iOS Developer Library — Prerelease


The Swift Programming Language (Swift 2.1)

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Closures are self-contained blocks of functionality that can be passed around and used in your code. Closures in Swift are similar to blocks in C and Objective-C and to lambdas in other programming languages.

Closures can capture and store references to any constants and variables from the context in which they are defined. This is known as closing over those constants and variables, hence the name “closures”. Swift handles all of the memory management of capturing for you.

Global and nested functions, as introduced in Functions, are actually special cases of closures. Closures take one of three forms:

  • Global functions are closures that have a name and do not capture any values.

  • Nested functions are closures that have a name and can capture values from their enclosing function.

  • Closure expressions are unnamed closures written in a lightweight syntax that can capture values from their surrounding context.

Swift’s closure expressions have a clean, clear style, with optimizations that encourage brief, clutter-free syntax in common scenarios. These optimizations include:

  • Inferring parameter and return value types from context

  • Implicit returns from single-expression closures

  • Shorthand argument names

  • Trailing closure syntax

Closure Expressions

Nested functions, as introduced in Nested Functions, are a convenient means of naming and defining self-contained blocks of code as part of a larger function. However, it is sometimes useful to write shorter versions of function-like constructs without a full declaration and name. This is particularly true when you work with functions or methods that take functions as one or more of their arguments.

Closure expressions are a way to write inline closures in a brief, focused syntax. Closure expressions provide several syntax optimizations for writing closures in a shortened form without loss of clarity or intent. The closure expression examples below illustrate these optimizations by refining a single example of the sort(_:) method over several iterations, each of which expresses the same functionality in a more succinct way.

The Sort Method

Swift’s standard library provides a method called sort(_:), which sorts an array of values of a known type, based on the output of a sorting closure that you provide. Once it completes the sorting process, the sort(_:) method returns a new array of the same type and size as the old one, with its elements in the correct sorted order. The original array is not modified by the sort(_:) method.

The closure expression examples below use the sort(_:) method to sort an array of String values in reverse alphabetical order. Here’s the initial array to be sorted:

  1. let names = ["Chris", "Alex", "Ewa", "Barry", "Daniella"]

The sort(_:) method accepts a closure that takes two arguments of the same type as the array’s contents, and returns a Bool value to say whether the first value should appear before or after the second value once the values are sorted. The sorting closure needs to return true if the first value should appear before the second value, and false otherwise.

This example is sorting an array of String values, and so the sorting closure needs to be a function of type (String, String) -> Bool.

One way to provide the sorting closure is to write a normal function of the correct type, and to pass it in as an argument to the sort(_:) method:

  1. func backwards(s1: String, _ s2: String) -> Bool {
  2. return s1 > s2
  3. }
  4. var reversed = names.sort(backwards)
  5. // reversed is equal to ["Ewa", "Daniella", "Chris", "Barry", "Alex"]

If the first string (s1) is greater than the second string (s2), the backwards(_:_:) function will return true, indicating that s1 should appear before s2 in the sorted array. For characters in strings, “greater than” means “appears later in the alphabet than”. This means that the letter "B" is “greater than” the letter "A", and the string "Tom" is greater than the string "Tim". This gives a reverse alphabetical sort, with "Barry" being placed before "Alex", and so on.

However, this is a rather long-winded way to write what is essentially a single-expression function (a > b). In this example, it would be preferable to write the sorting closure inline, using closure expression syntax.

Closure Expression Syntax

Closure expression syntax has the following general form:

  • { (parameters) -> return type in
  •     statements
  • }

Closure expression syntax can use constant parameters, variable parameters, and inout parameters. Default values cannot be provided. Variadic parameters can be used if you name the variadic parameter. Tuples can also be used as parameter types and return types.

The example below shows a closure expression version of the backwards(_:_:) function from earlier:

  1. reversed = names.sort({ (s1: String, s2: String) -> Bool in
  2. return s1 > s2
  3. })

Note that the declaration of parameters and return type for this inline closure is identical to the declaration from the backwards(_:_:) function. In both cases, it is written as (s1: String, s2: String) -> Bool. However, for the inline closure expression, the parameters and return type are written inside the curly braces, not outside of them.

