About Handlers

When script developers want to factor and re-use their code, they can turn to handlers. A handler is a collection of statements that can be invoked by name. Handlers are also known as functions, subroutines, or methods.

This chapter describes how to work with handlers, in the following sections:

For detailed reference information, see Handler Reference.

Handler Basics

A handler is a collection of statements that can be invoked by name. Handlers are useful in scripts that perform the same action in more than one place. You can package statements that perform a specific task as a handler, give it a descriptive name, and call it from anywhere in the script. This makes the script shorter and easier to maintain.

A script can contain one or more handlers. However, you can not nest a handler definition within another handler (although a script object defined in a handler can contain other handlers).

The definition for a handler specifies the parameters it uses, if any, and may specify a class or classes for the parameter and a default value.

When you call a handler, you must list its parameters according to how they are specified in its definition. Handlers may have labeled, positional, or interleaved parameters, described in subsequent sections. If a parameter has a specified class, AppleScript will coerce the actual value to that class as if using the as operator. If a parameter has a default value, that parameter may be omitted.

A handler definition can contain variable declarations and statements. It may use a return statement (described in detail in return) to return a value and exit the handler.

The sections that follow provide additional information on working with handlers:

Defining a Simple Handler

The following is a definition for a simple handler that takes any parameter value that can be displayed as text (presumably one representing a date) and displays it in a dialog box. The handler name is rock; its parameter is around the clock, where around is a parameter label and clock is the parameter name (the is an AppleScript filler for readability):

on rock around the clock
    display dialog (clock as text)
end rock

This handler allows an English-like calling statement:

rock around the current date -- call handler to display current date

A handler can have no parameters. To indicate that a handler has no parameters, you include a pair of empty parentheses after the handler name in both the handler definition and the handler call. For example, the following helloWorld script has no parameters.

on helloWorld()
    display dialog "Hello World"
helloWorld() -- Call the handler

Handlers with Labeled Parameters

To define a handler with labeled parameters, you list the labels to use when calling the handler and the statements to be executed when it is called. (The syntax is shown in Handler Syntax (Labeled Parameters).)

Handlers with labeled parameters can also have a direct parameter. With the exception of the direct parameter, which must directly follow the handler name, labeled parameters can appear in any order, with the labels from the handler definition identifying the parameter values. This includes parameters listed in given, with, and without clauses (of which there can be any number).

The findNumbers handler in the following example uses the special label given to define a parameter with the label given rounding.

to findNumbers of numberList above minLimit given rounding:roundBoolean
        set resultList to {}
        repeat with i from 1 to (count items of numberList)
            set x to item i of numberList
            if roundBoolean then -- round the number
                -- Use copy so original list isn’t modified.
                copy (round x) to x
            end if
            if x > minLimit then
                set end of resultList to x
            end if
        end repeat
        return resultList
end findNumbers

The next statements show how to call findNumbers by passing a predefined list variable:

set myList to {2, 5, 19.75, 99, 1}
findNumbers of myList above 19 given rounding:true
    --result: {20, 99}
findNumbers of myList above 19 given rounding:false
    --result: {19.75, 99}

You can also specify the value of the rounding parameter by using a with or without clause to indicate true or false. (In fact, when you compile the previous examples, AppleScript automatically converts given rounding:true to with rounding and given rounding:false to without rounding.) These examples pass a list object directly, rather than using a list variable as in the previous case:

findNumbers of {5.1, 20.1, 20.5, 33} above 20 with rounding
    --result: {33}
findNumbers of {5.1, 20.1, 20.5, 33.7} above 20 without rounding
    --result: {20.1, 20.5, 33.7}

Here is another handler that uses parameter labels:

to check for yourNumber from startRange thru endRange
    if startRange ≤ yourNumber and yourNumber ≤ endRange then
        display dialog "Congratulations! Your number is included."
    end if
end check

The following statement calls the handler, causing it to display the "Congratulations!" message

check for 8 from 7 thru 10 -- call the handler

Handlers with Positional Parameters

The definition for a handler with positional parameters shows the order in which to list parameters when calling the handler and the statements to be executed when the handler is called. The definition must include parentheses, even if it doesn’t include any parameters. The syntax is shown in Handler Syntax (Positional Parameters).

In the following example, the minimumValue routine returns the smaller of two values:

on minimumValue(x, y)
    if x < y then
        return x
        return y
    end if
end minimumValue
-- To call minimumValue:
minimumValue(5, 105) --result: 5

The first line of the minimumValue handler specifies the parameters of the handler. To call a handler with positional parameters you list the parameters in the same order as they are specified in the handler definition.

