
                contains  at  its top level.  +d does NOT descend the directory tree, rooted at s.  The +D D
                option may be used to request a full-descent directory tree search, rooted at directory D.

                Processing of the +d option does not follow symbolic links within s unless the -x or  -x   l
                option  is also specified.  Nor does it search for open files on file system mount points on
                subdirectories of s unless the -x or -x  f option is also specified.

                Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching  for  files  that  the
                user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s     specifies a list of file descriptors (FDs) to exclude from or include in the output listing.
                The file descriptors are specified  in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,  ``cwd,1,3'',
                ``^6,^2''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                The  list is an exclusion list if all entries of the set begin with `^'.  It is an inclusion
                list if no entry begins with `^'.  Mixed lists are not permitted.

                A file descriptor number range may be in the set as long as neither member  is  empty,  both
                members  are  numbers, and the ending member is larger than the starting one - e.g., ``0-7''
                or ``3-10''.  Ranges may be specified for exclusion if they have  the  `^'  prefix  -  e.g.,
                ``^0-7'' excludes all file descriptors 0 through 7.

                Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
                option selection.

                When there are exclusion and inclusion members in the set, lsof reports them as  errors  and
                exits with a non-zero return code.

                See  the  description  of  File Descriptor (FD) output values in the OUTPUT section for more
                information on file descriptor names.

       +D D     causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D and all the files  and  directo-ries directories
                ries it contains to its complete depth.

                Processing  of  the +D option does not follow symbolic links within D unless the -x or -x  l
                option is also specified.  Nor does it search for open files on file system mount points  on
                subdirectories of D unless the -x or -x  f option is also specified.

                Note:  the  authority  of  the user of this option limits it to searching for files that the
                user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

                Further note: lsof may process this option slowly and require a large amount of dynamic mem-ory memory
                ory to do it.  This is because it must descend the entire directory tree, rooted at D, call-ing calling
                ing stat(2) for each file and directory, building a list of all  the  files  it  finds,  and
                searching  that  list  for  a  match with every open file.  When directory D is large, these
                steps can take a long time, so use this option prudently.

       -D D     directs lsof's use of  the  device  cache  file.   The  use  of  this  option  is  sometimes
                restricted.   See  the  DEVICE  CACHE  FILE section and the sections that follow it for more
                information on this option.

                -D must be followed by a function letter; the function letter may optionally be followed  by
                a path name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:

                     ? - report device cache file paths
                     b - build the device cache file
                     i - ignore the device cache file
                     r - read the device cache file
                     u - read and update the device cache file

                The b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes restricted.  When these
                functions are restricted, they will not appear in the description  of  the  -D  option  that
                accompanies  -h  or  -?   option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections
                that follow it for more information on these functions and when they're restricted.

                The ?  function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof can use for the device cache
                file, the names of any environment variables whose values lsof will examine when forming the
                device cache file path, and the format for the personal device cache file path.  (Escape the
                `?' character as your shell requires.)

                When  available,  the b, r, and u functions may be followed by the device cache file's path.
                The standard default is .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the real user ID  that  exe-cutes executes
                cutes  lsof,  but  this could have been changed when lsof was configured and compiled.  (The
                output of the -h and -?  options show the current default prefix -  e.g.,  ``.lsof''.)   The
                suffix, hostname, is the first component of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

                When  available, the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache file at the default
                or specified path.

                The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache file and obtain its  informa-tion information
                tion about devices via direct calls to the kernel.

                The  r  function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or specified path, but
                prevents it from creating a new device cache file when none exists or the  existing  one  is
                improperly  structured.   The  r function, when specified without a path name, prevents lsof
                from updating an incorrect or outdated device cache file, or  creating  a  new  one  in  its
                place.   The  r  function is always available when it is specified without a path name argu-ment; argument;
                ment; it may be restricted by the permissions of the lsof process.

                When available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at the default  or
                specified  path,  if  possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is the default device
                cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-e s   exempts the file system whose path name is s from being subjected to kernel  function  calls
                that might block.  The +e option exempts stat(2), lstat(2) and most readlink(2) kernel func-tion function
                tion calls.  The -e option exempts only stat(2) and lstat(2) kernel function calls.   Multi-ple Multiple
                ple  file systems may be specified with separate +|-e specifications and each may have read-link(2) readlink(2)
                link(2) calls exempted or not.

                This option is currently implemented only for Linux.

                CAUTION: this option can easily be mis-applied to other than the file  system  of  interest,
                because  it  uses path name rather than the more reliable device and inode numbers.  (Device
                and inode numbers are acquired via the potentially blocking stat(2) kernel call and are thus
                not available, but see the +|-m m option as a possible alternative way to supply device num-bers.) numbers.)
                bers.)  Use this option with great care and fully specify the path name of the  file  system
                to be exempted.

                When  open files on exempted file systems are reported, it may not be possible to obtain all
                their information.  Therefore, some  information  columns  will  be  blank,  the  characters
                ``UNKN'' preface the values in the TYPE column, and the applicable exemption option is added
                in parentheses to the end of the NAME column.  (Some device number information might be made
                available via the +|-m m option.)

       +|-f [cfgGn]
                f by itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be interpreted.  When followed by c, f,
                g, G, or n in any combination it specifies that the listing of kernel file structure  infor-mation information
                mation is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

                Normally  a  path name argument is taken to be a file system name if it matches a mounted-on
                directory name reported by mount(8), or if it represents a block device, named in the  mount
                output  and  associated  with a mounted directory name.  When +f is specified, all path name
                arguments will be taken to be file system names, and lsof will  complain  if  any  are  not.
                This can be useful, for example, when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block
                device.  This happens for some CD-ROM file systems.

                When -f is specified by itself, all path name arguments will be taken to  be  simple  files.
                Thus, for example, the ``-f -- /'' arguments direct lsof to search for open files with a `/'
                path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

                Be careful to make sure +f and -f are properly terminated and aren't followed by a character
                (e.g.,  of  the  file or file system name) that might be taken as a parameter.  For example,
                use ``--'' after +f and -f as in these examples.

                     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name
                     $ lsof -f -- /file/name

                The listing of information from kernel file structures, requested with the +f [cfgGn] option
                form, is normally inhibited, and is not available in whole or part for some dialects - e.g.,
                /proc-based Linux kernels below 2.6.22.  When the prefix to f is a plus  sign  (`+'),  these
                characters request file structure information:

                     c    file structure use count (not Linux)
                     f    file structure address (not Linux)
                     g    file flag abbreviations (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     G    file flags in hexadecimal (Linux 2.6.22 and up)
                     n    file structure node address (not Linux)

                When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable the listing of the indicated val-ues. values.
                ues.

                File structure addresses, use counts, flags, and node addresses may be used to  detect  more
                readily identical files inherited by child processes and identical files in use by different
                processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by output columns holding the values and listed
                to  identify  identical  file  use,  or  lsof  field  output can be parsed by an AWK or Perl
                post-filter script, or by a C program.

       -F f     specifies a character list, f, that selects the  fields  to  be  output  for  processing  by
                another program, and the character that terminates each output field.  Each field to be out-put output
                put is specified with a single character in f.  The field terminator defaults to NL, but may
                be changed to NUL (000).  See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the
                field identification characters and the field output process.

                When the field selection character list is empty, all standard fields are  selected  (except
                the  raw device field, security context and zone field for compatibility reasons) and the NL
                field terminator is used.

                When the field selection character list contains only a zero (`0'), all fields are  selected
                (except  the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the NUL terminator character is
                used.

                Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator  character  must  be  set
                with explicit entries in f, as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section.

                When  a  field  selection  character  identifies an item lsof does not normally list - e.g.,
                PPID, selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects
                the listing of the item.

                When the field selection character list contains the single character `?', lsof will display
                a help list of the field identification characters.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell
                requires.)

       -g [s]   excludes  or  selects  the  listing  of files for the processes whose optional process group
                IDentification (PGID)  numbers  are  in  the  comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,  ``123''  or
                ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PGID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple  PGID  numbers  are  joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option
                selection.  However, PGID exclusions are applied without ORing or  ANDing  and  take  effect
                before other selection criteria are applied.

                The  -g  option  also  enables the output display of PGID numbers.  When specified without a
                PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]   selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches the address specified  in
                i.   If  no  address  is specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25
                (HP-UX) network files.

                If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the  indicated  IP  ver-sion, version,
                sion,  IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only if the dialects
                supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]''  and  ``IPv[46]''  in  lsof's  -h  or  -?   output.)
                Sequentially  specifying  -i4, followed by -i6 is the same as specifying -i, and vice-versa.
                Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is the same as specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

                Multiple addresses (up to a limit of 100) may be specified with  multiple  -i  options.   (A
                port  number  or service name range is counted as one address.)  They are joined in a single
                ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

                An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square brackets are optional.):

                [46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

                where:
                     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
                          that applies to the following address.
                          '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
                          dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
                          '6' is specified, the following address
                          applies to all IP versions.
                     protocol is a protocol name - TCP, UDP
                     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
                          specific IP version is specified, open
                          network files associated with host names
                          of all versions will be selected.
                     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
                          dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
                          colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
                          UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
                          version is selected, only its numeric
                          addresses may be specified.
                     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -or smtpor
                          or a list of them.
                     port is a port number, or a list of them.