The start of the closure’s body is introduced by the in keyword. This keyword indicates that the definition of the closure’s parameters and return type has finished, and the body of the closure is about to begin.

Because the body of the closure is so short, it can even be written on a single line:

  1. reversed = names.sort( { (s1: String, s2: String) -> Bool in return s1 > s2 } )

This illustrates that the overall call to the sort(_:) method has remained the same. A pair of parentheses still wrap the entire argument for the method. However, that argument is now an inline closure.

Inferring Type From Context

Because the sorting closure is passed as an argument to a method, Swift can infer the types of its parameters and the type of the value it returns. The sort(_:) method is being called on an array of strings, so its argument must be a function of type (String, String) -> Bool. This means that the (String, String) and Bool types do not need to be written as part of the closure expression’s definition. Because all of the types can be inferred, the return arrow (->) and the parentheses around the names of the parameters can also be omitted:

  1. reversed = names.sort( { s1, s2 in return s1 > s2 } )

It is always possible to infer the parameter types and return type when passing a closure to a function or method as an inline closure expression. As a result, you never need to write an inline closure in its fullest form when the closure is used as a function or method argument.

Nonetheless, you can still make the types explicit if you wish, and doing so is encouraged if it avoids ambiguity for readers of your code. In the case of the sort(_:) method, the purpose of the closure is clear from the fact that sorting is taking place, and it is safe for a reader to assume that the closure is likely to be working with String values, because it is assisting with the sorting of an array of strings.

Implicit Returns from Single-Expression Closures

Single-expression closures can implicitly return the result of their single expression by omitting the return keyword from their declaration, as in this version of the previous example:

  1. reversed = names.sort( { s1, s2 in s1 > s2 } )

Here, the function type of the sort(_:) method’s argument makes it clear that a Bool value must be returned by the closure. Because the closure’s body contains a single expression (s1 > s2) that returns a Bool value, there is no ambiguity, and the return keyword can be omitted.

Shorthand Argument Names

Swift automatically provides shorthand argument names to inline closures, which can be used to refer to the values of the closure’s arguments by the names $0, $1, $2, and so on.

If you use these shorthand argument names within your closure expression, you can omit the closure’s argument list from its definition, and the number and type of the shorthand argument names will be inferred from the expected function type. The in keyword can also be omitted, because the closure expression is made up entirely of its body:

  1. reversed = names.sort( { $0 > $1 } )

Here, $0 and $1 refer to the closure’s first and second String arguments.

Operator Functions

There’s actually an even shorter way to write the closure expression above. Swift’s String type defines its string-specific implementation of the greater-than operator (>) as a function that has two parameters of type String, and returns a value of type Bool. This exactly matches the function type needed by the sort(_:) method. Therefore, you can simply pass in the greater-than operator, and Swift will infer that you want to use its string-specific implementation:

  1. reversed = names.sort(>)

For more about operator functions, see Operator Functions.

Trailing Closures

If you need to pass a closure expression to a function as the function’s final argument and the closure expression is long, it can be useful to write it as a trailing closure instead. A trailing closure is a closure expression that is written outside of (and after) the parentheses of the function call it supports:

  1. func someFunctionThatTakesAClosure(closure: () -> Void) {
  2. // function body goes here
  3. }
  4. // here's how you call this function without using a trailing closure:
  5. someFunctionThatTakesAClosure({
  6. // closure's body goes here
  7. })
  8. // here's how you call this function with a trailing closure instead:
  9. someFunctionThatTakesAClosure() {
  10. // trailing closure's body goes here
  11. }

The string-sorting closure from the Closure Expression Syntax section above can be written outside of the sort(_:) method’s parentheses as a trailing closure:

  1. reversed = names.sort() { $0 > $1 }

If a closure expression is provided as the function or method’s only argument and you provide that expression as a trailing closure, you do not need to write a pair of parentheses () after the function or method’s name when you call the function:

  1. reversed = names.sort { $0 > $1 }

Trailing closures are most useful when the closure is sufficiently long that it is not possible to write it inline on a single line. As an example, Swift’s Array type has a map(_:) method which takes a closure expression as its single argument. The closure is called once for each item in the array, and returns an alternative mapped value (possibly of some other type) for that item. The nature of the mapping and the type of the returned value is left up to the closure to specify.