If a handler call is part of an expression, AppleScript uses the value returned by the handler to evaluate the expression. For example, to evaluate the following expression, AppleScript first calls minimumValue, then evaluates the rest of the expression.

minimumValue(5, 105) + 50 --result: 55

Handlers with Patterned Positional Parameters

You can create a handler whose positional parameters define a pattern to match when calling the handler. For example, the following handler takes a single parameter whose pattern consists of two items in a list:

on displayPoint({x, y})
    display dialog ("x = " & x & ", y = " & y)
end displayPoint
-- Calling the handler:
set testPoint to {3, 8}

A parameter pattern can be much more complex than a single list. The handler in the next example takes two numbers and a record whose properties include a list of bounds. The handler displays a dialog box summarizing some of the passed information.

on hello(a, b, {length:l, bounds:{x, y, w, h}, name:n})
    set q to a + b
    set response to "Hello " & n & ", you  are " & l & ¬
        " inches tall and occupy position (" & x &  ", " & y & ")."
    display dialog response
end hello
set thing to {bounds:{1, 2, 4, 5}, name:"George", length:72}
hello (2, 3, thing)
--result: A dialog displaying “Hello George, you are 72 inches  tall
--          and occupy position (1,2).”

The properties of a record passed to a handler with patterned parameters don’t have to be given in the same order in which they are given in the handler’s definition, as long as all the properties required to fit the pattern are present.

The following call to minimumValue uses the value from a handler call to maximumValue as its second parameter. The maximumValue handler (not shown) returns the larger of two passed numeric values.

minimumValue(20, maximumValue(1, 313)) --result: 20

Handlers with Interleaved Parameters

A handler with interleaved parameters is a special case of one with positional parameters. The definition shows the order in which to list parameters when calling the handler and the statements to be executed when the handler is called, but the name of the handler is broken into pieces and interleaved with the parameters, which can make it easier to read. Handlers with interleaved parameters may be used in any script, but are especially useful with bridged Objective-C methods, since they naturally resemble Objective-C syntax. The syntax is shown in Handler Syntax (Interleaved Parameters).

A handler with interleaved parameters may have only one parameter, as in this example:

on areaOfCircleWithRadius:radius
    return radius ^ 2 * pi
end areaOfCircleWithRadius:

Or more than one, as in this example:

on areaOfRectangleWithWidth:w height:h
    return w * h
end areaOfRectangleWithWidth:height:

To call a handler with interleaved parameters, list the parameters in the same order as they are specified in the handler definition. Despite the resemblance to labeled parameters, the parameters may not be reordered. Also, the call must be explicitly sent to an object, even if the target object is the default, it. For example:

its foo:5 bar:105 --this works
tell it to foo:5 bar:105 --as does this
foo:5 bar:105 --syntax error.

Parameter Specifications

The parameter “name” in a handler definition may be a simple name, as shown above, or it may additionally specify a required class and, for labeled parameters, a default value. To specify a required class, follow the name with as class or as {class,}. For example, you could declare a parameter to be specifically an integer like this:

on factorial(x as integer)

The effect is as if the handler began with set x to x as integer; if coercing the actual value to an integer fails, AppleScript throws an appropriate error, which may be caught with a try block. The class may be a list of classes, as described in Operators Reference.

Labeled parameters may be declared with a default value by following the formal parameter name with :literal. Doing so makes the parameter optional when called. For example, this declares a make handler with a default value for the with data parameter:

on make new theClass with data theData : missing value

This handler can now be called without supplying a with data parameter; the handler would see theData set to the specified default missing value, which it could then test for and handle appropriately.

A parameter may use both a type specification and a default value. For example, this declares a make handler with a with properties parameter that must be a record and has a default value of an empty record:

on make new theClass with properties theProperties as record : {}

Recursive Handlers

A recursive handler is a handler that calls itself. For example, this recursive handler generates a factorial. (The factorial of a number is the product of all the positive integers from 1 to that number. For example, 4 factorial is equal to 1 * 2 * 3 * 4, or 24. The factorial of 0 is 1.)

on factorial(x)
    if x > 0 then
        return x * factorial(x - 1)
        return 1
    end if
end factorial
-- To call factorial:
factorial(10)   --result: 3628800

In the example above, the handler factorial is called once, passing the value 10. The handler then calls itself recursively with a value of x - 1, or 9. Each time the handler calls itself, it makes another recursive call, until the value of x is 0. When x is equal to 0, AppleScript skips to the else clause and finishes executing all the partially executed handlers, including the original factorial call.