                IPv6 options may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see if the dialect sup-ports supports
                ports  IPv6, run lsof and specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If the displayed description
                of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is supported.

                IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if network file selection is  limited  to
                IPv6  with  -i 6.  IPv6 host names and addresses may not be specified if network file selec-tion selection
                tion is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open IPv4 network file's address is mapped in an
                IPv6  address, the open file's type will be IPv6, not IPv4, and its display will be selected
                by '6', not '4'.

                At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, hostname, hostaddr, or service  -  must  be
                supplied.   The `@' character, leading the host specification, is always required; as is the
                `:', leading the port specification.  Specify either hostname or hostaddr.   Specify  either
                service  name  list  or port number list.  If a service name list is specified, the protocol
                may also need to be specified if the TCP, UDP and UDPLITE port numbers for the service  name
                are different.  Use any case - lower or upper - for protocol.

                Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose entries are separated by com-mas commas
                mas and whose numeric range entries are separated by minus signs.  There may be no  embedded
                spaces,  and  all  service names must belong to the specified protocol.  Since service names
                may contain embedded minus signs, the starting entry of a range can't be a service name;  it
                can be a port number, however.

                Here are some sample addresses:

                     -i6 - IPv6 only
                     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
                     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
                     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
                          3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
                     UDP:who - UDP who service port
                     TCP@lsof.itap:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name lsof.itap
                     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
                          service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
                     tcp@bar:1-smtp - TCP, ports 1 through smtp, host bar
                     :time - either TCP, UDP or UDPLITE time service port

       -K       selects the listing of tasks (threads) of processes, on dialects where task (thread) report-ing reporting
                ing is supported.  (If help output - i.e., the output of the -h or -?  options - shows  this
                option, then task (thread) reporting is supported by the dialect.)

                When  -K and -a are both specified on Linux, and the tasks of a main process are selected by
                other options, the main process will also be listed as though it were a task, but without  a
                task ID.  (See the description of the TID column in the OUTPUT section.)

                Where the FreeBSD version supports threads, all threads will be listed with their IDs.

       -k k     specifies  a kernel name list file, k, in place of /vmunix, /mach, etc.  -k is not available
                under AIX on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l       inhibits the conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It is  also  useful  when  login
                name lookup is working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] enables  (`+') or disables (`-') the listing of file link counts, where they are available -e.g., availablee.g.,
                e.g., they aren't available for sockets, or most FIFOs and pipes.

                When +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be listed.  When -L is
                specified (the default), no link counts will be listed.

                When  +L  is followed by a number, only files having a link count less than that number will
                be listed.  (No number may follow -L.)  A specification of the form ``+L1'' will select open
                files  that  have  been  unlinked.   A specification of the form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will
                select unlinked open files on the specified file system.

                For other link count comparisons, use field output (-F) and a post-processing script or pro-gram. program.
                gram.

       +|-m m   specifies an alternate kernel memory file or activates mount table supplement processing.

                The  option form -m m specifies a kernel memory file, m, in place of /dev/kmem or /dev/mem -e.g., /dev/meme.g.,
                e.g., a crash dump file.

                The option form +m requests that a mount supplement file be written to the  standard  output
                file.  All other options are silently ignored.

                There  will  be a line in the mount supplement file for each mounted file system, containing
                the mounted file system directory, followed by a single space, followed by the device number
                in hexadecimal "0x" format - e.g.,

                     / 0x801

                Lsof  can use the mount supplement file to get device numbers for file systems when it can't
                get them via stat(2) or lstat(2).

                The option form +m m identifies m as a mount supplement file.

                Note: the +m and +m m options are not available for all supported dialects.  Check the  out-put output
                put of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the +m and +m m options are available.

       +|-M     Enables (+) or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper registrations for local TCP, UDP and
                UDPLITE ports, where port mapping is supported.  (See the  last  paragraph  of  this  option
                description for information about where portmapper registration reporting is suported.)

                The default reporting mode is set by the lsof builder with the HASPMAPENABLED #define in the
                dialect's machine.h header file; lsof is distributed with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deacti-vated, deactivated,
                vated, so portmapper reporting is disabled by default and must be requested with +M.  Speci-fying Specifying
                fying lsof's -h or -?  option will report the default mode.  Disabling portmapper  registra-tion registration
                tion  when  it  is already disabled or enabling it when already enabled is acceptable.  When
                portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof displays the portmapper registration  (if
                any)  for  local TCP, UDP or UDPLITE ports in square brackets immediately following the port
                numbers or service names - e.g., ``:1234[name]''  or  ``:name[100083]''.   The  registration
                information  may  be a name or number, depending on what the registering program supplied to
                the portmapper when it registered the port.

                When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof may run a little more slowly or even
                become  blocked  when  access  to  the portmapper becomes congested or stopped.  Reverse the
                reporting mode to determine if portmapper registration  reporting  is  slowing  or  blocking
                lsof.

                For  purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof considers a TCP, UDP or UDPLITE port
                local if: it is found in the local part of its containing kernel  structure;  or  if  it  is
                located  in  the  foreign  part of its containing kernel structure and the local and foreign
                Internet addresses are the same; or if it is located in the foreign part of  its  containing
                kernel structure and the foreign Internet address is INADDR_LOOPBACK (127.0.0.1).  This rule
                may make lsof ignore some foreign ports on machines with multiple interfaces when  the  for-eign foreign
                eign Internet address is on a different interface from the local one.

                See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for further discussion of portmapper
                registration reporting issues.

                Portmapper registration reporting is supported only on dialects that have RPC header  files.
                (Some  Linux  distributions with GlibC 2.14 do not have them.)  When portmapper registration
                reporting is supported, the -h or -?  help output will show the +|-M option.

       -n       inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for network files.  Inhibiting con-version conversion
                version  may  make  lsof run faster.  It is also useful when host name lookup is not working
                properly.

       -N       selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o       directs lsof to display file offset at all times.  It  causes  the  SIZE/OFF  output  column
                title  to  be  changed to OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or
                consistent file offset information from its kernel data sources, sometimes just for particu-lar particular
                lar  kinds  of  files (e.g., socket files.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its
                location.)  for more information.

                The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified,  lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for
                the type of the file.

       -o o     defines the number of decimal digits (o) to be printed after the ``0t'' for  a  file  offset
                before  the  form  is switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of zero (unlimited) directs lsof to
                use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

                This option does NOT direct lsof to display offset at  all  times;  specify  -o  (without  a
                trailing  number)  to  do  that.   -o  o only specifies the number of digits after ``0t'' in
                either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus, for example, to  direct  lsof  to
                display offset at all times with a decimal digit count of 10, use:

                     -o -o 10
                or
                     -oo10

                The  default  number of digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally 8, but may have been changed
                by the lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o o option in the output of the -h  or
                -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O       directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by some kernel operations
                - i.e., doing them in forked child processes.  See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KER-NEL KERNEL
                NEL BLOCKS sections for more information on kernel operations that may block lsof.

                While  use  of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead, it may also cause lsof to hang
                when the kernel doesn't respond to a function.  Use this option cautiously.

       -p s     excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process  IDentifi-cation IDentification
                cation  (PID)  numbers  are  in  the  comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.
                (There should be no spaces in the set.)

                PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

                Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed  set  before  participating  in  AND
                option  selection.   However,  PID  exclusions  are applied without ORing or ANDing and take
                effect before other selection criteria are applied.

       -P       inhibits the conversion of port numbers to port names for  network  files.   Inhibiting  the
                conversion  may  make  lsof run a little faster.  It is also useful when port name lookup is
                not working properly.

       +|-r [t[m<fmt>]]
                puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as selected by other options,  delays
                t  seconds  (default  fifteen),  then repeats the listing, delaying and listing repetitively
                until stopped by a condition defined by the prefix to the option.

                If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with  an  interrupt
                or quit signal.

                If the prefix is `+', repeat mode will end the first cycle no open files are listed - and of
                course when lsof is stopped with an interrupt or quit signal.  When repeat mode ends because
                no  files are listed, the process exit code will be zero if any open files were ever listed;
                one, if none were ever listed.

                Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field output is in progress (the -F, option has  been
                specified),  the  default  marker is `m'; otherwise the default marker is ``========''.  The
                marker is followed by a NL character.

                The optional "m<fmt>" argument specifies a format for the marker line.  The <fmt> characters
                following  `m'  are  interpreted as a format specification to the strftime(3) function, when
                both it and the localtime(3) function are available in the dialect's C library.  Consult the
                strftime(3)  documentation  for what may appear in its format specification.  Note that when
                field output is requested with the -F option, <fmt> cannot contain the  NL  format,  ``%n''.
                Note also that when <fmt> contains spaces or other characters that affect the shell's inter-pretation interpretation
                pretation of arguments, <fmt> must be quoted appropriately.

                Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient to use this mode than  to
                call lsof repetitively from a shell script, for example.