After applying the provided closure to each array element, the map(_:) method returns a new array containing all of the new mapped values, in the same order as their corresponding values in the original array.

Here’s how you can use the map(_:) method with a trailing closure to convert an array of Int values into an array of String values. The array [16, 58, 510] is used to create the new array ["OneSix", "FiveEight", "FiveOneZero"]:

  1. let digitNames = [
  2. 0: "Zero", 1: "One", 2: "Two", 3: "Three", 4: "Four",
  3. 5: "Five", 6: "Six", 7: "Seven", 8: "Eight", 9: "Nine"
  4. ]
  5. let numbers = [16, 58, 510]

The code above creates a dictionary of mappings between the integer digits and English-language versions of their names. It also defines an array of integers, ready to be converted into strings.

You can now use the numbers array to create an array of String values, by passing a closure expression to the array’s map(_:) method as a trailing closure:

  1. let strings = {
  2. (var number) -> String in
  3. var output = ""
  4. while number > 0 {
  5. output = digitNames[number % 10]! + output
  6. number /= 10
  7. }
  8. return output
  9. }
  10. // strings is inferred to be of type [String]
  11. // its value is ["OneSix", "FiveEight", "FiveOneZero"]

The map(_:) method calls the closure expression once for each item in the array. You do not need to specify the type of the closure’s input parameter, number, because the type can be inferred from the values in the array to be mapped.

In this example, the closure’s number parameter is defined as a variable parameter, as described in Constant and Variable Parameters, so that the parameter’s value can be modified within the closure body, rather than declaring a new local variable and assigning the passed number value to it. The closure expression also specifies a return type of String, to indicate the type that will be stored in the mapped output array.

The closure expression builds a string called output each time it is called. It calculates the last digit of number by using the remainder operator (number % 10), and uses this digit to look up an appropriate string in the digitNames dictionary. The closure can be used to create a string representation of any integer number greater than zero.

The string retrieved from the digitNames dictionary is added to the front of output, effectively building a string version of the number in reverse. (The expression number % 10 gives a value of 6 for 16, 8 for 58, and 0 for 510.)

The number variable is then divided by 10. Because it is an integer, it is rounded down during the division, so 16 becomes 1, 58 becomes 5, and 510 becomes 51.

The process is repeated until number is equal to 0, at which point the output string is returned by the closure, and is added to the output array by the map(_:) method.

The use of trailing closure syntax in the example above neatly encapsulates the closure’s functionality immediately after the function that closure supports, without needing to wrap the entire closure within the map(_:) method’s outer parentheses.

Capturing Values

A closure can capture constants and variables from the surrounding context in which it is defined. The closure can then refer to and modify the values of those constants and variables from within its body, even if the original scope that defined the constants and variables no longer exists.

In Swift, the simplest form of a closure that can capture values is a nested function, written within the body of another function. A nested function can capture any of its outer function’s arguments and can also capture any constants and variables defined within the outer function.

Here’s an example of a function called makeIncrementer, which contains a nested function called incrementer. The nested incrementer() function captures two values, runningTotal and amount, from its surrounding context. After capturing these values, incrementer is returned by makeIncrementer as a closure that increments runningTotal by amount each time it is called.

  1. func makeIncrementer(forIncrement amount: Int) -> () -> Int {
  2. var runningTotal = 0
  3. func incrementer() -> Int {
  4. runningTotal += amount
  5. return runningTotal
  6. }
  7. return incrementer
  8. }

The return type of makeIncrementer is () -> Int. This means that it returns a function, rather than a simple value. The function it returns has no parameters, and returns an Int value each time it is called. To learn how functions can return other functions, see Function Types as Return Types.