When you call a recursive handler, AppleScript keeps track of the variables and pending statements in the original (partially executed) handler until the recursive handler has completed. Because each call uses some memory, the maximum number of pending handlers is limited by the available memory. As a result, a recursive handler may generate an error before the recursive calls complete.

In addition, a recursive handler may not be the most efficient solution to a problem. For example, the factorial handler shown above can be rewritten to use a repeat statement instead of a recursive call, as shown in the example in repeat with loopVariable (from startValue to stopValue).

Errors in Handlers

As with any AppleScript statements that may encounter an error, you can use a try statement to deal with possible errors in a handler. A try statement includes two collections of statements: one to be executed in the general case, and a second to be executed only if an error occurs.

By using one or more try statements with a handler, you can combine the advantages of reuse and error handling in one package. For a detailed example that demonstrates this approach, see Working with Errors.

Passing by Reference Versus Passing by Value

Within a handler, each parameter is like a variable, providing access to passed information. AppleScript passes all parameters by reference, which means that a passed variable is shared between the handler and the caller, as if the handler had created a variable using the set command. However, it is important to remember a point raised in Using the copy and set Commands: only mutable objects can actually be changed.

As a result, a parameter’s class type determines whether information is effectively passed by value or by reference:

  • For mutable objects (those whose class is date, list, record, or script), information is passed by reference:

    If a handler changes the value of a parameter of this type, the original object is changed.

  • For all other class types, information is effectively passed by value:

    Although AppleScript passes a reference to the original object, that object cannot be changed. If the handler assigns a new value to a parameter of this type, the original object is unchanged.

If you want to pass by reference with a class type other than date, list, record, or script, you can pass a reference object that refers to the object in question. Although the handler will have access only to a copy of the reference object, the specified object will be the same. Changes to the specified object in the handler will change the original object, although changes to the reference object itself will not.

Calling Handlers in a tell Statement

To call a handler from within a tell statement, you must use the reserved words of me or my to indicate that the handler is part of the script and not a command that should be sent to the target of the tell statement.

For example, the following script calls the minimumValue handler defined in Handlers with Positional Parameters from within a tell statement. If this call did not include the words of me, it would cause an error, because AppleScript would send the minimumValue command to TextEdit, which does not understand that message.

tell front document of application "TextEdit"
    minimumValue(12, 400) of me
    set paragraph 1 to result as text
end tell
--result: The handler call is successful.

Instead of using the words of me, you could insert the word my before the handler call:

my minimumValue(12, 400)

Handlers in Script Applications

A script application is an application whose only function is to run the script associated with it. Script applications contain handlers that allow them to respond to commands. For example, many script applications can respond to the run command and the open command. A script application receives a run command whenever it is launched and an open command whenever another icon is dropped on its icon in the Finder. It can also contain other handlers to respond to commands such as quit or print.

When saving a script in Script Editor, you can create a script application by choosing either Application or Application Bundle from the File Format options. Saving as Application results in a simple format that is compatible with Mac OS 9. Saving as Application Bundle results in an application that uses the modern bundle format, with its specified directory structure, which is supported back to OS X v10.3.

When creating a script application, you can also specify whether a startup screen should appear before the application runs its script. Whatever you write in the Description pane of the script window in Script Editor is displayed in the startup screen. You can also specify in Script Editor whether a script application should stay open after running. The default is for the script to quit immediately after it is run.

You can run a script application from the Finder much like any other application. If it has a startup screen, the user must click the Run button or press the Return key before the script actually runs.

Consider the following simple script

tell application "Finder"
    close front window
end tell

What this script does as a script application depends on what you specify when you save it. If you don’t specify a startup screen or tell it to stay open, it will automatically execute once, closing the front Finder window, and then quit.

If a script application modifies the value of a property, the changed value persists across launches of the application. For related information, see Scope of Variables and Properties.

For information about some common script application handlers, see the following sections:

See Handler Reference for syntax information.

run Handlers

When you run a script or launch a script application, its run handler is invoked. A script’s run handler is defined in one of two ways:

  • As an implicit run handler, which consists of all statements declared outside any handler or nested script object in a script.

    Declarations for properties and global variables are not considered statements in this context—that is, they are not considered to be part of an implicit run handler.

  • As an explicit run handler, which is enclosed within on run and end statements, similar to other handlers.

Having both an implicit and an explicit run handler is not allowed, and causes a syntax error during compilation. If a script has no run handler (for example, a script that serves as a library of handlers, as described in Parameter Specifications), executing the script does nothing. However, sending it an explicit run command causes an error.