                To  use repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with specification of other lsof selec-tion selection
                tion options, so the amount of kernel memory access lsof does will be  kept  to  a  minimum.
                Options  that  filter  at  the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p, -u - are the most efficient
                selectors.

                Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the -F, option description) and  a
                supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       -R       directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in the PPID column.

       -s [p:s] s  alone directs lsof to display file size at all times.  It causes the SIZE/OFF output col-umn column
                umn title to be changed to SIZE.  If the file does not have a size, nothing is displayed.

                When followed by a protocol name (p), either TCP or UDP, a colon (`:') and a comma-separated
                protocol  state  name list, the option causes open TCP and UDP files to be excluded if their
                state name(s) are in the list (s) preceded by a `^'; or included if their  name(s)  are  not
                preceded by a `^'.

                When  an  inclusion list is defined, only network files with state names in the list will be
                present in the lsof output.  Thus, specifying one state name means that only  network  files
                with that lone state name will be listed.

                Case is unimportant in the protocol or state names, but there may be no spaces and the colon
                (`:') separating the protocol name (p) and the state name list (s) is required.

                If only TCP and UDP files are to be listed, as controlled by the  specified  exclusions  and
                inclusions,  the -i option must be specified, too.  If only a single protocol's files are to
                be listed, add its name as an argument to the -i option.

                For example, to list only network files with TCP state LISTEN, use:

                     -iTCP -sTCP:LISTEN

                Or, for example, to list network files with all UDP states except Idle, use:

                     -iUDP -sUDP:Idle

                State names vary with UNIX dialects, so it's not possible to provide a complete list.   Some
                common  TCP  state  names are: CLOSED, IDLE, BOUND, LISTEN, ESTABLISHED, SYN_SENT, SYN_RCDV,
                ESTABLISHED, CLOSE_WAIT, FIN_WAIT1, CLOSING, LAST_ACK, FIN_WAIT_2, and TIME_WAIT.  Two  com-mon common
                mon UDP state names are Unbound and Idle.

                See  the  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information on how to use
                protocol state exclusion and inclusion, including examples.

                The -o (without a following decimal digit count) and -s option (without a following protocol
                and  state name list) are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When neither is
                specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available  for
                the type of file.

                Since  some  types  of files don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes, etc. - lsof dis-plays displays
                plays for their sizes the content amounts in their associated kernel buffers, if possible.

       -S [t]   specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel functions -  lstat(2),  readlink(2),
                and  stat(2)  -  that might otherwise deadlock.  The minimum for t is two; the default, fif-teen; fifteen;
                teen; when no value is specified, the default is used.

                See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]   controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported by  netstat(1),  following
                the  network  addresses.  In normal output the information appears in parentheses, each item
                except TCP or TPI state name identified by a keyword, followed by `=', separated from others
                by a single space:

                     <TCP or TPI state name>
                     QR=<read queue length>
                     QS=<send queue length>
                     SO=<socket options and values>
                     SS=<socket states>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values>
                     WR=<window read length>
                     WW=<window write length>

                Not  all  values  are  reported  for  all  UNIX dialects.  Items values (when available) are
                reported after the item name and '='.

                When the field output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each item  appears
                as a field with a `T' leading character.

                -T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

                -T with following characters selects the reporting of specific TCP/TPI information:

                     f    selects reporting of socket options,
                          states and values, and TCP flags and
                          values.
                     q    selects queue length reporting.
                     s    selects connection state reporting.
                     w    selects window size reporting.

                Not  all  selections  are  enabled  for  some  UNIX dialects.  State may be selected for all
                dialects and is reported by default.  The -h or -?  help output for the -T option will  show
                what selections may be used with the UNIX dialect.

                When  -T is used to select information - i.e., it is followed by one or more selection char-acters characters
                acters - the displaying of state is disabled by default, and it must be explicitly  selected
                again  in the characters following -T.  (In effect, then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)
                For example, if queue lengths and state are desired, use -Tqs.

                Socket options, socket states, some socket values, TCP  flags  and  one  TCP  value  may  be
                reported  (when available in the UNIX dialect) in the form of the names that commonly appear
                after  SO_,  so_,  SS_,  TCP_   and  TF_  in  the  dialect's  header  files  -  most   often
                <sys/socket.h>,  <sys/socketvar.h>  and <netinet/tcp_var.h>.  Consult those header files for
                the meaning of the flags, options, states and values.

                ``SO='' precedes socket options and values; ``SS='', socket states; and ``TF='',  TCP  flags
                and values.

                If  a  flag  or  option  has  a  value,  the  value will follow an '=' and the name -- e.g.,
                ``SO=LINGER=5'', ``SO=QLIM=5'', ``TF=MSS=512''.  The following seven values may be reported:

                     Name
                     Reported  Description (Common Symbol)

                     KEEPALIVE keep alive time (SO_KEEPALIVE)
                     LINGER    linger time (SO_LINGER)
                     MSS       maximum segment size (TCP_MAXSEG)
                     PQLEN     partial listen queue connections
                     QLEN      established listen queue connections
                     QLIM      established listen queue limit
                     RCVBUF    receive buffer length (SO_RCVBUF)
                     SNDBUF    send buffer length (SO_SNDBUF)

                Details  on  what  socket options and values, socket states, and TCP flags and values may be
                displayed for particular UNIX dialects may be found in the answer to the ``Why doesn't  lsof
                report  socket  options, socket states, and TCP flags and values for my dialect?'' and ``Why
                doesn't lsof report the partial listen queue connection count for my  dialect?''   questions
                in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       -t       specifies  that lsof should produce terse output with process identifiers only and no header
                - e.g., so that the output may be piped to kill(1).  -t selects the -w option.

       -u s     selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or user ID numbers  are  in  the
                comma-separated  set  s - e.g., ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the
                set.)

                Multiple login names or user ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating
                in AND option selection.

                If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a negation - i.e., files of pro-cesses processes
                cesses owned by the login name or user ID will never be listed.  A  negated  login  name  or
                user  ID selection is neither ANDed nor ORed with other selections; it is applied before all
                other selections and absolutely excludes the listing of the files of the process.  For exam-ple, example,
                ple,  to  direct  lsof  to exclude the listing of files belonging to root processes, specify
                ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U       selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v       selects the listing of lsof version information, including: revision number; when  the  lsof
                binary  was constructed; who constructed the binary and where; the name of the compiler used
                to construct the lsof binary; the version number of the compiler when readily available; the
                compiler  and  loader flags used to construct the lsof binary; and system information, typi-cally typically
                cally the output of uname's -a option.

       -V       directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and failed to find - command  names,
                file names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

                When other options are ANDed to search options, or compile-time options restrict the listing
                of some files, lsof may not report that it failed to find a search item when an ANDed option
                or  compile-time  option prevents the listing of the open file containing the located search
                item.

                For example, ``lsof -V -iTCP@foobar -a -d 999'' may not report  a  failure  to  locate  open
                files  at ``TCP@foobar'' and may not list any, if none have a file descriptor number of 999.
                A similar situation arises when HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY  are  defined  at  compile
                time and they prevent the listing of open files.

       +|-w     Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

                The  lsof  builder  may choose to have warning messages disabled or enabled by default.  The
                default warning message state is indicated in the output of the -h or -?  option.  Disabling
                warning  messages  when  they  are already disabled or enabling them when already enabled is
                acceptable.

                The -t option selects the -w option.

       -x [fl]  may accompany the +d and +D options to direct their processing to cross over symbolic  links
                and|or  file  system  mount points encountered when scanning the directory (+d) or directory
                tree (+D).

                If -x is specified by itself without a following parameter, cross-over  processing  of  both
                symbolic  links  and  file  system  mount points is enabled.  Note that when -x is specified
                without a parameter, the next argument must begin with '-' or '+'.

                The optional 'f' parameter enables file system mount point cross-over processing; 'l',  sym-bolic symbolic
                bolic link cross-over processing.

                The -x option may not be supplied without also supplying a +d or +D option.

       -X       This is a dialect-specific option.

           AIX:
                This IBM AIX RISC/System 6000 option requests the reporting of executed text file and shared
                library references.

                WARNING: because this option uses the kernel readx() function, its use on a busy AIX  system
                might  cause  an application process to hang so completely that it can neither be killed nor
                stopped.  I have never seen this happen or had a report of its happening, but I think  there
                is a remote possibility it could happen.

                By  default  use of readx() is disabled.  On AIX 5L and above lsof may need setuid-root per-mission permission
                mission to perform the actions this option requests.

                The lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes whose real UID is
                root.   If  that  has  been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h or -?  help output
                unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default lsof distribution  allows  any
                UID to specify -X, so by default it will appear in the help output.

                When  AIX  readx()  use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information for all text
                and loader file references, but it may also  avoid  exacerbating  an  AIX  kernel  directory
                search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

                The  readx()  function,  used by lsof or any other program to access some sections of kernel
                virtual memory,  can  trigger  the  Stale  Segment  ID  bug.   It  can  cause  the  kernel's
                dir_search() function to believe erroneously that part of an in-memory copy of a file system
                directory has been zeroed.  Another application process, distinct from lsof, asking the ker-nel kernel
                nel  to  search the directory - e.g., by using open(2) - can cause dir_search() to loop for-ever, forever,
                ever, thus hanging the application process.

                Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the  __README  file  of  the
                lsof distribution for a more complete description of the Stale Segment ID bug, its APAR, and
                methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

           Linux:
                This Linux option requests that lsof skip the reporting of information on all open TCP,  UDP
                and UDPLITE IPv4 and IPv6 files.

                This  Linux option is most useful when the system has an extremely large number of open TCP,
                UDP and UDPLITE files, the  processing  of  whose  information  in  the  /proc/net/tcp*  and
                /proc/net/udp* files would take lsof a long time, and whose reporting is not of interest.

                Use  this  option with care and only when you are sure that the information you want lsof to
                display isn't associated with open TCP, UDP or UDPLITE socket files.

           Solaris 10 and above:
                This Solaris 10 and above option requests the reporting of cached paths for files that  have
                been deleted - i.e., removed with rm(1) or unlink(2).

                The  cached path is followed by the string `` (deleted)'' to indicate that the path by which
                the file was opened has been deleted.

                Because intervening changes made to the path - i.e., renames with mv(1) or rename(2)  -  are
                not  recorded  in  the cached path, what lsof reports is only the path by which the file was
                opened, not its possibly different final path.

       -z [z]   specifies how Solaris 10 and higher zone information is to be handled.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO z - the option specifies that zone names are  to  be
                listed in the ZONE output column.

                The  -z  option may be followed by a zone name, z.  That causes lsof to list only open files
                for processes in that zone.  Multiple -z z option and argument pairs  may  be  specified  to
                form  a  list  of  named  zones.   Any  open file of any process in any of the zones will be
                listed, subject to other conditions specified by other options and arguments.

       -Z [Z]   specifies how SELinux security contexts are to be handled.  It and 'Z' field output  charac-ter character
                ter  support are inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.  See OUTPUT
                FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on the 'Z' field output character.

                Without a following argument - e.g., NO Z - the option specifies that security contexts  are
                to be listed in the SECURITY-CONTEXT output column.

                The  -Z  option may be followed by a wildcard security context name, Z.  That causes lsof to
                list only open files for processes in that security context.  Multiple -Z Z option and argu-ment argument
                ment  pairs  may  be  specified  to  form a list of security contexts.  Any open file of any
                process in any of the security contexts will be listed, subject to other  conditions  speci-fied specified
                fied by other options and arguments.  Note that Z can be A:B:C or *:B:C or A:B:* or *:*:C to
                match against the A:B:C context.

       --       The double minus sign option is a marker that signals the end of the keyed options.  It  may
                be  used,  for  example,  when the first file name begins with a minus sign.  It may also be
                used when the absence of a value for the last keyed option must be signified by the presence
                of a minus sign in the following option and before the start of the file names.

       names    These  are  path  names  of specific files to list.  Symbolic links are resolved before use.
                The first name may be separated from the preceding options with the ``--'' option.

                If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device  of  the  file  system,
                lsof  will  list all the files open on the file system.  To be considered a file system, the
                name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8) output, or match the name of a block
                device  associated  with  a mounted-on directory name.  The +|-f option may be used to force
                lsof to consider a name a file system identifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

                If name is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name of a file system,
                it  is  treated  just as a regular file is treated - i.e., its listing is restricted to pro-cesses processes
                cesses that have it open as a file or as a process-specific directory, such as the  root  or
                current  working  directory.   To  request  that lsof look for open files inside a directory
                name, use the +d s and +D D options.

                If a name is the base name of a family of multiplexed files - e. g, AIX's /dev/pt[cs] - lsof
                will  list  all  the  associated  multiplexed  files  on  the  device  that are open - e.g.,
                /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

                If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will usually search for it by the characters of
                the  name alone - exactly as it is specified and is recorded in the kernel socket structure.
                (See the next paragraph for an exception to that rule for  Linux.)   Specifying  a  relative
                path  -  e.g.,  ./file - in place of the file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't work
                because lsof must match the characters you specify with what it finds  in  the  kernel  UNIX
                domain socket structures.

                If  a  name is a Linux UNIX domain socket name, in one case lsof is able to search for it by
                its device and inode number, allowing name to be a relative path.  The  case  requires  that
                the absolute path -- i.e., one beginning with a slash ('/') be used by the process that cre-ated created
                ated the socket, and hence be stored in the /proc/net/unix file; and it requires  that  lsof
                be  able  to  obtain the device and node numbers of both the absolute path in /proc/net/unix
                and name via successful stat(2) system calls.  When those conditions are met, lsof  will  be
                able  to  search  for  the  UNIX domain socket when some path to it is is specified in name.
                Thus, for example, if the path is /dev/log, and an lsof search is initiated when the working
                directory is /dev, then name could be ./log.

                If  a  name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files whose device and inode match
                that of the specified path name.

                If you have also specified the -b option, the only names you may  safely  specify  are  file
                systems for which your mount table supplies alternate device numbers.  See the AVOIDING KER-NEL KERNEL
                NEL BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more information.

                Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed  set  before  participating  in  AND  option
                selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

            AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
            HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
            Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
            Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may  recognize  AFS  files  on  other  versions of these dialects, but has not been tested there.
       Depending on how AFS is implemented, lsof may recognize AFS files in other dialects, or may have dif-ficulties difficulties
       ficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS kernel sup-port support
       port is implemented via dynamic modules whose addresses do not appear in the kernel's  variable  name
       list.   In  that  case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS files, and might not be able to
       obtain volume information from the kernel that is needed for calculating  AFS  volume  node  numbers.
       When lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it reports blank in the NODE column.

       The  -A  A  option  is available in some dialect implementations of lsof for specifying the name list
       file where dynamic module kernel addresses may be found.  When this option is available, it  will  be
       listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h or -?

       See  the  lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic modules,
       their symbols, and how they affect lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache operations, lsof  can't
       identify path name components for AFS files.

SECURITY
       Lsof has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation mode allows
       anyone to list all  open  files  with  it.   Second,  by  default  it  creates  a  user-readable  and
       user-writable  device  cache file in the home directory of the real user ID that executes lsof.  (The
       list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled when lsof is compiled.)  Third, its  -k
       and -m options name alternate kernel name list or memory files.

       Restricting  the  listing  of  all  open files is controlled by the compile-time HASSECURITY and HAS-NOSOCKSECURITY HASNOSOCKSECURITY
       NOSOCKSECURITY options.  When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list  all
       open  files.   The non-root user may list only open files of processes with the same user IDentifica-tion IDentification
       tion number as the real user ID number of the lsof process (the one that its user logged on with).

       However, if HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY are both defined, anyone may list  open  socket  files,
       provided they are selected with the -i option.

       When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help  output,  presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the status of the HASSECURITY and
       HASNOSOCKSECURITY definitions.

       See the Security section of the __README file of the lsof distribution for  information  on  building
       lsof with the HASSECURITY and HASNOSOCKSECURITY options enabled.

       Creation  and  use  of  a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is controlled by the com-pile-time compile-time
       pile-time HASDCACHE option.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that  follow  it  for
       details  on  how its path is formed.  For security considerations it is important to note that in the
       default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under which lsof is executed is root, the device cache
       file  will  be  written  in root's home directory - e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined,
       lsof does not write or attempt to read a device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output,  presented  in  response  to  the  -h,  -D?,  or  -?
       options,  will provide device cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, the -h
       or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the performance  of
       lsof  by  reducing  the  startup overhead of examining all the nodes in /dev (or /devices) - read the
       discussion of it in the __DCACHE file of the lsof distribution and the  lsof  FAQ  (The  FAQ  section
       gives its location.)

       WHEN IN DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH THE -Di OPTION.

       When  lsof  user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files with the -k and -m options, lsof
       checks the user's authority to read them with access(2).  This is intended to prevent  whatever  spe-cial special
       cial power lsof's modes might confer on it from letting it read files not normally accessible via the
       authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See the OUTPUT FOR OTHER  PRO-GRAMS PROGRAMS
       GRAMS section for additional information on output that can be processed by another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) 8 bit characters.  Non-printable characters
       are printed in one of three forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control  character  `^'  form  (e.g.,
       ``^@'');  or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space is non-printable in the COMMAND
       column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       For some dialects - if HASSETLOCALE is defined in the dialect's machine.h header  file  -  lsof  will
       print  the  extended 8 bit characters of a language locale.  The lsof process must be supplied a lan-guage language
       guage locale environment variable (e.g., LANG) whose value represents  a  known  language  locale  in
       which  the  extended characters are considered printable by isprint(3).  Otherwise lsof considers the
       extended characters non-printable and prints them according to its rules  for  non-printable  charac-ters, characters,
       ters,  stated above.  Consult your dialect's setlocale(3) man page for the names of other environment
       variables that may be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, etc.