The makeIncrementer(forIncrement:) function defines an integer variable called runningTotal, to store the current running total of the incrementer that will be returned. This variable is initialized with a value of 0.

The makeIncrementer(forIncrement:) function has a single Int parameter with an external name of forIncrement, and a local name of amount. The argument value passed to this parameter specifies how much runningTotal should be incremented by each time the returned incrementer function is called.

makeIncrementer defines a nested function called incrementer, which performs the actual incrementing. This function simply adds amount to runningTotal, and returns the result.

When considered in isolation, the nested incrementer() function might seem unusual:

  1. func incrementer() -> Int {
  2. runningTotal += amount
  3. return runningTotal
  4. }

The incrementer() function doesn’t have any parameters, and yet it refers to runningTotal and amount from within its function body. It does this by capturing a reference to runningTotal and amount from the surrounding function and using them within its own function body. Capturing by reference ensures that runningTotal and amount do not disappear when the call to makeIncrementer ends, and also ensures that runningTotal is available the next time the incrementer function is called.

Here’s an example of makeIncrementer in action:

  1. let incrementByTen = makeIncrementer(forIncrement: 10)

This example sets a constant called incrementByTen to refer to an incrementer function that adds 10 to its runningTotal variable each time it is called. Calling the function multiple times shows this behavior in action:

  1. incrementByTen()
  2. // returns a value of 10
  3. incrementByTen()
  4. // returns a value of 20
  5. incrementByTen()
  6. // returns a value of 30

If you create a second incrementer, it will have its own stored reference to a new, separate runningTotal variable:

  1. let incrementBySeven = makeIncrementer(forIncrement: 7)
  2. incrementBySeven()
  3. // returns a value of 7

Calling the original incrementer (incrementByTen) again continues to increment its own runningTotal variable, and does not affect the variable captured by incrementBySeven:

  1. incrementByTen()
  2. // returns a value of 40

Closures Are Reference Types

In the example above, incrementBySeven and incrementByTen are constants, but the closures these constants refer to are still able to increment the runningTotal variables that they have captured. This is because functions and closures are reference types.

Whenever you assign a function or a closure to a constant or a variable, you are actually setting that constant or variable to be a reference to the function or closure. In the example above, it is the choice of closure that incrementByTen refers to that is constant, and not the contents of the closure itself.

This also means that if you assign a closure to two different constants or variables, both of those constants or variables will refer to the same closure:

  1. let alsoIncrementByTen = incrementByTen
  2. alsoIncrementByTen()
  3. // returns a value of 50

Nonescaping Closures

A closure is said to escape a function when the closure is passed as an argument to the function, but is called after the function returns. When you declare a function that takes a closure as one of its parameters, you can write @noescape before the parameter name to indicate that the closure is not allowed to escape. Marking a closure with @noescape lets the compiler make more aggressive optimizations because it knows more information about the closure’s lifespan.

  1. func someFunctionWithNoescapeClosure(@noescape closure: () -> Void) {
  2. closure()
  3. }

As an example, the sort(_:) method takes a closure as its parameter, which is used to compare elements. The parameter is marked @noescape because it is guaranteed not to be needed after the sorting is completed.

One way that a closure can escape is by being stored in a variable that is defined outside the function. As an example, many functions that start an asynchronous operation take a closure argument as a completion handler. The function returns after it starts the operation, but the closure isn’t called until the operation is completed—the closure needs to escape, to be called later. For example:

  1. var completionHandlers: [() -> Void] = []
  2. func someFunctionWithEscapingClosure(completionHandler: () -> Void) {
  3. completionHandlers.append(completionHandler)
  4. }

The someFunctionWithEscapingClosure(_:) function takes a closure as its argument and adds it to an array that’s declared outside the function. If you tried to mark the parameter of this function with @noescape, you would get a compiler error.

Marking a closure with @noescape lets you refer to self implicitly within the closure.

