Mapping Files Into Memory
File mapping is the process of mapping the disk sectors of a file into the virtual memory space of a process. Once mapped, your application accesses the file as if it were entirely resident in memory. As you read data from the mapped file pointer, the kernel pages in the appropriate data and returns it to your application.
Although mapping files can offer tremendous performance advantages, it is not appropriate in all cases. The following sections explain when file mapping can help you and how you go about doing it in your code.
Choosing When to Map Files
When deciding whether or not to map files, keep in mind that the overall goal is to reduce transfers between disk and memory. File mapping can help you in some cases, but not all. The more of a file you map into memory, the less useful file mapping becomes.
Before you map any files into memory, make sure you understand your typical file usage patterns. Instruments can help you identify where your application accesses files and how long those operations take. For any operations that are taking longer than expected, you can then look at your code to determine if file mapping might be of use.
File mapping is effective in the following situations:
You have a large file whose contents you want to access randomly one or more times.
You have a small file whose contents you want to read into memory all at once and access frequently. This technique is best for files that are no more than a few virtual memory pages in size.
You want to cache specific portions of a file in memory. File mapping eliminates the need to cache the data at all, which leaves more room in the system disk caches for other data.
You should not use file mapping in the following situations:
You want to read a file sequentially from start to finish only once.
The file is several hundred megabytes or more in size. (Mapping large files into memory fills memory quickly and may lead to paging, which would negate the benefits of mapping the file in the first place.)
For large sequential read operations, you are better off disabling disk caching and reading the file into a small memory buffer.
File Mapping Caveats
Even in situations where you think file mapping is ideal, there are still some caveats that may apply. In particular, you may not want to map files in the following situations:
The file is larger than the available contiguous virtual memory address space. This is less of an issue for 64-bit applications but can be an issue for 32-bit applications.
The file is located on a removable drive.
The file is located on a network drive.
When randomly accessing a very large file, it’s often a better idea to map only a small portion of the file at a time. The problem with mapping large files is that the file consumes active memory. If the file is large enough, the system might be forced to page out other portions of memory to load your file. Mapping more than one file into memory just compounds this problem.
For files on removable or network drives, you should avoid mapping files altogether. If you map files on a removable or network drive and that drive is unmounted, or disappears for another reason, accessing the mapped memory can cause a bus error and crash your program. If you insist on mapping these types of files, be sure to install a signal handler in your application to trap and handle the bus error condition. Even with the signal handler installed, your application’s current thread may block until it receives a timeout from trying to access a network file. This timeout period can make your application appear hung and unresponsive and is easily avoided by not mapping the files in the first place.
Mapping a file on the root device is always safe. (If the root device is somehow removed or unavailable, the system cannot continue running.) Note that the user’s home directory is not required to be on the root device.
File Mapping Example
Listing 1-1 demonstrates memory mapping using the BSD-level
munmap functions. The mapped file occupies a system-determined portion of the application’s virtual address space until
munmap is used to unmap the file. For more information about these functions, see
Listing 1-1 Mapping a file into virtual memory
void ProcessFile( char * inPathName )
void * dataPtr;
if( MapFile( inPathName, &dataPtr, &dataLength ) == 0 )
// process the data and unmap the file
// . . .
munmap( dataPtr, dataLength );
// Return the contents of the specified file as a read-only pointer.
// Enter:inPathName is a UNIX-style "/"-delimited pathname
// Exit: outDataPtra pointer to the mapped memory region
// outDataLength size of the mapped memory region
// return value an errno value on error (see sys/errno.h)
// or zero for success
int MapFile( char * inPathName, void ** outDataPtr, size_t * outDataLength )
struct stat statInfo;
// Return safe values on error.
outError = 0;
*outDataPtr = NULL;
*outDataLength = 0;
// Open the file.
fileDescriptor = open( inPathName, O_RDONLY, 0 );
if( fileDescriptor < 0 )
outError = errno;
// We now know the file exists. Retrieve the file size.
if( fstat( fileDescriptor, &statInfo ) != 0 )
outError = errno;
// Map the file into a read-only memory region.
*outDataPtr = mmap(NULL,
if( *outDataPtr == MAP_FAILED )
outError = errno;
// On success, return the size of the mapped file.
*outDataLength = statInfo.st_size;
// Now close the file. The kernel doesn’t use our file descriptor.
close( fileDescriptor );