       Lsof's language locale support for a dialect also covers wide characters - e.g., UTF-8 - when HASSET-LOCALE HASSETLOCALE
       LOCALE  and  HASWIDECHAR are defined in the dialect's machine.h header file, and when a suitable lan-guage language
       guage locale has been defined in the appropriate environment variable for  the  lsof  process.   Wide
       characters  are printable under those conditions if iswprint(3) reports them to be.  If HASSETLOCALE,
       HASWIDECHAR and a suitable language locale aren't defined, or if iswprint(3) reports wide  characters
       that  aren't  printable,  lsof considers the wide characters non-printable and prints each of their 8
       bits according to its rules for non-printable characters, stated above.

       Consult the answers to the "Language locale support" questions in the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives
       its location.) for more information.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column is a mini-mum minimum
       mum size.  It also guarantees that each column is separated from its  predecessor  by  at  least  one
       space.

       COMMAND    contains  the  first  nine  characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the
                  process.  If a non-zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the column  contains  the
                  first  w  characters of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process up to the
                  limit of characters supplied to lsof by the UNIX dialect.  (See the description of the  +c
                  w command or the lsof FAQ for more information.  The FAQ section gives its location.)

                  If  w  is less than the length of the column title, ``COMMAND'', it will be raised to that
                  length.

                  If a zero w value is specified to the +c w option, the column contains all the  characters
                  of the name of the UNIX command associated with the process.

                  All  command  name  characters maintained by the kernel in its structures are displayed in
                  field output when the command name descriptor (`c') is  specified.   See  the  OUTPUT  FOR
                  OTHER  COMMANDS  section for information on selecting field output and the associated com-mand command
                  mand name descriptor.

       PID        is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       TID        is the task (thread) IDentification number, if task (thread) reporting is supported by the
                  dialect and a task (thread) is being listed.  (If help output - i.e., the output of the -h
                  or -?  options - shows this option, then task  (thread)  reporting  is  supported  by  the
                  dialect.)

                  A blank TID column in Linux indicates a process - i.e., a non-task.

       ZONE       is  the Solaris 10 and higher zone name.  This column must be selected with the -z option.

       SECURITY-CONTEXT
                  is the SELinux security context.  This column must be selected with the -Z  option.   Note
                  that the -Z option is inhibited when SELinux is disabled in the running Linux kernel.

       PPID       is the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.  It is only displayed when the
                  -R option has been specified.

       PGID       is the process group IDentification number associated with the process.  It is  only  dis-played displayed
                  played when the -g option has been specified.

       USER       is  the  user ID number or login name of the user to whom the process belongs, usually the
                  same as reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the user ID  number  or  login  that
                  owns  the directory in /proc where lsof finds information about the process.  Usually that
                  is the same value reported by ps(1), but may differ  when  the  process  has  changed  its
                  effective  user ID.  (See the -l option description for information on when a user ID num-ber number
                  ber or login name is displayed.)

       FD         is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

                       cwd  current working directory;
                       Lnn  library references (AIX);
                       err  FD information error (see NAME column);
                       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
                       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
                       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
                       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
                       mem  memory-mapped file;
                       mmap memory-mapped device;
                       pd   parent directory;
                       rtd  root directory;
                       tr   kernel trace file (OpenBSD);
                       txt  program text (code and data);
                       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

                  FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under  which  the  file  is
                  open:

                       r for read access;
                       w for write access;
                       u for read and write access;
                       space if mode unknown and no lock
                            character follows;
                       `-' if mode unknown and lock
                            character follows.

                  The  mode  character  is  followed by one of these lock characters, describing the type of
                  lock applied to the file:

                       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
                       r for read lock on part of the file;
                       R for a read lock on the entire file;
                       w for a write lock on part of the file;
                       W for a write lock on the entire file;
                       u for a read and write lock of any length;
                       U for a lock of unknown type;
                       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
                       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire file;
                       space if there is no lock.

                  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

                  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for parsing in post-processing  scripts.

       TYPE       is the type of the node associated with the file - e.g., GDIR, GREG, VDIR, VREG, etc.

                  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

                  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped in an IPv6
                  address;

                  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

                  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

                  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

                  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

                  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

                  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

                  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

                  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

                  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

                  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

                  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

                  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

                  or ``KQUEUE'' for a BSD style kernel event queue file;

                  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

                  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

                  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

                  or ``NOFD'' for a Linux /proc/<PID>/fd directory that can't be  opened  --  the  directory
                  path appears in the NAME column, followed by an error message;

                  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

                  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

                  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

                  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

                  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

                  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

                  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

                  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

                  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

                  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

                  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

                  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

                  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

                  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

                  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

                  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

                  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

                  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

                  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

                  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

                  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

                  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

                  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

                  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

                  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

                  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

                  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

                  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

                  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

                  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

                  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

                  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

                  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

                  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

                  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

                  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

                  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

                  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

                  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

                  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

                  or ``PSXSEM'' for a POSIX semaphore file;

                  or ``PSXSHM'' for a POSIX shared memory file;

                  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

                  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

                  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

                  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

                  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

                  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

                  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

                  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

                  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

                  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file;

                  or the four type number octets if the corresponding name isn't known.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT        contains the file reference count from the kernel file structure when c has been specified
                  to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents  of  the  f_flag[s]
                  member  of  the  kernel  file  structure  and the kernel's per-process open file flags (if
                  available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g', as short-hand names;  two
                  lists  may  be  displayed with entries separated by commas, the lists separated by a semi-colon semicolon
                  colon (`;'); the first list may contain short-hand names for  f_flag[s]  values  from  the
                  following table:

                       AIO       asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
                       AP        append
                       ASYN      asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
                       BAS       block, test, and set in use
                       BKIU      block if in use
                       BL        use block offsets
                       BSK       block seek
                       CA        copy avoid
                       CIO       concurrent I/O
                       CLON      clone
                       CLRD      CL read
                       CR        create
                       DF        defer
                       DFI       defer IND
                       DFLU      data flush
                       DIR       direct
                       DLY       delay
                       DOCL      do clone
                       DSYN      data-only integrity
                       DTY       must be a directory
                       EVO       event only
                       EX        open for exec
                       EXCL      exclusive open
                       FSYN      synchronous writes
                       GCDF      defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GCMK      mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
                       GTTY      accessed via /dev/tty
                       HUP       HUP in progress
                       KERN      kernel
                       KIOC      kernel-issued ioctl
                       LCK       has lock
                       LG        large file
                       MBLK      stream message block
                       MK        mark
                       MNT       mount
                       MSYN      multiplex synchronization
                       NATM      don't update atime
                       NB        non-blocking I/O
                       NBDR      no BDRM check
                       NBIO      SYSV non-blocking I/O
                       NBF       n-buffering in effect
                       NC        no cache
                       ND        no delay
                       NDSY      no data synchronization
                       NET       network
                       NFLK      don't follow links
                       NMFS      NM file system
                       NOTO      disable background stop
                       NSH       no share
                       NTTY      no controlling TTY
                       OLRM      OLR mirror
                       PAIO      POSIX asynchronous I/O
                       PP        POSIX pipe
                       R         read
                       RC        file and record locking cache
                       REV       revoked
                       RSH       shared read
                       RSYN      read synchronization
                       RW        read and write access
                       SL        shared lock
                       SNAP      cooked snapshot
                       SOCK      socket
                       SQSH      Sequent shared set on open
                       SQSV      Sequent SVM set on open
                       SQR       Sequent set repair on open
                       SQS1      Sequent full shared open
                       SQS2      Sequent partial shared open
                       STPI      stop I/O
                       SWR       synchronous read
                       SYN       file integrity while writing
                       TCPM      avoid TCP collision
                       TR        truncate
                       W         write
                       WKUP      parallel I/O synchronization
                       WTG       parallel I/O synchronization
                       VH        vhangup pending
                       VTXT      virtual text
                       XL        exclusive lock

                  this  list  of  names  was  derived  from  F* #define's in dialect header files <fcntl.h>,
                  <linux</fs.h>, <sys/fcntl.c>, <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see  the  lsof.h  header
                  file  for  a  list  showing  the correspondence between the above short-hand names and the
                  header file definitions;

                  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names for kernel  per-process
                  open file flags from this table:

                       ALLC      allocated
                       BR        the file has been read
                       BHUP      activity stopped by SIGHUP
                       BW        the file has been written
                       CLSG      closing
                       CX        close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
                       LCK       lock was applied
                       MP        memory-mapped
                       OPIP      open pending - in progress
                       RSVW      reserved wait
                       SHMT      UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
                       USE       in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID    (or  INODE-ADDR for some dialects) contains a unique identifier for the file node (usually
                  the kernel vnode or inode address, but also occasionally a  concatenation  of  device  and
                  node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE     contains  the device numbers, separated by commas, for a character special, block special,
                  regular, directory or NFS file;

                  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under Tru64 UNIX;

                  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

                  or a kernel reference address that identifies the file (The kernel reference  address  may
                  be used for FIFO's, for example.);

                  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

                  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of Tru64 UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
                  is  the size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A value is displayed in this column
                  only if it is available.  Lsof displays whatever value - size or offset -  is  appropriate
                  for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

                  On  some  UNIX  dialects  lsof can't obtain accurate or consistent file offset information
                  from its kernel data sources, sometimes just for particular kinds of files  (e.g.,  socket
                  files.)   In  other  cases, files don't have true sizes - e.g., sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so
                  lsof displays for their sizes the content amounts it finds in their kernel buffer descrip-tors descriptors
                  tors  (e.g., socket buffer size counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The
                  FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

                  The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is normally displayed in decimal with  a
                  leading ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with a leading ``0x'' if it
                  is longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o option description for information on  when  8
                  might default to some other value.)