  1. class SomeClass {
  2. var x = 10
  3. func doSomething() {
  4. someFunctionWithEscapingClosure { self.x = 100 }
  5. someFunctionWithNoescapeClosure { x = 200 }
  6. }
  7. }
  8. let instance = SomeClass()
  9. instance.doSomething()
  10. print(instance.x)
  11. // prints "200"
  12. completionHandlers.first?()
  13. print(instance.x)
  14. // prints "100"


An autoclosure is a closure that is automatically created to wrap an expression that’s being passed as an argument to a function. It doesn’t take any arguments, and when it’s called, it returns the value of the expression that’s wrapped inside of it. This syntactic convenience lets you omit braces around a function’s parameter by writing a normal expression instead of an explicit closure.

It’s common to call functions that take autoclosures, but it’s not common to implement that kind of function. For example, the assert(condition:message:file:line:) function takes an autoclosure for its condition and message parameters; its condition parameter is evaluated only in debug builds and its message parameter is evaluated only if condition is false.

An autoclosure lets you delay evaluation, because the code inside isn’t run until you call the closure. Delaying evaluation is useful for code that has side effects or is computationally expensive, because it lets you control when that code is evaluated. The code below shows how a closure delays evaluation.

  1. var customersInLine = ["Chris", "Alex", "Ewa", "Barry", "Daniella"]
  2. print(customersInLine.count)
  3. // prints "5"
  4. let customerProvider = { customersInLine.removeAtIndex(0) }
  5. print(customersInLine.count)
  6. // prints "5"
  7. print("Now serving \(customerProvider())!")
  8. // prints "Now serving Chris!"
  9. print(customersInLine.count)
  10. // prints "4"

Even though the first element of the customersInLine array is removed by the code inside the closure, the array element isn’t removed until the closure is actually called. If the closure is never called, the expression inside the closure is never evaluated, which means the array element is never removed. Note that the type of customerProvider is not String but () -> String—a function with no parameters that returns a string.

You get the same behavior of delayed evaluation when you pass a closure as an argument to a function.

  1. // customersInLine is ["Alex", "Ewa", "Barry", "Daniella"]
  2. func serveCustomer(customerProvider: () -> String) {
  3. print("Now serving \(customerProvider())!")
  4. }
  5. serveCustomer( { customersInLine.removeAtIndex(0) } )
  6. // prints "Now serving Alex!"

The serveCustomer(_:) function in the listing above takes an explicit closure that returns a customer’s name. The version of serveCustomer(_:) below performs the same operation but, instead of taking an explicit closure, it takes an autoclosure by marking its parameter with the @autoclosure attribute. Now you can call the function as if it took a String argument instead of a closure. The argument is automatically converted to a closure, because the customerProvider parameter is marked with the @autoclosure attribute.

  1. // customersInLine is ["Ewa", "Barry", "Daniella"]
  2. func serveCustomer(@autoclosure customerProvider: () -> String) {
  3. print("Now serving \(customerProvider())!")
  4. }
  5. serveCustomer(customersInLine.removeAtIndex(0))
  6. // prints "Now serving Ewa!"

The @autoclosure attribute implies the @noescape attribute, which is described above in Nonescaping Closures. If you want an autoclosure that is allowed to escape, use the @autoclosure(escaping) form of the attribute.

  1. // customersInLine is ["Barry", "Daniella"]
  2. var customerProviders: [() -> String] = []
  3. func collectCustomerProviders(@autoclosure(escaping) customerProvider: () -> String) {
  4. customerProviders.append(customerProvider)
  5. }
  6. collectCustomerProviders(customersInLine.removeAtIndex(0))
  7. collectCustomerProviders(customersInLine.removeAtIndex(0))
  8. print("Collected \(customerProviders.count) closures.")
  9. // prints "Collected 2 closures."
  10. for customerProvider in customerProviders {
  11. print("Now serving \(customerProvider())!")
  12. }
  13. // prints "Now serving Barry!"
  14. // prints "Now serving Daniella!"

In the code above, instead of calling the closure passed to it as its customer argument, the collectCustomerProviders(_:) function appends the closure to the customerProviders array. The array is declared outside the scope of the function, which means the closures in the array can be executed after the function returns. As a result, the value of the customer argument must be allowed to escape the function’s scope.