The following script demonstrates an implicit run handler. The script consists of a statement that invokes the sayHello handler, and the definition for the handler itself:

on sayHello()
    display dialog "Hello"
end sayHello

The implicit run handler for this script consists of the statement sayHello(), which is the only statement outside the handler. If you save this script as a script application and then run the application, the script receives a run command, which causes it to execute the one statement in the implicit run handler.

You can rewrite the previous script to provide the exact same behavior with an explicit run handler:

on run
end run
on sayHello()
    display dialog "Hello"
end sayHello

Whether a script is saved as a script application or as a compiled script, its run handler is invoked when the script is run. You can also invoke a run handler in a script application from another script. For information about how to do this, see Calling a Script Application From a Script.

open Handlers

Mac apps, including script applications, receive an open command whenever the user drops file, folder, or disk icons on the application’s Finder icon, even if the application is already running.

If the script in a script application includes an open handler, the handler is executed when the application receives the open command. The open handler takes a single parameter which provides a list of all the items to be opened. Each item in the list is analias object.

For example, the following open handler makes a list of the pathnames of all items dropped on the script application’s icon and saves them in the frontmost TextEdit document:

on open names
    set pathNamesString to "" -- Start with empty text string.
    repeat with i in names
        -- In this loop, you can perform operations on each dropped item.
        -- For now, just get the name and append a return character.
        set iPath to (i as text)
        set pathNamesString to pathNamesString & iPath & return
    end repeat
    -- Store list in open document, to verify what was dropped.
    tell application "TextEdit"
        set paragraph 1 of front document to pathNamesString
    end tell
end open

Files, folders, or disks are not moved, copied, or affected in any way by merely dropping them on a script application. However, the script application’s handler can tell Finder to move, copy, or otherwise manipulate the items. For examples that work with Finder items, see Folder Actions Reference.

You can also run an open handler by sending a script application the open command. For details, see Calling a Script Application From a Script.

idle and quit Handlers for Stay-Open Applications

By default, a script application that receives a run or open command handles that single command and then quits. In contrast, a stay-open script application (one saved as Stay Open in Script Editor) stays open after it is launched.

A stay-open script application can be useful for several reasons:

  • Stay-open script applications can receive and handle other commands in addition to run and open. This allows you to use a script application as a script server that, when it is running, provides a collection of handlers that can be invoked by any other script.

  • Stay-open script applications can perform periodic actions, even in the background, as long as the script application is running.

Two particular handlers that stay-open script applications often provide are an idle handler and a quit handler.

idle Handlers

If a stay-open script application includes an idle handler, AppleScript sends the script application periodic idle commands—by default, every 30 seconds—allowing it to perform background tasks when it is not performing other actions.

If an idle handler returns a positive number, that number becomes the rate (in seconds) at which the handler is called. If the handler returns a non-numeric value, the rate is not changed. You can return 0 to maintain the default delay of 30 seconds.

For example, when saved as a stay-open application, the following script beeps every 5 seconds:

on idle
    return 5
end idle

The result returned from a handler is just the result of the last statement, even if it doesn’t include the word return explicitly. (See return for more information.) For example, this handler gets called once a minute, because the value of the last statement is 60:

on idle
    set x to 10
    set x to x * 6  -- The handler returns the result (60).
end idle

quit Handlers

AppleScript sends a stay-open script application a quit command whenever the user chooses the Quit menu command or presses Command-Q while the application is active. If the script includes a quit handler, the statements in the handler are run before the application quits.

A quit handler can be used to set script properties, tell another application to do something, display a dialog box, or perform almost any other task. If the handler includes a continue quit statement, the script application’s default quit behavior is invoked and it quits. If the quit handler returns before it encounters a continue quit statement, the application doesn’t quit.

For example, this handler checks with the user before allowing the application to quit:

on quit
    display dialog "Really quit?" ¬
        buttons {"No", "Quit"} default button  "Quit"
    if the button returned of the result is "Quit" then
        continue quit
    end if
    -- Without the continue statement, the application doesn't quit.
end quit

Calling a Script Application From a Script

A script can send commands to a script application just as it can to other applications. To launch a non-stay-open application and run its script, use a launch command followed by a run command, like this:

launch application "NonStayOpen"
run application "NonStayOpen"

The launch command launches the script application without sending it an implicit run command. When the run command is sent to the script application, it processes the command, sends back a reply if necessary, and quits.

Similarly, to launch a non-stay-open application and run its stringTest handler (which takes a text object as a parameter), use a launch command followed by a stringTest command, like this:

tell application "NonStayOpen"
    stringTest("Some example text.")
end tell

For information on how to create script applications, see Handlers in Script Applications.