                  Thus  the  leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when the column may contain both a
                  size and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

                  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing if no off-set offset
                  set  is  available) and labels the column OFFSET.  The offset always begins with ``0t'' or
                  ``0x'' as described above.

                  The lsof user can control the switch from ``0t'' to ``0x'' with the -o o option.   Consult
                  its description for more information.

                  If  the  -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size (or nothing if no size
                  is available) and labels the column SIZE.  The -o and -s options are  mutually  exclusive;
                  they can't both be specified.

                  For  files  that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device - lsof will
                  display appropriate information about the current size or position of the file  if  it  is
                  available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NLINK      contains the file link count when +L has been specified;

       NODE       is the node number of a local file;

                  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

                  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

                  or ``STR'' for a stream;

                  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

                  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME       is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

                  or  the  name  of a file specified in the names option (after any symbolic links have been
                  resolved);

                  or the name of a character special or block special device;

                  or the local and remote Internet addresses of a network file; the local host  name  or  IP
                  number is followed by a colon (':'), the port, ``->'', and the two-part remote address; IP
                  addresses may be reported as numbers or names, depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P  options;
                  colon-separated  IPv6  numbers  are  enclosed in square brackets; IPv4 INADDR_ANY and IPv6
                  IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED addresses, and zero port numbers are represented  by  an  asterisk
                  ('*');  a  UDP destination address may be followed by the amount of time elapsed since the
                  last packet was sent to the destination; TCP, UDP and UDPLITE remote addresses may be fol-lowed followed
                  lowed   by   TCP/TPI   information   in  parentheses  -  state  (e.g.,  ``(ESTABLISHED)'',
                  ``(Unbound)''), queue sizes, and window sizes (not all dialects) - in a fashion similar to
                  what  netstat(1)  reports; see the -T option description or the description of the TCP/TPI
                  field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS for more information on state, queue size,  and  window
                  size;

                  or  the  address or name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly including a stream clone device
                  name, a file system object's path name, local and foreign kernel  addresses,  socket  pair
                  information, and a bound vnode address;

                  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

                  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

                  or  a  stream  character  device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name or a list of
                  stream module names, separated by ``->'';

                  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and module  names,  separated  by
                  ``->'';

                  or  system  directory  name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name as lsof can
                  find in the kernel's name cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL NAME  CACHE  section
                  for more information.);

                  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

                  or  ``COMMON:'',  followed  by the vnode device information structure's device name, for a
                  Solaris common vnode;

                  or the address family, followed by a slash (`/'),  followed  by  fourteen  comma-separated
                  bytes of a non-Internet raw socket address;

                  or  the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number (if any), fol-lowed followed
                  lowed by the remote address (if any);

                  or ``(dead)'' for disassociated Tru64 UNIX files - typically terminal files that have been
                  flagged with the TIOCNOTTY ioctl and closed by daemons;

                  or  ``rd=<offset>''  and ``wr=<offset>'' for the values of the read and write offsets of a
                  FIFO;

                  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer file clones of the /dev/event device, where n
                  is the minor device number of the file;

                  or  ``(socketpair:  n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 8, 9  or 10 UNIX domain socket, created by the
                  socketpair(3N) network function;

                  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have a protocol  block  associated  with  them,
                  optionally  followed  by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket has been disabled, or
                  ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on the socket has been disabled (e.g., by  the  shutdown(2)
                  function);

                  or   the   local   and   remote  addresses  of  a  Linux  IPX  socket  file  in  the  form
                  <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses by the transmit and  receive  queue  sizes,
                  and the connection state;

                  or  ``dgram''  or  ``stream''  for the type UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel UNIX domain
                  sockets, followed by a colon (':') and the local path name  when  available,  followed  by
                  ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address in hexadecimal when available;

                  or  the  association  value, association index, endpoint value, local address, local port,
                  remote address and remote port for Linux SCTP sockets.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to be attached to another  with
       fattach(3C),  lsof  will add ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)'' to the NAME column.  <address1>
       and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction> will be ``<-'' if  <address2>  has  been
       fattach'ed  to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of
       this vnode, has been fattach'ed to <address2>.  <address1> may be omitted if it  already  appears  in
       the DEVICE column.

       Lsof  may  add  two parenthetical notes to the NAME column for open Solaris 10 files: ``(?)'' if lsof
       considers the path name of questionable accuracy; and ``(deleted)'' if the -X option has been  speci-fied specified
       fied and lsof detects the open file's path name has been deleted.  Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ sec-tion section
       tion gives its location.)  for more information on these NAME column additions.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single character.  What
       it  reports  in a single character is a compromise between the information it finds in the kernel and
       the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover, when a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only reports  the  status  of
       the  first  lock it encounters.  If it is a byte level lock, then the lock character will be reported
       in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case equivalent reported  for  a  full
       file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on local files.  When a local process
       sets a lock on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file, the remote server host usually records  the  lock
       state.   One  exception  is Solaris - at some patch levels of 2.3, and in all versions above 2.4, the
       Solaris kernel records information on remote locks in local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS  section  of  this  manual
       page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When the -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for processing by another pro-gram program
       gram - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading character and  termi-nated terminated
       nated  by  a  NL (012) (or a NUL (000) if the 0 (zero) field identifier character is specified.)  The
       data of the field follows immediately after the field identification character  and  extends  to  the
       field terminator.

       It  is possible to think of field output as process and file sets.  A process set begins with a field
       whose identifier is `p' (for process IDentifier (PID)).  It extends to the beginning of the next  PID
       field  or the beginning of the first file set of the process, whichever comes first.  Included in the
       process set are fields that identify the command, the process group IDentification (PGID) number, the
       task (thread) ID (TID), and the user ID (UID) number or login name.

       A  file  set  begins  with  a field whose identifier is `f' (for file descriptor).  It is followed by
       lines that describe the file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size, offset, inode,  protocol,
       name and stream module names.  It extends to the beginning of the next file or process set, whichever
       comes first.

       When the NUL (000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero) field  identifier  character,
       lsof ends each process and file set with a NL (012) character.

       Lsof  always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other fields may be declared optionally in
       the field identifier character list that follows the -F option.  When  a  field  selection  character
       identifies  an item lsof does not normally list - e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specification of the
       field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g., if  the  field
       descriptor  field is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file sets.  To help you avoid this
       difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of all fields with NL terminators (the
       -F0  option  pair  selects the output of all fields with NUL terminators).  For compatibility reasons
       neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character listed first is the field  identi-fier. identifier.
       fier.

            a    file access mode
            c    process command name (all characters from proc or
                 user structure)
            C    file structure share count
            d    file's device character code
            D    file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            f    file descriptor
            F    file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
            G    file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
            g    process group ID
            i    file's inode number
            K    tasK ID
            k    link count
            l    file's lock status
            L    process login name
            m    marker between repeated output
            n    file name, comment, Internet address
            N    node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
            o    file's offset (decimal)
            p    process ID (always selected)
            P    protocol name
            r    raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
            R    parent process ID
            s    file's size (decimal)
            S    file's stream identification
            t    file's type
            T    TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
                 `=' is part of the prefix):
                     QR=<read queue size>
                     QS=<send queue size>
                     SO=<socket options and values> (not all dialects)
                     SS=<socket states> (not all dialects)
                     ST=<connection state>
                     TF=<TCP flags and values> (not all dialects)
                     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
                     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
                 (TCP/TPI information isn't reported for all supported
                   UNIX dialects. The -h or -? help output for the
                   -T option will show what TCP/TPI reporting can be
                   requested.)
            u    process user ID
            z    Solaris 10 and higher zone name
            Z    SELinux security context (inhibited when SELinux is disabled)
            0    use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
            1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
                 of -F? identifies the information to be found
                 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You can get on-line help information on these characters and their descriptions by specifying the -F?
       option pair.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)   Additional  information  on  field
       content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ``-F  pcfn''  will select the process ID (`p'), command name (`c'), file descriptor
       (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL field terminator character; ``-F pcfn0'' selects the same
       output with a NUL (000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't  produce all fields for every process or file set, only those that are available.  Some
       fields are mutually exclusive: file device characters and file major/minor device numbers; file inode
       number  and  protocol  name;  file  name and stream identification; file size and offset.  One or the
       other member of these mutually exclusive sets will appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally lsof ends each field with a NL (012) character.  The 0 (zero) field identifier character may
       be specified to change the field terminator character to a NUL (000).  A NUL terminator may be easier
       to process with xargs (1), for example, or with programs whose quoting mechanisms may not easily cope
       with the range of characters in the field output.  When the NUL field terminator is in use, lsof ends
       each process and file set with a NL (012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are included in the lsof  distri-bution. distribution.
       bution.  The first is a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for the field identifica-tion identification
       tion characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and explanation strings that  may  be  compiled
       into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk, Perl 4, and Perl
       5.  They're located in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in C and uses
       field  output  to  validate  the  correct  operation  of  lsof.   The  library  can  be  found in the
       tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library  uses  the  first  aid,  the  lsof_fields.h
       header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof  can  be  blocked  by  some  kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2).
       These functions are stalled in the kernel, for example, when the hosts where mounted NFS file systems
       reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break  these  blocks  with timers and child processes, but the techniques are not
       wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the break with an error mes-sage. message.
       sage.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default timeout value may be displayed with the -h or -?  option, and it may be changed with the
       -S [t] option.  The minimum for t is two seconds, but you should avoid small values, since slow  sys-tem system
       tem  responsiveness  can  cause short timeouts to expire unexpectedly and perhaps stop lsof before it
       can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file system information, it normally con-tinues, continues,
       tinues, although with less information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using the kernel
       functions that might block by specifying the -O option.  While this will allow lsof to start up  with
       less  overhead,  it  exposes  lsof completely to the kernel situations that might block it.  Use this
       option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that would block.   Some  cau-tions cautions
       tions apply.

       First,  using  this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers in place
       of the device numbers that lsof would normally obtain with the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions.
       See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information on alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This is because
       lsof needs to know the device and inode numbers of files listed with names in the lsof  options,  and
       the  -b  option  prevents lsof from obtaining them.  Moreover, since lsof only has device numbers for
       the file systems that have alternates, its ability to locate files on file systems depends completely
       on  the  availability  and accuracy of the alternates.  If no alternates are available, or if they're
       incorrect, lsof won't be able to locate files on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from your system's mount  table
       are  symbolic  links,  lsof won't be able to resolve the links.  This is because the -b option causes
       lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve symbolic links.

       Finally, using the -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it needs to  use  the  kernel
       functions  that the -b option directs it to avoid.  You can suppress these messages by specifying the
       -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device numbers reported  in  the  warning  mes-sages. messages.
       sages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On  some  dialects,  when  lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about a mounted
       file system via the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions, or because you specified  the  -b  option,
       lsof  can  obtain  some  of the information it needs - the device number and possibly the file system
       type - from the system mount table.  When that is possible, lsof will report  the  device  number  it
       obtained.  (You can suppress the report by specifying the -w option.)

       You  can  assist  this process if your mount table is supported with an /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file
       that contains an options field by adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field for mount points that do not  have  one
       in  their  options  strings.   Note: you must be able to edit the file - i.e., some mount tables like
       recent Solaris /etc/mnttab or Linux /proc/mounts are read-only and can't be modified.

       You may also be able to supply device numbers using the +m and +m m options, provided they  are  sup-ported supported
       ported  by  your  dialect.   Check  the  output of lsof's -h or -?  options to see if the +m and +m m
       options are available.

       The ``xxxx'' portion of the field is the hexadecimal value of the file system's device number.  (Con-sult (Consult
       sult  the st_dev field of the output of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the appropriate values
       for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris  2.6  /etc/mnttab  for  a  file  system
       remotely mounted via NFS:

            nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's  an  advantage  to  having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table file, especially for file
       systems that are mounted from remote NFS servers.  When a remote server crashes and you want to iden-tify identify
       tify  its users by running lsof on one of its clients, lsof probably won't be able to get output from
       the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file system.  If it can obtain the  file  system's  device
       number from the mount table, it will be able to display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that  do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the mount table may still
       provide an alternative device number in their internal mount tables.  This includes AIX,  Apple  Dar-win, Darwin,
       win,  FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64 UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alternative device num-ber number
       ber for these dialects and uses it when its attempt  to  lstat(2)  or  stat(2)  the  file  system  is
       blocked.

       If you're not sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for file systems from its mount ta-ble, table,
       ble, use this lsof incantation to see if it reports any alternate device numbers:


              lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g., the  ADVFS  4.x
       tag_to_path()  function under Tru64 UNIX) on some dialects for most file system types, excluding AFS,
       and extract recently used path name components from it.  (AFS file system path lookups don't use  the
       kernel's name cache; some Solaris VxFS file system operations apparently don't use it, either.)

       Lsof  reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If lsof can't report all components in
       a path, it reports in the NAME column the file system name, followed by a space, two `-'  characters,
       another space, and the name components it has located, separated by the `/' character.

       When  lsof  is  run  in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which it can
       report path name components for the same file may vary from cycle to  cycle.   That's  because  other
       running  processes  can  cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache and replace them with
       others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it  to  report  incorrect
       components under some circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel name cache uses device and node
       number as a key (e.g., SCO OpenServer) and a key on a rapidly changing file system is reused.  If the
       UNIX  dialect's  kernel  doesn't  purge the name cache entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may
       find a reference to the wrong entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)
       has more information on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

            FreeBSD
            HP-UX
            Linux
            NetBSD
            NEXTSTEP
            OpenBSD
            OPENSTEP
            SCO OpenServer
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare
            Solaris
            Tru64 UNIX

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

            AIX

       If  you  want  to know why lsof can't report path name components for some dialects, see the lsof FAQ
       (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining all members of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2) functions can be time  consum-ing. consuming.
       ing.   What's  more, the information that lsof needs - device number, inode number, and path - rarely
       changes.

       Consequently, lsof normally maintains an ASCII text file of cached  /dev  (or  /devices)  information
       (exception:  the  /proc-based  Linux lsof where it's not needed.)  The local system administrator who
       builds lsof can control the way the device cache file path is formed, selecting from these options:

            Path from the -D option;
            Path from an environment variable;
            System-wide path;
            Personal path (the default);
            Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current state of  device  cache  sup-port. support.
       port.   The  help output lists the default read-mode device cache file path that is in effect for the
       current invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the read-only and write device  cache  file
       paths,  the names of any applicable environment variables, and the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been accidentally or maliciously  modified  by
       integrity checks, including the computation and verification of a sixteen bit Cyclic Redundancy Check
       (CRC) sum on the file's contents.  When lsof senses something wrong with the file, it issues a  warn-ing warning
       ing  and attempts to remove the current cache file and create a new copy, but only to a path that the
       process can legitimately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be the same as the
       path  to  which  it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs to update the device
       cache file, it may choose a different path for writing it from the path from which it read an  incor-rect incorrect
       rect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the  -Dr  option  will  inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.  (It's always
       available when specified without a path name argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be recreated.  Since lsof
       compares the mtime of the device cache file with the mtime and ctime of the /dev (or /devices) direc-tory, directory,
       tory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that case lsof issues a warning message
       and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever  lsof  writes  a  device  cache file, it sets its ownership to the real UID of the executing
       process, and its permission modes to 0600, this restricting its reading and  writing  to  the  file's
       owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions of the lsof executable affect its ability to access device cache files.  The permis-sions permissions
       sions are set by the local system administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into  effect  when  lsof  is  executed;  its
       effective  UID  is then root, while its real (i.e., that of the logged-on user) UID is not.  The lsof
       distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run setuid-root.

            HP-UX 11.11 and 11.23
            Linux

       The second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the effective group IDen-tification IDentification
       tification  number  (GID)  of  the lsof process is set to one that can access kernel memory devices -e.g., devicese.g.,
       e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after  it  has  accessed
       the  kernel  memory devices.  When it does that, lsof can allow more liberal device cache path forma-tions. formations.
       tions.  The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects run setgid and  be  allowed
       to surrender setgid permission.

            AIX 5.[12] and 5.3-ML1
            Apple Darwin 7.x Power Macintosh systems
            FreeBSD 4.x, 4.1x, 5.x and [6789].x for x86-based systems
            FreeBSD 5.x and [6789].x for Alpha, AMD64 and Sparc64-based
                systems
            HP-UX 11.00
            NetBSD 1.[456], 2.x and 3.x for Alpha, x86, and SPARC-based
                systems
            NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
            OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.[0-9] for x86-based systems
            OPENSTEP 4.x
            SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.6 for x86-based systems
            SCO|Caldera UnixWare 7.1.4 for x86-based systems
            Solaris 2.6, 8, 9 and 10
            Tru64 UNIX 5.1

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof  for  these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given to the executable
       don't apply to the device cache file.

            Linux

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The -D option provides limited means for specifying the device cache file path.  Its ?  function will
       report the read-only and write device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When  the  -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use them to request that the cache file be
       built in a specific location  (b[path]);  read  but  not  rebuilt  (r[path]);  or  read  and  rebuilt
       (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted under some conditions.  They are restricted when
       the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified with the r function is  always  read-only,  even
       when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid and lsof doesn't sur-render surrender
       render the setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section
       for a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel with the stat(2)
       function and build a device cache file at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache file, but not update it.   When  a
       path  argument accompanies -Dr, it names the device cache file path.  The r function is always avail-able available
       able when it is specified without a path name argument.  If lsof is not running setuid-root and  sur-renders surrenders
       renders its setgid permission, a path name argument may accompany the r function.

       When  available,  the  u function tells lsof to attempt to read and use the device cache file.  If it
       can't read the file, or if it finds the contents of the file incorrect  or  outdated,  it  will  read
       information  from  the  kernel, and attempt to write an updated version of the device cache file, but
       only to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment  vari-able. variable.
       able.   It  avoids  this choice if the lsof process is setuid-root, or the real UID of the process is
       root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file path taken  from  the  LSOFDEVCACHE  environment
       variable:  lsof  will not write a device cache file to the path if the lsof process doesn't surrender
       its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE  ACCESS  section  for
       information on implementations that don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE environment variable or change
       its name when building lsof.  Consult the output of -D?  for the environment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide device cache file when building lsof.
       That  file will generally be constructed by a special system administration procedure when the system
       is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If defined, it is lsof's  third  device
       cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation by examin-ing examining
       ing the lsof help option output - i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide device cache file path by default.  It  must  be  explicitly
       named  with  a  -D function in a root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been written, the procedure
       must change its permission modes to 0644 (owner-read and owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The default device cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded in the home directory  of
       the  real UID that executes lsof.  Added to the home directory is a second path component of the form
       .lsof_hostname.

       This is lsof's fourth device cache file path choice, and is usually the default.   If  a  system-wide
       device  cache file path was defined when lsof was built, this fourth choice will be applied when lsof
       can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only time lsof uses two paths when reading
       the device cache file.

       The  hostname  part  of  the  second component is the base name of the executing host, as returned by
       gethostname(2).  The base name is defined to be the characters preceding the first `.'  in the  geth-ostname(2) gethostname(2)
       ostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if it contains no `.'.

       The  device  cache  file  belongs  to the user ID and is readable and writable by the user ID alone -i.e., alonei.e.,
       i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each distinct real user ID on a given host that executes lsof has  a  dis-tinct distinct
       tinct  device  cache  file.   The  hostname  part  of the path distinguishes device cache files in an
       NFS-mounted home directory into which device cache files are written from several different hosts.

       The personal device cache file path formed by this method represents a device cache  file  that  lsof
       will  attempt to read, and will attempt to write should it not exist or should its contents be incor-rect incorrect
       rect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.

       The -D?  option will list the format specification for constructing the personal device  cache  file.
       The  conversions used in the format specification are described in the __DCACHE file of the lsof dis-tribution. distribution.
       tribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof is  built,  the  LSOFPERSDCPATH
       environment  variable contents may be used to add a component of the personal device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the path at the place marked by the local system
       administrator  with  the  ``%p''  conversion  in  the HASPERSDC format specification of the dialect's
       machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home directory in  the  default  lsof  distribu-tion.) distribution.)
       tion.)

       Thus,  for  example,  if  LSOFPERSDCPATH contains ``LSOF'', the home directory is ``/Homes/abe'', the
       host name is ``lsof.itap.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC format is the  default  (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''),
       the modified personal device cache file path is:

            /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The  LSOFPERSDCPATH  environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or when the
       real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file path if the lsof process doesn't surren-der surrender
       der  setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a
       list of implementations that normally don't surrender their setgid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device cache file paths by using  the
       LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't surrender its setgid permission, you
       will have to allow lsof to create device cache files at the standard personal path and move  them  to
       your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The  local  system  administrator may: disable this option when lsof is built; change the name of the
       environment variable from LSOFPERSDCPATH to something else; change the HASPERSDC  format  to  include
       the  personal path component in another place; or exclude the personal path component entirely.  Con-sult Consult
       sult the output of the -D?  option for the environment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format spec-ification. specification.
       ification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one (1) if any error was detected, including the failure to locate command names, file
       names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or  UIDs  it  was  asked  to
       list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate the search items it failed to list.

       It  returns  a  zero (0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to list some information about
       all the specified search arguments.


       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its subdirectories, or  get  information
       on  a  file  in  them  with stat(2), it issues a warning message and continues.  That lsof will issue
       warning messages about inaccessible files in /dev (or /devices) is indicated in  its  help  output  -requested outputrequested
       requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The  warning  message  may be suppressed with the -w option.  It may also have been suppressed by the
       system administrator when lsof was compiled by the setting of the WARNDEVACCESS definition.  In  this
       case, the output from the help options will include the message:

            Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device warning messages usually disappear after lsof has created a working device cache
       file.

EXAMPLES
       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the __QUICKSTART file  of  the  lsof
       distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

              lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

              lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

              lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

              lsof -i 6

       To list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host wonderland.cc.purdue.edu, use:

              lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu (cc.purdue.edu is the  default
       domain), use:

              lsof -i @mace

       To  list  all  open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process 123, or
       process 789, use:

              lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

              lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

              lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

              kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name /dev/log, use:

              lsof /dev/log

       To find processes with open files on the NFS file system named /nfs/mount/point whose server is inac-cessible, inaccessible,
       cessible, and presuming your mount table supplies the device number for /nfs/mount/point, use:

              lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

              lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

              lsof -Di

       To  obtain  PID  and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device number,
       and file inode number for each file of each process, use:

              lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running  the  lsof  command  for  login  ID
       ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

              lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly four characters
       long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression form of the -c c option:

              lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

              lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by its  associated  numeric
       colon-form address, use:

              lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To  find  an  IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated numeric
       colon-form address that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address - use:

              lsof -i@[::1]

       To obtain a repeat mode marker line that contains the current time, use:

              lsof -rm====%T====

       To add spaces to the previous marker line, use:

              lsof -r "m==== %T ===="

BUGS
       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel memory may  pro-duce produce
       duce unpredictable results.

       When  a  file has multiple record locks, the lock status character (following the file descriptor) is
       derived from a test of the first lock structure, not from any combination of  the  individual  record
       locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof  can't  search for files with restrictive access permissions by name unless it is installed with
       root set-UID permission.  Otherwise it is limited to searching for files to which  its  user  or  its
       set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The display of the destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping) depends on the UNIX operating
       system.  Some dialects store the destination address in the raw socket's protocol control block, some
       do not.

       Lsof can't always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1) does.  For example, the
       major and minor device numbers that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report for  the  directory  on
       which  CD-ROM  files  are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as the ones that it reports for
       the device on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /dev/sr_).  (Lsof reports the directory  num-bers.) numbers.)
       bers.)

       The  support  for  /proc  file  systems is available only for BSD and Tru64 UNIX dialects, Linux, and
       dialects derived from SYSV R4 - e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some /proc file items - device number, inode  number,  and  file  size  -  are  unavailable  in  some
       dialects.   Searching  for files in a /proc file system may require that the full path name be speci-fied. specified.
       fied.

       No text (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries for files  other  than
       the  current  working  directory,  the root directory, and numerical file descriptors are labeled mem
       descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because their kernel implementation of lstat(2)
       returns an improper device number for a named pipe.

       Lsof  can't  report  fully or correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00 locks because of insufficient
       access to kernel data or errors in the kernel data.  See the lsof FAQ  (The  FAQ  section  gives  its
       location.)  for details.

       The  AIX  SMT  file  type  is  a fabrication.  It's made up for file structures whose type (15) isn't
       defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file structures is to
       run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The  +|-f[cfgGn] option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because it doesn't read kernel
       structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LANG              defines a language locale.  See setlocale(3) for the names of other variables  that
                         can be used in place of LANG - e.g., LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, etc.

       LSOFDEVCACHE      defines  the  path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVI-RONMENT ENVIRONMENT
                         RONMENT VARIABLE section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH    defines the middle component of a modified personal device cache  file  path.   See
                         the MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH section for more information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked  questions  and  their  answers (an FAQ) are available in the __FAQ file of the lsof
       distribution.

       That file is also available via anonymous ftp from  lsof.itap.purdue.edu  at  pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.
       The URL is:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem         kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem          physical memory device

       /dev/swap         system paging device

       .lsof_hostname    lsof's  device  cache  file  (The  suffix,  hostname, is the first component of the
                         host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue University.  Many others have contrib-uted contributed
       uted to lsof.  They're listed in the __CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The  latest  distribution  of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the host lsof.itap.purdue.edu.
       You'll find the lsof distribution in the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

              ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof  is  also  mirrored  elsewhere.   When  you  access  lsof.itap.purdue.edu  and  change  to   its
       pub/tools/unix/lsof  directory, you'll be given a list of some mirror sites.  The pub/tools/unix/lsof
       directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use mirrors with caution - not all
       mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof executables are available on lsof.itap.purdue.edu, but their use is discour-aged discouraged
       aged - it's better that you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you must use a pre-compiled
       executable, please read the cautions that appear in the README files of the pub/tools/unix/lsof/bina-ries pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries
       ries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its  README.lsof_<version>  file.   If  you
       intend to get the lsof distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version> and the other 00*
       files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Not all the following manual pages may exist in every UNIX dialect to which lsof has been ported.

       access(2), awk(1), crash(1), fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),  fuser(1),  gethostname(2),  isprint(3),
       kill(1),  localtime(3), lstat(2), modload(8), mount(8), netstat(1), ofiles(8L), perl(1), ps(1), read-link(2), readlink(2),
       link(2), setlocale(3), stat(2), strftime(3), time(2), uname(1).



                                                Revision-4.87                                        LSOF(8)

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